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TONES are different both from emphasis and pauses: consisting in the notes or variations of sound which we employ, in the expression of our sentiments. Emphasis affects partic ular words and pauses, with a degree of tone or inflection of yoice; but tones, peculiarly, so called, affect sentences, para. graphs, and sometimes even the whole of a discourse.
To show the use and necessity of tones, we need only observe, that the mind, in communicating its ideas, is in a constant state of activity, emotion or agitation, from the different effects which those ideas produce in the speaker. Now the end of such communication being,not merely to lay open the ideas, but also the different feelings which they excite in him, who utters them, there must be other signs than words, to manifest those feelings; as words uttered in a monotonous manner, can represent only a similar state of mind, perfectly free from all activity and emotion. As the communication of these internal feelings, was of much more consequence in our social intercourse, than the mere conveyance of ideas, the Author of our being did not, as in that conveyance, leave the invention of the language of emotion, to man: but impressed it himself upon our nature, in the same manner as he has done with regard to the rest of the animal world; all of which express their various feelings, by various tones. Ours, indeed, from the superior rank that we hold, are in a high degree more compre hensive; as there is not an act of the mind, an exertion of the fancy, or an emotion of the heart, which has not its peculiar tone, or note of the voice, by which it is to be expressed; and which is suited exactly to the degree of internal feeling. It is chiefly in the proper use of these tones, that the life, spirit, beauty, and harmony of delivery consist.
The limits of this introduction, do not admit of examples, to illustrate the variety of tones belonging to the different passions and emotions, We shall, however, select one, which is extracted from the beautiful lamentation of David over Saul and Jonathan, and which will, in some degree, elucidate what has been said on this subject. "The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places; how are the mighty fallen! Tell it not in Gath; publish it not in the streets of Askelon; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice; lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumph. Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew nor rain upon you, nor fields of offerings; for there the shield of the mighty was vilely cast away: the shield of
Saul, as though he had not been annointed with oil." The first of these divisions expresses sorrow and lamentation : therefore the note is low. The next contains a spirited command, and should be pronounced much higher. The other sentence, in which he makes a pathetic address to the mountains where his friends had been slain, must be expressed in a note quite different from the two former : not so slow as the first, nor so high as the second, in a manly, firm, and yet plaintive tone.
The correct and natural language of the emotions, is not so difficult to be attained, as most readers seem to imagine. If we enter into the spirit of the author's sentiments, as well as into the meaning of his words, we shall not fail to deliver the words in properly varied tones. For there are few people who speak English without a provincial note, that have not an accurate use of tones, when they utter their sentiments in earnest dis course. And the reason that they have not the same use of them,in reading aloud the sentiments of others, may be traced to the very defective and erroneous method, in which the art of reading is taught; whereby all the various, natural, ex. pressive tones of speech, are suppressed, and a few artificial, unmeaning reading notes are substituted for them.
But when we recommend to readers, an attention to the tone and language of emotions, we must be understood to do it with proper limitation. Moderation is necessary in this point, as it is in other things. For when reading becomes. strictly imitative, it assumes a theatrical manner, and must be highly improper, as well as give offence to the hearers: because it is inconsistent with that delicacy and modesty, which are indispensible on such occasions. The speaker who de livers his own emotions, must be supposed to be more vivid and animated, than would be proper in the person who relates them at second hand.
We shall conclude this section with the following rule, for the tones that indicate the passions and emotions, "In reading, let all your tones of expression be borrowed from those of common speech, but, in some degree, more faintly charac terized. Let those tones which signify any disagreeable passion of the mind, be still more faint than those which indicate agreeable emotions and on all occasions, preserve yourself from being so far affected with the subject, as to be able to proceed through it, with that easy and masterly manner, which has its good effects in this, as well as in every other art."
PAUSES or rests, in speaking or reading, are a total cessa. tion of the voice, during a perceptible, and in many cases, a measurable space of time. Pauses are equally necessary to the speaker, and the hearer. To the speaker, that he may take breath, without which he cannot proceed far in delivery; and that he may, by these temporary rests relieve the organs of speech, which otherwise would be soon tired by continued action; to the hearer, that the ear also may be relieved from the fatigue, which it would otherwise endure from a continu. ity of sound; and that the understanding may have sufficient time to mark the distinction of sentences, and their several members.
There are two kinds of pauses: first, emphatical pauses : and next, such as mark the distinctions of sense. An emphatical pause is generally made, after something has been said of peculiar moment, and on which we desire to fix the hearer's attention. Sometimes, before such a thing is said, we usher it in with a pause of this nature. Such pauses have the same effect as a strong emphasis; and are subject to the same rules; especially to the caution, of not repeating them too frequently. For as they excite uncommon attention, and of course raise expectation, if the importance of the matter be not fully answerable to such expectation, they occasion disappointment and disgust.
But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses, is to mark the divisions of the sense, and at the same time to allow the reader to draw his breath; and the proper and delicate adjustment of such pauses, is one of the most nice and difficult articles of delivery. In all reading, the management of the breath requires a good deal of care, so as not to oblige us to divide words from one another, which have so intimate a connection, that they ought to be pronounced with the same breath, and without the least separation. Many a sentence is miserably mangled, and the force of the emphasis totally lost, by divisions being made in the wrong place. To avoid this, every one, while he is reading should be careful to provide a full supply of breath, for what he is to utter. It is a great mistake to imagine that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the voice is allowed to fall. It may ea. sily be gathered at the intervals of the period, when the voice is suspended only for a moment; and, by this management, one may always have a sufficient stock for carrying on the longest sentence, without improper interruptions.
Pauses in reading must generally be formed upon the man"ner in which we utter ourselves in ordinary, sensible conversation; and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquired from reading books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be sufficient to attend to the *points used in printing; for these are far from marking all the pauses, which ought to be made in reading. A mechanical attention to these resting places, has perhaps been one cause of monotony, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and a uniform cadence at every period. The primary use of points, is to assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction; and it is only as a secondary object, that they regulate his pronunciation. On this head, the following direction may be of use: "Though in reading great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense: and their correspondent times occasionally lengthen beyond what is usual in common speech.
To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not -only be made in the right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pauses is intimated; much more than by the length of them, which can seldom be exactly measured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper: some. times a degree of cadence in the voice is required: and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are to regulate ourselves by attending to the manner in which nature teaches us to speak, when engaged in real and earnest discourse with others. The following sentence exemplifies the suspending and the closing pauses: Hope, the balm of life, sooths us under every misfortune." The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice,that gives the hearer an expec tation of something further to complete the sense; the inflec tion attending the third pause, signifies that the sense is completed.
The preceding example is an illustration of the suspending pause, in its simple state; the following instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice; "if content cannot remove the disquietudes of mankind, it will at least alleviate them."
The suspending pause is often, in the same sentence, attended with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice; as will be seen in this example: "Moderate exercise, and habitual temperance', strengthen the constitution*."
*The rising inflection is denoted by the acute; the falling grave accent.
As the suspending pause may be thus attended with hoth the rising and the falling inflection, it is the same with regard to the closing pause; it admits of both. The falling inflection generally accompanies it; but it is not unfrequently connected with the rising inflection. Interrogative sentences, for instance, are often terminated in this manner: as, "Am I ungrateful' ?" "Is he in earnest "
But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun er adverb, it is commonly terminated by the falling inflection: as, "What has he gained by his folly?" "Who will assist him?" "Where is the messenger?" "When did he arrive?"
When two questions are united in one sentence, and connected by the conjunction or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling inflection: as, "Does his conduct support discipline; or destroy it?"
The rising and falling inflections must not be confounded with emphasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature, perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those inflections.
The regular application of the rising and falling inflections, confers so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples to induce him to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and impor
"Manufactures, trade, and agriculturé, certainly employ more than nineteen parts in twenty, of the human species."
"He who resigns the world, has no temptation to envy, hatrea, malicè, anger: but is in constant possession of a serene mind: he who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of carè, solicitude, remorsé, and confusion"."
"To advise the ignorant, relieve the needy, comfort the afflicted', are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives."
"Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contract. in the body habits of lust, and sensuality"; malicé, and revenge; an aversion to every thing that is good, just`, and Jaudable', are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and misery.'