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PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY

OR THE

MODERN CHANGES OF THE EARTH

AND ITS INHABITANTS

CONSIDERED AS ILLUSTRATIVE OF GEOLOGY

BY SIR CHARLES LYELL, BART., M.A., F.R.S.

'Verè scire est per causas scire'-BACON

The stony rocks are not primeval, but the daughters of Time'-LINNAEUS, Syst. Nat.
ed. 5, Stockholm, 1748, p. 219

Amid all the revolutions of the globe the economy of Nature has been uniform, and
her laws are the only things that have resisted the general movement. The rivers and
the rocks, the seas and the continents, have been changed in all their parts; but the
laws which direct those changes, and the rules to which they are subject, have re-
mained invariably the same'-PLAYFAIR, Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory, § 374

ELEVENTH AND ENTIRELY REVISED EDITION

IN TWO VOLUMES-VOL. II.

Illustrated with Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts

NEW YORK:

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
549 & 551 BROADWAY.

1876.

530490

PREFACE

TO

THE ELEVENTH EDITION.

As only three years have elapsed since the last edition of this Second Volume of the Principles' was published, I have been able to reprint it with less alteration than was required in the First Volume, between which and the preceding edition there had been an interval of five years.

I have followed the rule adopted in my First Volume of reprinting the Preface to the tenth edition, by which the reader will be directed to those numerous and important additions and corrections which I found necessary in consequence of the progress of the science during the fifteen years which separated the ninth and tenth editions. though the pages after the first two hundred differ slightly in the present edition, they are not so much altered as to render it difficult to refer to them.

Al

I subjoin a list of the most important points on which I have introduced new information in the present edition.

New Zealand Geysers, and reference to Dr. Tyndall's
illustration of the probable mode of geyser-action

Mr. Scrope on the action of water in volcanos

Sir John Herschel and Mr. Babbage on transfer of sedi-
ment causing the shifting of the subterranean
isothermals.

Mr. Wallace on single origin of the dog.

Mr. Darwin on Sexual Selection

PAGE

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219-223

226

231

294

328

The Rev. R. T. Lowe on the arrival of a flight of locusts in Madeira.

PAGE

425

Mr. Darwin on some cases of abnormal structure in pre-
historic man corresponding to the structure of the
same parts in some lower groups of animals
Mr. Mivart's objections to the theory of Natural Selec-
tion, and Mr. Darwin's reply

484

497

Temperatures and fauna of Lake Superior

576

Depth to which the ocean is inhabited, as illustrated by deep sea-dredgings. Amount of difference of the oceanic fauna in adjoining warm and cold areas

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584

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