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THIS dialogue, like the former, was held in the prison in which Socrates was confined. The last hours of his life were devoted to the discussion of the momentous subject, the immortality of the soul; Phado, with whose name the dialogue is inscribed, is introduced as the historian of the scene and the arguments of the respective actors.

The first part of the dialogue is occupied in establishing the incorruptibility of the intellectual principle, and its total independence of organic decay.

The second contains a review of the popular and mythological creeds, respecting the ultimate condition of the soul when removed from the sphere of its earthly existence, and concludes with a circumstantial account of the philosopher's death.


§. 1. Αὐτός, ὦ Φαίδων, παρεγένου Σωκράτει ἐκείνῃ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἡ τὸ φάρμακον ἔπιεν ἐν τῷ δεσμωτηρίῳ, ἢ ἄλλου τοῦ ἤκουσας ;

ΦΑΙΔ. Αὐτός, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες.

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ΕΧ. Τί οὖν δή ἐστιν ἅττα εἶπεν ὁ ἀνὴρ πρὸ τοῦ θανάτου; καὶ πῶς ἐτελεύτα; ἡδέως γὰρ ἂν ἀκούσαιμι.

ΦΑΙΔΩΝ.] Entitled also, Φαίδων, ἢ περὶ ψυχῆς, Ηθικός, on the authority of Thrasyllus, Diog. Laert. ii. 58. Αὐτός ὦ Φαίδων-Hermogenes, περὶ μέθ. Δειν. i. p. 518, remarks upon the singular force of auróç in the question and reply: καὶ παρὰ Πλάτωνι.—Αύτὸς, ὦ Φαίδων, παρεγένου; Αὐτὸς ὦ Εχέκρατες. Ὁ μὲν γὰρ ἤρετο ὡς θαυμάζων καὶ μακαρίζων τὸν παραγενόμενον, ὁ δὲ ἀπεκρίνατο σεμνυνόμενος καὶ μέγα φρονῶν. WYTTEN


Phædo, of Elis, was a disciple of Socrates; he was nobly descended, but having lost his property in early life, he was sold at Athens as a slave. Socrates, in passing the house where he lived, was struck with his intelligent and ingenuous look, and persuaded one of his friends, Alcibiades or Crito, to redeem him. Thenceforward Phædo applied himself diligently to the study of moral philophy, under Socrates, and adhered

to his master, with the most affectionate attachment, to the last. He instituted a school at Elis, after the Socratic model, which was continued by Plistanus, an Elean, and afterwards by Menedemus, of Eretria. - Echecrates, of Phlius, a town of Achaia, in the territory of Sicyon, is supposed to have been the same alluded to by Diogenes Laertius, viii. 46. and Iamblichus, Vit. Pythag. i. 35. Plat. Epist. ix. p. 726. A., as one of the last of the Pythagorean School.

Τὸ φάρμακον.] The hemlock; κώ νειον, Laert. ii. 35. Senec. Ep. 13. “Cicuta magnum Socratem fecit." Ep. 67. "Calix venenatus, qui Socratem transtulit e carcere in cælum." Cf. Persius, iv. 1.—" barbatum hæc crede magistrum Dicere, sorbitio tollit quem dira cicuta.”

Τί οὖν δή ἐστιν ἅττα.] Cf. Theæt. c. 10. τί ποτ' ἐστὶν ἁ διανοούμεθα. Gorg. c. 136. σκεπτέον τί τὰ συμβαί νοντα, and infr. c. 2. τί ἦν τὰ λεχ


καὶ γὰρ, οὔτε τῶν πολιτῶν Φλιασίων οὐδεὶς πάνυ τι ἐπιχωριάζει τὰ νῦν ̓Αθήναζε, οὔ τέ τις ξένος ἀφικται χρόνου συχνοῦ ἐκεῖθεν, ὅς τις ἂν ἡμῖν σαφές τι - διακτών 17.5 ἀγγεῖλαι οἷός τ ̓ ἦν περὶ τούτων, πλήν γε δὴ ὅτι φάρμακον πιὼν ἀποθάνοι· τῶν δὲ ἄλλων οὐδὲν εἶχε φράζειν.

ΦΑΙΔ. Οὐδὲ τά περὶ τῆς δίκης ἄρα ἐπύθεσθε ὃν τρόπον ἐγένετο ;

ΕΧ. Ναί, ταῦτα μὲν ἡμῖν ἤγγειλέ τις, καὶ ἐθαυμάζομέν γε ὅτι πάλαι γενομένης αὐτῆς πολλῷ ὕστερον φαίνεται ἀποθανών. τί οὖν ἦν τοῦτο, ὦ Φαίδων ;

ΦΑΙΔ. Τύχη τις αὐτῷ, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες, συνέβη ἔτυχε γὰρ τῇ προτεραίᾳ τῆς δίκης ἡ πρύμνα ἐστεμμένη τοῦ πλοίου ὁ εἰς Δῆλον ̓Αθηναῖοι πέμπου


θέντα καὶ πραχθέντα. Τί as predicate,
with ἐστί following, is sometimes ac-
companied by the subject in the neuter
plural. Matthiæ Gr. s. 488. 7.

Επιχωριάζει — ̓Αθήναζε.] Phædo
is supposed to narrate to Echecrates,
at Phlius, the circumstances connected
with the death of Socrates, of which
little was known beyond the event hav-
ing actually occurred, owing to the in-
frequent intercourse between the Phli-
See Mitford's
asians and Athenians.
4. Ρ. 408.
Greece, c. xxv. s.
Οὐδεὶς πάνυ τι.] ̓Αντὶ τοῦ οὐδα-
μῶς. ἐστὶ γὰρ τὸ ἑξῆς οὕτως· πάνυ
ουδεὶς ἐπιχωριάζει. Schol. Cod. Bodl.

Οστις ἂν ἡμῖν—οἷός τ ̓ ἦν.] Οἷος
T'. Edd. Cod. Aug. But the imper-
fect is correctly used here, both in re-
ference to ἀφίκται, preced. which is to
be taken in a past sense, because of
χρόνου συχνού subjoined, and also to
εἶχε seq. HEIND. Cf. Aristoph. Lysistr.
109. Οὐκ εἶδον οὐδ ̓ ὅλισβον ἐκ-
τωδάκτυλον, ὃς ἦν ἂν ἡμῖν σκυτίνη
πικουρία.—Πλήν ... ὅτι... ἀποθά-
νοι, except that he was dead, &c.

Περὶ τῆς δίκης.] Not περὶ τὴν δίκην, as infr. c. 2. περὶ αὐτὸν τὸν θάνατον, but in the genitive, as Fischer

justly observes, on account of ἐπύθεσθε,
seq. Cf. Xenoph. Cyrop. V. 3. 26. ὡς
ἐπεὶ πύθοιτο τὰ περὶ τοῦ φρουρίου
Anab. ii. 5. 37.
χαλεπῶς ἐνέγκοι.
ὅπως μάθῃ τὰ περὶ Προξένου. Herod.
2. 102. ἀριθμοῦ δὲ πέρι, μὴ πύθῃ, &c.
Matthiæ Gr. s. 589. 5.

Πολλῷ ὕστερον.] Thirty days after;
Xenoph. Mem. iv. 8. 2.

Τύχη τις—ἔτυχη γάρ.] An agreeable paronomasia, referring the event to its cause. Cf. Achil. Sat. i. p. 55. (speaking of the Phænix,) ἔτυχη γὰρ τύχη τινι συμβὰν τότε τὸν ὄρνιν ἀναπτε ρῶσαι τὸ κάλλος. Upon the force of συνέβη, which implies a combination of circumstances, Plutarch, having quoted the passage as supr. observes: 'Ev yap τούτοις τὸ ΣΥΝΕΒΗ οὐκ ἀντὶ τοῦ ΓΕΓΟΝΕΝ ἀκουστέον, ἀλλὰ πολὺ μᾶλλον ἐκ συνδρομῆς τινος αἰτιῶν ἀπέβη, ἄλλου πρὸς ἄλλο γεγονότος. Simplic. ad Aristot. Phys. ii. p. 79. Β. καὶ Πλάτων δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τύχης τύχην καλεῖ, λέγων ἐν Φαίδωνι, Τύχη, τις αὐτῷ, ὦ Εχέκρατες, συνέβη, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀπὸ τύχης τὶ αὐτῷ συνέβη.


Τῇ προτεραίᾳ.] Thom. Mag. and Phavor. Προτέρα, ἐπὶ τάξεως προ

ΕΧ. Τοῦτο δὲ δὴ τί ἐστιν ;


ΦΑΙΔ. Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ πλοῖον, ὥς φασιν ̓Αθη ναῖοι, ἐν ᾧ Θησεύς ποτε εἰς Κρήτην τοὺς δὶς ἑπτὰ ἐκείνους ᾤχετο ἄγων καὶ ἔσωσέ τε καὶ αὐτὸς ἐσώθη. τῷ οὖν ̓Απόλλωνι εὔξαντο, ὡς λέγεται, τότε, εἰ σως θεῖεν, ἑκάστου ἔτους θεωρίαν ἀπάξειν εἰς Δῆλον ἣν δὴ ἀεὶ καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἐξ ἐκείνου κατ ̓ ἐνιαυτὸν τῷ θεῷ πέμπουσιν. Ἐπειδὰν οὖν ἄρξωνται τῆς θεωρίας, νόμος ἐστὶν αὐτοῖς ἐν τῷ χρόνῳ τούτῳ καθαρεύειν τὴν πόλιν καὶ δημοσίᾳ μηδένα ἀποκτιννύναι, πρὶν ἂν εἰς Δῆλόν τε ἀφίκηται τὸ πλοῖον καὶ πάλιν δεῦρο τοῦτο δ ̓ ἐνίοτε ἐν πολλῷ χρόνῳ γίγνεται, ὅταν τύχωσιν ἄνεμοι ἀπολαβόντες αὐτούς. ἀρχὴ δ ̓ ἐστὶ τῆς

τεραῖα δὲ, ἐπὶ μόνης ἡμέρας. Πλάτων ἐν τῷ Φαίδωνι· ἔτυχε γὰρ τῇ προτεραίᾳ τῆς δίκης.


δι ̓ ὧν ἐπορεύοντο, θεωρίδες κέλευθοι ἐκαλοῦντο, καὶ τὰ διδόμενα θεωρικά, καὶ ἡ ναῦς ἡ εἰς Δῆλον πεμπομένη was another Δήλια, a quinquennial fesΘεωρὶς, καὶ ὁ ἱερεὺς θεωρός. There tival, held to commemorate the puriwhich see Thucyd. iii. 104. See also fication of Delos by Pisistratus; for Potter, Grec. Antiq. i. p. 438.

p. 10. C. τὸ δὲ πλοῖον ἐν ᾧ μετὰ τῶν ̓Αεὶ καὶ νῦν ἔτι.] Plutarch. Thes. ἠθέων ἔπλευσε καὶ πάλιν ἔσωθη, τὴν τριακόντορον, ἄχρι τῶν Δημητρίου 'Αθηναῖοι. The materials of the vessel τοῦ Φαληρέως χρόνων διεφύλαττον οἱ Hym. in Bell., but, in reality, it had were hence called ἀειζώοντα, Callim. undergone so many repairs and alterations, that it might have been reasonably doubted whether it was the same ship, in consequence of which it afforded the sophists an opportunity for a zealous discussion on the subject of its identity. See a parallel case quoted by Brown, Philos. Lect. xii.

Τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ πλοῖον.] king of Crete, to avenge the death of his son Androgeos, besieged Athens, and withdrew his forces only on condition that seven virgins, and so many boys [ἠθέους ἑπτὰ καὶ παρθένους τοσαύτας. Plutarch. Thes. p. 6. παρθένους ἑπτὰ καὶ παῖδας ἴσους. Pausan. i. 27. extr.] should be sent every ninth year to Crete, to be devoured by the Minotaur; δὶς ἑπτὰ ἐκ. supr. third time of paying this tribute, TheThe seus was included in the number to be so sacrificed, but he succeeded in killing the Minotaur, and preserving himself and his companions. Cf. Virgil Æn. vi. 20. In commemoration of this event, and pursuant to their vow, as supr. τῷ οὖν ̓Απόλλωνι, &c., the Athenians sent every year a solemn deputation, θεωρία, to Delos. The individuals who composed it were called θεωροὶ and δηλιασταὶ, their principal, ἀρχιθέωρος, and the vessel in which of Apollo decorated the poop of the ves-, Επειδὰν οὖν ἄρξωνται.] The priest they sailed, θεωρὶς or δηλιάς. Robinson's Grec. Antiq. B. iii. c. 9. for the commencement of the voyage, See sel with garlands of laurel, as a signal and Mitford's Greece, i. c. 1. s. 3. and the purification of the city.- Ev T p. 60. of the Δήλια. χρόνῳ τούτῳ, during the celebration

θεωρίαν ἀπάξειν.] Schol. ad h. 1. ἀντι τοῦ θυσίαν ἀπενεγκεῖν. Θεωροὶ δέ εἰσιν οἱ πεμπόμενοι θῦσαι καὶ θεραπεῦσαι τὸν θεόν· ὅθεν καὶ αἱ ὁδοὶ

πολαμβάνειν is used sometimes of
*Ανεμοι ἀπολαβόντες αὐτούς.] Α-
contrary winds which intercept and de-


θεωρίας ἐπειδὰν ὁ ἱερεὺς τοῦ ̓Απόλλωνος στέψῃ τὴν πρύμναν τοῦ πλοίου· τοῦτο δ ̓ ἔτυχεν, ώς περ λέγω, τῇ προτεραίᾳ τῆς δίκης γεγονός. διὰ ταῦτα καὶ πολὺς χρόνος ἐγένετο τῷ Σωκράτει ἐν τῷ δεσμωτηρίῳ ὁ μεταξὺ τῆς δίκης τε καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.

§. 2. ΕΧ. Τί δὲ δὴ τὰ περὶ αὐτὸν τὸν θάνατον, ὦ Φαίδων; τί ἦν τὰ λεχθέντα καὶ πραχθέντα, καὶ τίνες οἱ παραγενόμενοι τῶν ἐπιτηδείων τῷ ἀνδρί; ἢ οὐκ εἴων οἱ ἄρχοντες παρεῖναι, ἀλλ ̓ ἔρημος ἐτελεύτα φίλων ;

ΦΑΙΔ. Οὐδαμῶς, ἀλλὰ παρῆσάν τινες, καὶ πολλοί γε.

ΕΧ. Ταῦτα δὴ πάντα προθυμήθητι ὡς σαφέστατα ἡμῖν ἀπαγγεῖλαι, εἰ μή τίς σοι ἀσχολία τυγχάνει οὖσα.

ΦΑΙΔ. ̓Αλλὰ σχολάζω τε καὶ πειράσομαι ὑμῖν διηγήσασθαι· καὶ γὰρ τὸ μεμνῆσθαι Σωκράτους καὶ αὐτὸν λέγοντα καὶ ἄλλου ἀκούοντα ἔμοιγε ἀεὶ πάντων ἥδιστον.

ΕΧ. ̓Αλλὰ μήν, ὦ Φαίδων, καὶ τοὺς ἀκουσομένους γε τοιούτους ἑτέρους ἔχεις. ἀλλὰ πειρῶ ὡς ἂν δύνῃ ἀκριβέστατα διελθεῖν πάντα.

Cf. Herodot. ii. 115. tain those at sea. ὅσοι ὑπ' ἀνέμων ἤδη ἀπολαμφθέντες ἦλθον, κ. τ. λ. and Wesseling in loc. Demosth. de Chers. p. 98. δέκα μῆνας ἀπογενομένου τἀνθρώπου καὶ νόσῳ καὶ χειμῶνι καὶ πολέμοις ἀποληφθεντος, ὥστε μὴ ἂν δύνασθαι ἐπανελθεῖν οἴκαδε. So the Latins use deprendere and prendere.—Αὐτούς, sc. τοὺς πλέοντας implied in πλοῖον preced.

Ως περ λέγω.] See Apol. Socr. c. 5. sub. ᾖn. ὁ περ λέγω.

Πολὺς χρόνος.] Xen. Memor. iv. 8. 2. 'Ανάγκη μὲν γὰρ ἐγένετο αὐτῷ, μετὰ τὴν κρίσιν τριάκοντα ἡμέρας βιῶναι, διὰ τὸ Δήλια μὲν ἐκείνου τοῦ μηνὸς εἶναι, τὸν δὲ νόμον μηδένα ἐᾷν δημοσίᾳ ἀποθνήσκειν, ἕως ἂν ἡ θεωρία ἐκ Δήλου ἐπανέλθῃ. Suidas v. Σωκράτης ἐδέδετο οὖν ἐπὶ πολὺ,

μέχρις ἂν ἡ ἀπὸ Δήλου θεωρὶς ἀφίσ κηται.

§. 2. Τῶν ἐπιτηδείων.] Maris. Gl. p. 164. Ἐπιτηδείους, οὐκ ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς Ὑπομνήμασι [i. e. Scholiis Grammatic.] μόνους τοὺς ἐκ γένους προσήκοντας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοὺς ἑταίρους, ὡς Πλάτων Φαίδωνι. WYTT.

Οἱ ἄρχοντές.] sc. οἱ ἕνδεκα. Apol. Socr. c. 27. c. 31. Crit. c. 2.


Τινὲς, καὶ πολλοὶ γε.] aliqui, imo vero multi. STALL. Cf. Apol. Socr. c. 9. Καὶ οὐδενὸς n. Wyttenbach loses the force of καὶ in explaining the passage Aderant quidam, et multi adeo. See Matthiæ Gr. S. 602.

Ως σαφέστατα--ἀπαγγεῖλαι.] Quam Even diligentissime referre, narrare. Fisch. Τοιούτους ἑτέρους ἔχεις.] such have you to listen to you, i. e, si

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