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PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY
MODERN CHANGES OF THE EARTH
AND ITS INHABITANTS
CONSIDERED AS ILLUSTRATIVE OF GEOLOGY
BY SIR CHARLES LYELL, BART., M.A., F.R.S.
'Verè scire est per causas scire'-BACON
The stony rocks are not primeval, but the daughters of Time'-LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat.
Amid all the revolutions of the globe the economy of Nature has been uniform, and
ELEVENTH AND ENTIRELY REVISED EDITION
IN TWO VOLUMES-VOL. II.
Illustrated with Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
THE ELEVENTH EDITION.
As only three years have elapsed since the last edition of this Second Volume of the Principles' was published, I have been able to reprint it with less alteration than was required in the First Volume, between which and the preceding edition there had been an interval of five years.
I have followed the rule adopted in my First Volume of reprinting the Preface to the tenth edition, by which the reader will be directed to those numerous and important additions and corrections which I found necessary in consequence of the progress of the science during the fifteen years which separated the ninth and tenth editions. though the pages after the first two hundred differ slightly in the present edition, they are not so much altered as to render it difficult to refer to them.
I subjoin a list of the most important points on which I have introduced new information in the present edition.
New Zealand Geysers, and reference to Dr. Tyndall's
Mr. Scrope on the action of water in volcanos
Sir John Herschel and Mr. Babbage on transfer of sedi-
Mr. Wallace on single origin of the dog.
Mr. Darwin on Sexual Selection
The Rev. R. T. Lowe on the arrival of a flight of locusts in Madeira.
Mr. Darwin on some cases of abnormal structure in pre-
Temperatures and fauna of Lake Superior
Depth to which the ocean is inhabited, as illustrated by deep sea-dredgings. Amount of difference of the oceanic fauna in adjoining warm and cold areas