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XXVII. No partial affembly of ci izens, and no individual can affume authority.
XXVIII. No body can exercife any authority, and fill any public function, without a formal delegation of the law. XXIX. Social guaranty cannot exift, if the bounds of public functions are not clearly determined by the law, and if the refponfibility of all functionaries is not affured.
XXX. In every free fociety, men ought to have a legal means of refifting oppreffion. But when the means is impotent, then infurrection is the meft facred auty.
XXXI. A nation has always the right of revifing, reforming, and changing its conftitution. A generation has not the right of fubmitting future generations to their laws, and all hereditary functions are abfurd and tyrannical.
24. The following fentence was announced:
- CRIMINAL TRIBUNAL EXTRAORDINARY.
April 24. John Paul Marat, deputy to the National Convention, by the Unanimous Declaration of the Jury, is acquitted of the accufation which had been brought against him."
A body of citizens, petitioners, foon after appeared before the Affembly they announced that Marat had been acquitted by the Tribunal Extraordinary, and they begged permiffion to defile through the Aflembly, to thew to the reprefentatives of the people their joy to find Marat innocent!
Permiffion being granted, they enter ed without arms, in great numbers, of both fexes, and as many as could took poffeffion of the unoccupied feats, the tribunes and citizens crying loudly Long live the Republic-Long live the nation-Long live Marat !"
At the head of the citizens were the Gendarmes, and the Municipal Officers. At length Marat arrived, and pro
ceeded to take his feat; he had on his head a crown which he himself took off; he was embraced by all the citizens, women, and deputies; after which he mounted the tribune, and made the following speech:
"You fee a reprefentative of the people whofe rights have been violated, but juftice has been done him. I fwear anew to efpouse the cause of equality, liberty, and of the people."
He was loudly applauded.
The Cotédroit, or minority of the Affembly, had entirely left the hall.
The procureur General Syndic of the department of the Hautes Pyrennees, informed the Convention, that two thoufand Spaniards had entered that department, affifted by the perfidy of the Commune of St Lourent, who had joined the enemy to repulfe the National volunteers.
26. The Convention decreed, that the money of the Republic fhould have infcribed upon it,
ALL MEN ARE EQUAL BEFORE, THE LAW.
And on the Legend,
THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.
27. A letter from the Municipality of Port L'Orient gave an account of a fire which had broken out there on the zift in the failcloth arfenal, the whole of which building had fallen a prey to the flames. The latter added, that the lofs was eftimated at eight or ten millions of livres; that feveral perfons fufpected of having fet fire to the magazine had been arrefted; and that great apprehenfions were entertained for the magazines at Breft. The ftorehouses adjoining the arfenal, with the armoury and the archives of the India Company, were also stated to have been deftroyed.-The Convention, extremely afflicted by this terrible event, ordered the authors of it to be fought for and profecuted.
Extraordinary Deputies from the Departments of Mayennes and Loire pronounced the following discourse at the bar of the Convention.
"An extent of country of 50 leagues in length and 18 in breadth, is poffeffed by the rebels. As brave as fuperftitious, habituated to every fpecies of hardship, commanded by experienced Chiefs, they fuftain regular battles, make well-conducted retreats, and know how to repair their loffes. Led away by their
fanaticifm, they blindly throw themfelves upon the troops that are oppofed to them. They witness numbers of their companions fall withoutbeing daunted,and end in triumphing. They have obtained two victories:In the firft battle they repulfed the left wing of our troops, and took 155 grenadiers prifoners. In the fecond, they beat the right wing, and took poffeffion of a great quantity of artillery and ammunition, made a number of prifoners, and repulfed the army to the Loire. If they once pafs the river, it will not be poffible to refift them in the environs of Saumur and Angers. Notwithstanding all this, the Generalsdifdain communicating with the Adminiftrative Bodies: they wafte their time in ridiculous parade, and occafion their own defeats by the bad choice of their difpofitions, and the imprudence of their movements. We earnestly demand money, ammuni tion, provifions, well-armed troops, and fafe and experienced Generals.-Refered to the Committee of Public Safety.
The Minister at War informed the Convention, that he had given orders for fending thither a corps of 20,000 men. The Commiffioners of the Convention at Nantź demanded the recal of General Berruyer.
Boyer Fronfrede reprefented, that England owed to France a million of livres. He proposed the re-establishment of the communication between the two States. Cambon obferved, that the Committee of Public Safety would make a speedy report upon this matter.
28. One of the Secretaries began to read a letter dated
"Tours 25th April, "Not a moment is to be loft in our country.-General Berruyer would not follow the advice given him. The corps commanded by Beauvilliers has been beaten by the rebels, who took five pieces of cannon, and killed several people."-[Here there was a cry, that no more of this letter should be read. On this the Prefident obferved, that the Committee of Public Safety had taken active measures to repair this lofs.]
29. The Executive Council wrote to the Convention, that it had removed General Berruyer.
May 5. Gaudet having proposed, that the Convention fhould be transferred to Versailles next Monday, a great number of Members rofe, and loudly fupported this propofition. A Member mounted the tribune, and demanded, that the Deputies should all unite and go to Ver
failles; and he added, "We will go fword in hand, if neceffary."
A deputy of Indre and Loire was admitted at the bar.
"I come (faid he) to demand the fpeedieft and moft effectual fuccours. The National Convention appears to have been abused on the reality of our dangers. The Weftern Departments are no lefs agitated than ours, by the too common calamity of treachery and counter-revolution. A war more difaftrous than that we wage against Francis or Frederick William, defolates, and threatens to annihilate the Republic. The counter-revolutionary traitors prefent themselves in several points at once, in columns of from ten to twelve thoufand men. I demand of you, Legislators, by what fatality it is the executive coun cil has left us two months without arms and without men?
"The territory of Indre and Loire is fubjected by the traitors; the city of Chinon is now, perhaps, in their hands, and they have feized on Breffuire, Tours, and Londun, the latter of which places, after throwing down the tree of liberty, did not fcruple voluntarily to open its gates."
Referred to the Committee of Safety.
Memorial of the Grand Signior, delivered to all the Ambassadors of the Chriftian Powers, at the Sublime Porte.
"The prefent war between France and the powers of Auftria, Pruffia, Great Britain, and Holland, has led to a conclufion, that there would be com bats and attacks by fea and land, whilst it is notorious that all the faid powers kept up friendly treaties with the Sub. lime Porte, and that the latter is neutral in the prefent war. It is therefore neceffary to renew an old regulation of the year 1194, which was refumed in the year 1780, when certain of these powers were at war, and by virtue of which the veffels of the Belligerent nations are mutually to refrain from combat in the ports of Turkey and in their adjacency, as well as in the places within three miles of this fide of the coafts of the White Sea, whether in Afia or Europe, &c. That in cafe of an action in the open fea, between the veffels of the Bellige rent Powers, no one of the Captains of the Ottoman fleet, or other fea commander or officer, is to prefume to inter
fere, or to difplay any marks of partiality in favour of the one fide or the other, &c.
Manifefto of the Empress of Ruffia.
"The fhare her Imperial Majefty has hitherto taken in the affairs of Poland, has always been tending, in the most direct and fundamental manner, to the intereft of both Empires. It has not only been unfuccefsful, but proved a fruitlefs burden; and her endeavours to maintain peace, quiet, and freedom amongft her neighbours, have been attended with innumerable loffes.
"Thirty years experience have fhewn this, in the numerous quarrels and eternal difputes amongst themfelves which have torn the Polish Republic. Her Imperial Majefty has viewed their fufferings in the countries and cities bordering on her Empire with great grief, confidering them as defcended from the fame rare, and profeffing the holy Chriflian religion.
"At prefent, even fome unworthy Poles, enemies to their country, have not been afhamed to approve the govern. ment of the ungodly rebels in the king dom of France, and to requeft their affiftance to involve their country alfo in bloody civil wars.
The true Chriftian religion, and the very well-being of the inhabitants of the above-mentioned countries, would fuffer from the introduction of fuch deteftable doctrines, which tend to annihilate all the political and focial bonds of fociety, to overthrow all 'fafety, property, and profperity.
"From thefe confiderations, her Imperial Majefty, as well to indemnify berfelf for her many loffes as for the future fafety of her Empire and the Polish dominions, and for cutting off at once, for ever, all future difturbances and frequent changes of government, has been pleafed now to take under her fway, and to unite for ever to her Empire, the fol lowing tracts of land, with all their inhabitants namely, a line beginning at the village of Druy, on the left bank of the river Dwina, at the corner of the border of Semigallia; from thence extending to Neroch and Dubrova, and following the border of the Voiwodfhip of Vilna to Stolpfa, to Nesvij, and then to Pinfk; and from thence extending to Kunish, between Viskero and Novogre ble, near the frontier of Gallisia; from
thence to the river Dniester, and lastly, running along the river, till it enters the old border of Ruffia and Poland at Jegertick: In fuch manner, that all the cities, lands, and countries, lying within this line of demarcation, the new bor der of Ruffia and Poland, fhall, from henceforward, for ever, come under the fceptre of the Ruffian empire, and the inhabitants and poffeffors, of all ranks whatever, be fubjects thereof.
"Her Moft Gracious Majefty is pleafed, not only to confirm and enfure to all, the free and public exercife of their reli gion, and to all the fecurity of property and poffeffion, but to unite and affiliate them under her government, for the fame and glory of the whole Ruffian Empire.
"Her Imperial Majefty expects from the gratitude of her new subjects, that they being placed by her bounty on an equality with the Ruffians, fhall, in return, transfer their love of their former country to the new one, and live in fu ture attached to so great and fo generous an Empress.
"Every perfon, from the higheft to the loweft, within one month, muft take the oath of allegiance, and if any of the gentlemen, or other ranks poffeffing real or immoveable property, regardless of their own intereft, fhould refufe to take the oath prefcribed, three months are allowed for the fale of their immoveables, and their free departure over the bor ders; after the expiration of which term, all their remaining property fhall be confifcated to the crown.
"The Clergy, both high and low, as Paftors of their flocks, are expected to fet the example in taking the oath; and in the daily fervice in their churches, they muft pray for Her Imperial Majefty, for her fucceffor the Great Duke Paul Petrovitz, and for all the Imperial Family.
OF HIS FRUSSIAN MAJESTY. To all the States and Inhabitants of the hitherto Polifh Woyavod/hips of Pofnania, Guefnia, Kalitfch, Sieradia, City and Cloifter of Czenflochowa, the Country of Wielun, the Woyodship of Lent fchitz, Diftrict of Kujavia, the Coun try of Dobrzyn, the Woyodhips of Rawa and Photzk, &c. &c. in pro portion to the Frontier Line including the Cities of Dantzic and Thorn.
It is univerfally notorious, that the Polish Nation has never ceased to give
to the neighbouring Powers, efpecially to the State of Pruffia, frequent occafion for juft difpleafures. Not contented with violating all the rules of good vicinage, againft the Pruffian domains, by frequent incurfions, with difturbing and maltreating the fubjects inhabiting this fide of the frontier, and almoft conftantly denying them juftice and equitable fatisfaction, this nation has alfo inceffantly been occupied with ruinous plans, which could not but attract the attention of the neighbouring Powers. Befides this, a moft deteftable spirit of fedition is daily gaining ground in Poland, alarming to all her neighbours,
It would therefore be contrary to the first rules of found political prudence, as well as to the duties incumbent on us, for the prefervation of tranquillity in our dominions, if we remained an idle fpectator in a neighbouring great empire, and wait the period, when the faction fhould feel itself ftrong enough to appear open ly on the fcene, as even our own neighbouring provinces on our frontiers would then be exposed to multifarious dangers, the confequences of anarchy.
We have therefore found, in concert with her Majefty the Emprefs of Ruffia, and with affent of his Majefty the Roman Emperor, that the fafety of our dominions requires, to affign fuch limits to the Republic of Poland, as are more ade quate to her internal ftrength and fitua
We have, therefore, refolved, with the concurrence of her Imperial Majesty of Ruffia, to take poffeffion of, and embody with our provinces, the afore-mentioned diftricts of Poland, befides the cities of Dantzic and Thorn.
We are firmly refolved, and hereby give folemn affurance, to leave to each and all of the faid States and Inhabitants, their properties and rights, both spiritual and temporal; to let them enjoy the free exercife of their religion, especially those of the Roman Catholic perfuafion.
[Here follows the gracious order (this is the term ufed) for his Pruffian Majefty's new fubjects taking the oath of allegiance, &c. to the King of Pruffia; in failure of which they are to be proceeded against by the punishments ufual in fimilar cales.]
Given at Berlin, March 25, 1793.
Lowicz, April 16-The following
Proclamation was published to-day, by order of his Pruffian Majefty.
1. In confequence of the Treaties con cluded with the other Powers, the Voivodies of Pofen, Kalifch, Gnefn, Sieradia, the Districts of Wielau, Leczyes, Plotz, Dobrzyfk, and Cujavic, the Convent and Fortress of Czenftockow, as well as the town of Dantzic and Thorn, fhall from this day be looked upon as forming a part of the dominions of his Pruffian Majefty.
2. The eftablished Religion in that Country fhall remain in fatu quo. The rights and privileges of the Citizens, their properties and their perfons, shall be refpected.
3. The Starofts fhall for their life only have the enjoyment of the Eftates which they had granted to them by the Republic; but the Clergy fhall for ever remain in the poffeffion of their eftates.
4. The Adminiftration of the Poft-Of fice fhall be under the direction of a Pruffian Poftmalter, who is to diftribute no letters nor efiafettes arriving from Poland, without a special permiflion.
5. Seals fhall be put on the Archives of the Municipalities, and upon all the Public Treaturies, till further orders.
6. It is prohibited, under the fevereft penalties to the Agents of the Chancery, to receive from any perfon or perfons any proteftations against the New Order of Things
Warfaw, April 20.-With extreme repugnance, and after having made every effort to difengage himfelf, the King of Poland departed for Grodno, under the exprefs orders of the Ruffian Court!!!--He went into the carriage without taking leave of any one; although many croud ed around him to exprefs their own and the public regret. As it was supposed the people would oppofe his departure, numerous patroles were appointed!!!
Stockholm, April 5.-Our Court, has refolved, in order to preferve peace, to give in to the request of Ruffia for the fuccours ftipulated by the treaty 1791; and that although they have long withed to avoid it, yet they have, upon repeated and ftrong requifitions, refolved to join the coalition of powers againft France. Colonel Stedingk is gone to Petersburg, to communicate the refolves of our Court The
and to concert meafures with Pruffia.
The city of Gottenburg, has fuffered greatly by fire. Seventy-three fine houfes have been deftroyed, and upwards of 141 families, befides the garrifon, have loft the whole of their property.
Vienna, April 10.-Her Imperial Majefty was yesterday delivered of a Prince, who was this day baptized by the names of Ferdinand, Charles, Leopold, Jofeph, Francis, Marcellin. His Sicilian Majefty, reprefented by his Ambaffador, the Marquis of Gallo, was the fole fponfor.
Frankfort, April 21-Dumourier ar rived here yefterday, and was prefent at a grand diplomatic dinner, to which he was invited by the Pruffian Commandant. After an apology to the Ladies for being in his travelling drefs, the French General obferved, that he was about to take a little repofe in Switzerland, where he hoped to find a fafe alylum, and the tranquillity neceffary to the objects he had in view, of writing his Campaigns, as well as Political Memoirs on the Revolution. He is very much broken by fatigue. Among other particulars, he informed the company, that he had spent twenty-feven days and nights without taking off his clothes.
On the 8th inftant, the fubfidiary treaty between England and Heffe Caffel was ratified by Lord Elgin, and M. Munchhaufen, the Landgrave's War Minifter.
The Landgrave gives to England, for fix years 8000 men, eleven fquadrons of Cavalry, and ten battalions of infantry, with the neceffary artillery. The first divifion is to march the 8th of May.
The fiege of Mentz is at length opened. On the 12th inftant the combined army formed its lines of circumvallation eftablished batteries, and made every other neceffary preparation.
The Marechal of the Empire has repeated his requifition, that the Contingent of the Palatinate of Batavia fhall without further delay join the army of General Wurmfer. Immediately on the receipt of this requifition, a part of the garrifon of Munich received orders to hold itfelf in readiness to march.
AUSTRIAN NETHERLANDS. Bruffels, April 18. The Emperor has published two proclamations. By the firft he conftitutes his brother, the Archduke Charles Louis, Governor of the Netherlands, in the room of his aunt
Mary Chriftian, and Duke Albert of Saxony, with full powers to act in his name, and by his authority. By the fecond a free pardon is granted to all deferters from the Auftrian army, whether natives or foreigners, who quitted their regiments previous to the rft of April 1793, and who fhall join them again before the end of October next.
The head-quarters of the Auftrian army, under the command of the Prince de Cobourg, is now at Quievrain. It forms a line before Maubeuge, Valenciennes, and Condé by which these three places are at once invefted. From another quarter the Pruffian army, with a corps of Auftrians, under the command of General Clairfayt, compofing the right wing of the army of the Prince of Cobourg, is encamped before Tournay, and preparing to fieze the camp in that quar ter where the greatest part of the French forces are collected.
Since the ceffation of the truce, the Allied troops are conftantly engaged with the French; in these skirmishes the most embittered refentment which characterifes the prefent war, manifefts itself.
On the 11th, 12th, and 13th, several bloody skirmishes have taken place in the environs of Condé and Valenciennes, in which the French were forced to give way, which was not however done but with the moft obftinate refiftance.
Courtray, April 20.-This day the bri gade of Britifn guards, and the flank companies of three other English regiments, arrived here by a forced march from Bruges, with only their light baggage; foon after, a body of 1500 Pruffian-huffars marched in, and joined them. To-morrow, or next day, the whole will proceed on their route to form a cordon with the Auftrian and Pruffian lines in French Flanders.
Tournay, May 3.-On the 1ft inftant the French attacked the advanced pofts of the left wing of the combined army, but were repulfed in all their attempts. On the fame morning the French alo atfacked the advanced pofts on the center, but were there likewife repulfed: They fuffered in thefe feveral engagements a confiderable lofs both of men and
The States General have given in a Reply to LordAuckland's Memorial of the 5th, in which they say,
The States General are perfuaded oftheneceflity which exifts inevery wellregulated