Boemus Aubanus,* every one taps his new wine, from which he had hitherto abstained, and no one is so poor that he does not now feed upon meat, or at least upon the inward parts of pigs and calves, fried or broiled, and indulge also in wine more freely. With us the principal remains of the custom are in a more than usual consumption of roasted goose a practice rather belonging to Michaelmas,†—and in the so-called Martlemas Beef, that is to say beef hung up in

"Nemo per totam regionem tanta paupertate premitur, nemo tanta tenacitate tenetur, qui in festo Sancti Martini non altili aliquo, vel saltem suillo vitulinove viscere assato, vescatur, qui vino non remissius indulgent. Quilibet enim tunc nova vina sua, a quibus se adhuc usque abstinuit, degustat et dat degustare omnia." ORBIS TERRARUM EPITOME. Per Johannem Boemum Aubanum. Lib. iii. cap. 14. p. 241. 12mo. Papiæ. 1596.

+ In other countries, and here too in earlier times, the goose was as much in use at Martinmas as at Michaelmas. Thus T. Naogeorgus in his Pap. Reg. lib. 4, tells us,

"Altera Martinus dein Bacchanalia præbet,

Quem colit anseribus populus."

Many examples of this might be given, but one or two will be sufficient for our purpose.

"Warne him not to cast his wanton eyne,

On grosser bacon or salt haberdine;

Or dried fliches of some smoked beeve,

Hang'd on a writhen wythe since Martin's eve."


Book 4. Sat. 4.

The haberdine, mentioned in these lines, is salted cod.
And again in Tusser--

"Martinmas beefe doth beare good tacke

When countrie folks do dainties lacke.'

As to the word tacke, it is not easy to say precisely what it means. Todd (Johnson's Dictionary) quotes this very passage, and assures us that tack in Scotland "denotes hold, or persevering cohesion;" as no doubt it does in many cases; but the interpretation hardly seems to hold good here. It may perhaps come from the Swedo-Gothic Tack, "pleasing, grateful," meaning thereby that Martinmas beef is an agreeable fare for rustics lacking dainties; but this also is far from being satisfactory, and is only offered as a conjecture in default of any thing better.

the chimney to dry like bacon, and which got its name from the animals being killed at this season for that especial purpose. But the eating of goose now is the most general observance, and the one for which it is the most difficult to assign any reason, unless we believe with some pious folks the old tradition of St. Martin hiding himself because he was unwilling to become a bishop, and being discovered by a goose.* Neither do we seem to obtain any nearer glimpses of its origin, when we search into the old festivals from which the Martinalia were unquestionably derived. True it is that the goose was sacred to Isis,† and Osiris, as well as to Priapus, and was sacrificed to Juno, but still it had not any connexion, so far as we know, with the Pythagia, and therefore even this fact does not help us out of our difficulty.

In some places a singular custom prevailed of cheating the children into due respect for Saint Martin by making it seem that be changed water into new wine for their especial accommodation. To effect this notable piece of jugglery, the children were taught to fill vessels with water, and leave them in that state during the night for

the Saint to operate upon. The parents would then sub

stitute new wine for the water while the young folks

*Si sol clarus obit Martino nunciat acrem

Atque molestam hyemem ; si nubilus, aera mitem
Prædicat hybernum, dant; hæc prognostica natis
Pastores ovium cum seria fantur ad ignem."

FASTI DANICI-ab Olio Wormio, lib. ii. cap. ix. p. 117.

"St. Martin's Day, in the Norway clogs (see page 261) is marked with a goose, for on that day they always feasted with (on) a roasted goose. They say St. Martin being elected to a bishoprick hid himself, but was discovered by that animal. We have transferred the ceremony to Michaelmas." DR. STUKELEY'S ITINERARIUM. Iter. vi. p. 139. Note. Folio. London, 1776. This curious note is not to be found in the earlier edition of the ITINERARIUM.

were asleep, and in the morning Saint Martin would get the merit of the whole transaction.*

There is yet one point that remains to be mentioned before we leave the feast of Martinmas. It was popularly believed in former times that if the sun set brightly on this day, it portended a hard winter; if amidst clouds, then it was a sign that the winter would be mild; a coincidence that no doubt often happens, greatly to the satisfaction of all weather-prophets.

OLD MARTINMAS-FEAST OF ST. CLEMENT; November 23.-St. Clement was born at Rome, and was one of its earliest bishops, dying, according to some accounts, a natural death about the year 100, at the commencement of the Emperor Trajan's reign. In the case, however, of Saints, death by fire, sword, or water, are such natural modes of leaving the world, that this story can hardly be considered as militating against the tale of the venerable Bede, though if taken to the letter it certainly may

*"Vasa solent exponere pueri, hac nocte, aqua repleta, quam transmutari in vinum pia simplicitas credit, quando vinum a parentibus suppositum videt." M. J. G. Drechsslers. DE LARVIS NATALITIIS, p. 31, 12mo. Lipsiæ, 1683.

It may perhaps puzzle my readers-as it used to puzzie me before I got acquainted with Durandus-to conceive why Bede above all men should be designated by the epithet of venerable. But that expounder of all that is most inexplicable, and who has a dozen reasons for all that is most unreasonable, has been pleased to enlighten us upon this as upon so many other topics. According to him, Bede, although he be placed in the catalogue of Saints is yet not so called by the church, but is named the venerable, and for this two-fold reason: First; becoming blind from old age and causing himself to be led about that he might preach the word, it happened one day that he strayed into a valley full of stones, when one of his guides, instigated no doubt by the devil, derisively told him that a numerous congregation was waiting in eager silence for his discourse; accordingly the Venerable, nothing lothe, began to preach with much unction, but no sooner had he got to his sæcula sæculorum, than all the stones responded with a loud voice, Amen venerable father;" and hence

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seem to infer a contradiction. The latter writer informs us that Clement was banished by Trajan to a desert beyond the Euxine, but as he still contrived to draw a crowd of followers to himself it was deemed expedient to fling him into the sea with an anchor about his neck. While however his disciples prayed for him the water ebbed three miles out, when they found his body in a stone chest, within a marble temple, and the anchor at his side. It is probably in allusion to this passage of the saint's life, or rather of his decease, that we still find the device of an anchor in various parts of the church of

came the appellation; though, according to some, it was the angels, and not the flints, that replied. If, however, there are any so unreasonable as not to be satisfied with this explanation, Durandus has a second for them: After his death, a certain poetical follower wished to inscribe an epitaph on his tomb-stone, but could by no means manufacture an hexameter out of

"Hæc sunt in fossa Bedæ sancti ossa"

In this grave are Saint Bede's bones.

Through the whole night he meditated in vain upon this unlucky verse, but when at day-break he visited the tomb in despair, lo and behold! some angel had with his own hands done the job for him, and inscribed a handsome hexameter on the marble;

"Hæc sunt in fossa Bedæ venerabilis ossa"

Here lies in earth the venerable Bede.

The original is much too long to be extracted, but the reader may rely that he has here the substance of it. If, however, he be at all curious on the subject he will find the passage in Durandi Rationale Divin. Officior. lib. vii., cap. 37, and at page 303 of the edition of 1609.

"Jubente Trajano missus est in exilium trans Pontum Mare, in eremo; ubi multis ad fidem vocatis per miracula et doctrinam ejus, præcipitatum est in mare, ligata ad collum ejus anchora. Sed recessit mare, orantibus discipulis, per tria milia, et invenerunt corpus in arca saxea, in marmoreo templo, et anchoram juxta." BEDE OPERAMartyrologium-ix. Calend. Decemb.

St. Clement Danes, London, as well as on the boundary marks of the parish.

Though it is long since St. Clement has ceased to be noticed in this country, yet at one time his day like that of so many other Saints was a period of feasting and rejoicing. Of this we have still the undeniable vestiges. In the old clogs,* "a pot was placed against the 23rd of November, for the feast of St. Clement, from the ancient custom of going about that night to begg drink to make merry with.Ӡ

Cloggs were a sort of almanacks made upon square sticks, which were still in use among the lower classes in the country when Dr. Plot wrote his History of Staffordshire, that is to say, in 1686. They were also used at one time both in Sweden and Denmark (See Olaus Magnus, De Ritu Gent. Sept., lib. 1, cap. 34, and lib. 16, cap. 20-Olai Wormii Fast. Danic. lib. 2, cap. 2, 3, 4, and 5.) By the Danes they were called Rimstocks, perhaps because the Dominical Letters used to be in Runick characters; or, more probably because Rimur signified a calendar, and thus the compound word would mean no more than a calendar of wood. By the Norwegians they were called Primstaves, from the chief thing inscribed upon the staves, namely, the Prime or Golden Number. By the Swedes they were named Baculi Annales, an appellation which seems to be somewhat too restricted, inasmuch as they were often engraved upon little oblong boards as well as upon staves; while at other times their material was horn, or a hollow bone, or many bones tesselated as it were, or fastened together. In this country they were chiefly made of box-wood, but also of fir and oak. Sometimes they were made of brass. regard to form, some were small, and adapted to be carried about in the pocket for private use; others again were large, and suspended from the wall or chimney mantle-piece. Lastly, as to the kinds of cloggs; some were "perfect, containing the Dominical Letters, as well as the Prime and marks for the feasts engraven upon them; others were imperfect, having only the Prime and the immoveable feasts on them." There can be no doubt as to these matters, for specimens of the clogg are still to be found both in the Museum at Oxford and in private collections; and Dr. Plot has given a full account of them in his HISTORY OF STAFFORDSHIRE, (chap. x.)



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