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Find of ancient guard attending the Greek emperors, armed with rods, wherewith they kept off the people from crowding too near the prince when on horseback. Their captain, or commander, was denominated primivergius. The word was probably formed from the barde or housings on their horses.
BARDED, in heraldry, is used in speaking of a horse that is caparisoned. He bears sable, a cavalier d'or, the horse barded argent. BARDESANISTS, a sect thus denominated from their leader, Bardesanes, a Syrian of Edessa, in Mesopotamia, in the second century. He adopted the oriental philosophy concerning the two principles; maintaining, that the supreme God is free from all evil and imperfection, and that he created the world and its inhabitants pure and incorrupt: that in process of time the prince of darkness, who is the fountain of all evil and misery, enticed men to sin; in consequence of which, the supreme God permitted them to be divested of those ethereal bodies with which he had endued them, and to fall into sluggish and gross bodies formed by the evil principle: and that Jesus descended from heaven, clothed not with a real but aerial body, in order to recover mankind from that body of corruption which they now carry about them; and that he will raise the obedient to mansions of felicity, clothed with aerial vehicles, or celestial bodies. Strunzius has given the history of the Bardesanists. See also Mosheim's Ecclesi. Hist. vol. i pa. 220. Lardier's Works, vol. ii. pa. 299, &c.
BARD, BARDI, ancient poets among the Gauls and Britons, who described and sung in verse the brave actions of the great men of their nation; with design to inculcate and recommend virtue, and even sometimes to put an end to the difference between armies at the point of engagement. Bochart derives the word from parat, to sing. Camden agrees with Festus, that bardus originally signifies a singer and adds, that the word is pure British. Others derive the word from Bardus, a druid, the son of Dryis, and the fifth king of the Celte. Of this latter opinion was Robert Record, physician to Edward VI., who, in the preface to his Arithmetic, addressed to that monarch, speaking of the bards, says They taught also musicke, which most commonly they did apply partly to religious seruices, to draw men to delight therein, and partly to songs made of the manners of men, in praise of vertue, and discommendation of vice, whereby it came to passe, that no man would displease them, nor doe any thing evill that night come to their hearing for their songs did make euill men more abhorred in that time than any excommunication doth in this time. The posterity of these musitians continue yet both in Wales and in Ireland, called bardes vnto this day, by the ancient name of Bardus, their first founder. This Bardus Druidius, the fifth king of the Celtes, raigned sixty-nine yeers, and died 1832 vears before Christ."
The curiosity of man is unbounded with re
spect to the transactions of his own species; and when these are described in excellent verse, accompanied with music, the performance is enchanting. An car, a voice, skill in instrumental music, and, above all, a poetical genius, are requisite to excel in that compli cated art.
As such talents are rare, the few that possessed them were highly esteemed; and hence the profession of a bard, which, besides natural talents, required more culture and exercise than any other known art. ciently, bards were capital persons at every festival and at every solemnity. Their songs, which, in recording the achievements of heroes, animated each hearer, must have been the entertainment of every warlike nation. We have Hesiod's authority, that in his time bards were as common as potters or joiners, and as liable to envy. Demodocus is mentioned by Homer as a celebrated bard; and Phemius, another bard, is introduced by him deprecating the wrath of Ulysses in the following emphatic terms :
"O king! to mercy be thy soul inclin'd,
The genuine seeds of poesy are sown;
According to Cicero, the virtues and exploits of their great men were sung at the Roman festivals. The same custom prevailed in Peru and Mexico, as we learn from Garcilasso and other authors. We have for our authority father Gobien, that even the inhabitants of the Marian islands have bards, who are greatly admired, because in their songs are celebrated the feats of their ancestors.
In no part of the world, however, did the profession of a bard appear with so great lustre as in Gaul, in Britain, and in Ireland. Wherever the Celta or Gauls are mentioned by ancient writers, we seldom fail to hear of their druids and their bards; the institution of which two orders was the capital distinction of their manners and policy. The druids were their philosophers and priests; the bards, their poets and recorders of heroic actions: and both these orders of men seem to have subsisted among them, as chief members of the state, from time immemorial. The Celta possessed, from very remote ages, a formed system of discipline and manners, which appears to have had a deep and lasting influence. Ammianus Marcellinus gives them this express testimony. that there flourished among them the study of the most laudable arts; introduced by the bards, whose office it was to sing in heroic verse the gallant actions of illustrious men; and by the druids, who lived together in colleges or societies, after the Pythagorean mau
ner, and philosophising upon the highest subjects, asserted the immortality of the human soul. Though Julius Cæsar, in his account of Gaul, does not expressly mention the bards; yet it is plain, that, under the title of druids, he comprehends that whole college or order; of which the bards, who, it is probable, were the disciples of the druids, undoubtedly made a part. It deserves remark, that, according to his account, the druidical institution first took rise in Britain, and passed from thence into Gaul; so that they who aspired to be thorough masters of that learning were wont to resort to Britain. He adds too, that such as were to be initiated among the druids were obliged to commit to their memory a great number of verses, insomuch that some employed twenty years in this course of education; and that they did not think it lawful to record these poems in writing, but sacredly handed them down by tradition from generation to generation. Of the honour in which the bards were held, many instances occur in Ossian's poems. On all important occasions, they were the ambassadors between contending chiefs; and their persons were held sacred. "Cairbor feared to stretch his sword to the bards, though his soul was dark. Loose the bards," said his brother Cathmor," they are the sons of other times. Their voice shall be heard in other ages, when the kings of Temora have failed." The hards, as well as the druids, were exempted from taxes and military services, even in times of the greatest danger; and when they attended their patrons in the field, to record and celebrate their great actions, they had a guard assigned them for their protection. At all festivals and public assemblies they were seated near the person of the king or chieftain, and sometimes even above the greatest nobility and chief offirers of the court. Nor was the profession of the bards less lucrative than it was honourable. For, besides the valuable presents which they occasionally received from their patrons when they gave them uncommon pleasure by their performances, they had estates in land allotted for their support. Nay, so great was the veneration which the princes of these times entertained for the persons of their poets, and so highly were they charmed and delighted with their tuneful strains, that they sometimes pardoned even their capital crimes on that account. We may very naturally suppose, that a profession that was at once so honourable and advantageous, and enjoyed so many flattering distinctions and desirable immunities, would not be deserted. It was indeed very much crowdel; and the accounts which we have of the numbers of the bards in some countries, particularly in Ireland, are hardly credible. We often read, in the poems of Ossian, of a hundred bards belonging to one prince, singing and playing in concert for his entertainment. Every chief bard, who was called Allah Redan, or doctor in poetry, was allowed to have thirty hards of inferior note; and every bard of the second rank was allowed a retinue of fifteen poetical disciples constantly about his person.
BARE. a. (bane, Saxon.) See NAKED. 1. Naked; without covering (Addison). 2. Uncovered in respect (Clarendon). 3. Unadorned; plain; simple (Spenser). 4. Detected; no longer concealed (Milton). 5. Poor; indigent (Hooker). 6. Mere (South). 7. Threadbare; much worn (Shakspeare). 8. Not united with any thing else (Hooker). To BARE. v. a. (from the adjective.) To strip; to make bare or naked (Bacon). BARE, or BORE. The preterit of to bear. BAREBONE. s. (from bare and bone.)
BAREFA'CED. a. (from bare and face.) 1. With the face naked; not masked (Shak.). 2. Shameless; unreserved (Clarendon).
BAREFA'CEDLY. ad. (from barefaced.) Openly; shamelessly; without disguise (Loc.). BAREFA'CEDNESS. s. (from barefaced.) Effrontery; assurance; audaciousness. BAREFOOT. a. (from bare and foot.) Having no shoes (Shakspeare).
BAREFOOT. ad. Without shoes (Addis.). BAREFOOT CARMELITES AND AUGUSTINES, are religious of the order of St. Carmel and St. Austin, who live under a strict observance, and go without shoes, like the Capuchins. There are also barefoot fathers of mercy. Formerly there were barefoot Dominicans, and even barefoot nuns of the order of St. Augustin.
BAREFOOTED. a. Being without shoes
BAREGNA WN. a. (from bare and gnawn.) Eaten bare (Shakspeare).
BAREHE ADED. a. (from bare and head.) Uncovered in respect (Dryden). BA'RELY. ad. (from bare.) 1. Nakedly. 2. Merely; only (Hooker).
BA'RENESS. s. (from bare.) 1. Nakedness (Shakspeare). 2. Leanness (Shakspeare). 3. Poverty (South).
BARETTI (Joseph), a native of Turin, where his father was an eminent architect. Of the early part of his life little seems to be known, only that he was a great traveller. In 1750, he came to England, where, for the most part, he continued to reside during the rest of his life. He soon acquired a knowledge of our language, and was enabled to write in it with facility and correctness. About 1753, he became acquainted with Dr. Johnson, who held him in great esteem to his death, and doubtless Baretti profited much by his intimacy with such a man. Through him he got introduced into Mr. Thrale's family as teacher of the Italian language to the young ladies. In 1760, he returned to his own country, and soon after his arrival began a periodical work, entitled, Frusta Literaria, which was published at Venice; but the freedom expressed in it not suiting that country, he found it expedient to quit it, and once more visited England. Soon after his arrival, he attacked, with great asperity, Mr. Sharp, who had lately published Letters from Italy, in which Baretti contended that he had grossly departed from the truth. In 1769, he was tried at the Old Bailey for killing
a man who had violently assaulted him in the Haymarket, and was acquitted. Next year he published his Travels through France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, 4 vols. 8vo. On the establishment of the Royal Academy he was appointed foreign secretary, and in lord North's administration he obtained a pension of 801. a year. He died in 1789, aged about 73. He was a very ingenious, pleasant, and charitable man. His works, besides those already mentioned, are: A Dissertation on the Italian Poetry, 8vo. 1753. An Introduction to the Italian Language, 8vo. 1755. The Italian Library, 8vo. 1757. A Dictionary, English and Italian, 2 vols. 4to. 1760. A Grammar of the Italian Language, 8vo. 1762. An Account of the Manners and Customs of Italy, 2 vols. 8vo. 1768. An Introduction to the most Useful European Languages, 8vo. 1772. A Dictionary, English and Spanish, 4to. 1778. Tolondron: Speeches to John Burke, about his Edition of Don Quixote, 8vo. 1786.
"I know no man," said Dr. Johnson to Boswell, who carries his head higher in conversation than Baretti: there are strong powers in his mind: he has not, indeed, many hooks, but with what hooks he has he grap ples very forcibly."
BAR-FEE, in law, a fee of twenty-pence, which every person acquitted of felony pays the gaoler.
BARFLEUR, a town of France, in the department of the Channel, and late province of Normandy. The cape of that name is 12 miles E. of Cherbourg. The town is in lat. 49. 40 N. lon. 1.6 W.
BARGAIN. s. (burgaigne, French.) 1. A contract or agreement concerning the sale of something (Bacon). 2. The thing bought or sold (L'Estrange). 3. Stipulation; interested dealing (Becon). 4. An unexpected reply, tending to obscenity (Dryden). 5. An event; an upshot (Arbuthnot).
To BARGAIN. v. n. To make a contract for the sale of any thing (Addison).
BARGAIN AND SALE, a species of conveyance in the English law. It is a kind of real contract, whereby the bargainer for some pecuniary consideration bargains and sells, i. e. to convey the of the bargainee; and becomes thereby a trustee for, or seized to the use of, the bargainee; and then the statute of uses completes the purchase. To prevent clandestine conveyances of freeholds, it was enacted by Stat. 27. Hen. VIII. c. 16., that such bargains and sales should not pass a freehold, unless the same be made by indenture, and enrolled within six mouths in one of the courts of Westminster Hall, or with the custos rotulorum of the county. Clandestine bargains and sales of chattel interests, or leases for years, were thought not worth regarding, as such interests were very precarious till about six years before; which occasioned them to be overlooked in framing the statute of uses; therefore such bargains and sales are not directed to "nrolled. This omission has given rise to ries of conveyance by lease and release.
BARGE. (largie, Dutch.) A vessel or boat of state, furnished with elegant apartments, canopies, and cushions; equipped with a band of rowers, and decorated with flags and streamers: they are generally used for processions on the water, by noblemen, officers of state, or magistrates of great cities. Of this sort, too, we may naturally suppose the famous barge or galley of Cleopatra, which, according to Shak
-Like a burnish'd throne
Burnt on the water: the poop was beaten gold:
Purple her sails; and so perfumed, that The winds were love-sick with them: the oars were silver,
Which to the tune of flutes kept time, and made
The water which they beat to follow faster, As amorous of their strokes-
At the helm A seeming inermaid steer'd; the silken tackles
Swell'd with the touches of those flower-soft hands
That yarely 'form'd their office.-
Barge is also the name of a flat-bottomed vessel of burden, for lading and discharging ships, and removing their cargoes from place to place in a harbour.
BARGER. s. (from barge.) The manager of a barge (Carew).
BARGHMASTER, BARMER, or BARMASTER, in the royal mines, the steward or judge of the barghmote. The word is formed of the German berg-meister, q.d. master of the mines.-The bar-master is to keep two great courts of barmote yearly; and every week a small one, as occasion requires.
BARGHMOTE, or BARMOTE, a court which takes cognizance of causes and disputes between miners.-By the custom of the mines, no person is to sue any miner for orc-debt, or for ore, or for any ground in variance, but only in the court of barmote, on penalty of forfeiting the debt, and paying the charges at law.
BARI, a handsome town, the capital of a district of the same name, in Naples, Italy. It is a bishop's see, and a very good harbour, but the Venetians destroyed it. Lat. 41. 26 N. Lon. 17. 5 E
BARIGLIA. (from Barigla, a place where it is largely produced.) Fixt mineral alkali. Soda. See BARILLA.
BARILLA. (from Bariglia or Barigla, which see.) Carbonas soda alcalescens impurus. Sal alkalinus fixus fossilis. Natron. Soda. Anatron. Nitrum antiquorum. Aphronitrum. Baurach. Natron. Mineral alkali. Mineral fixed alkaline salt. The plant from which this impure mineral alkali is principally procured, is the salsola kali of Linnéus (salsola herbacea decumbens, foliis subulatis spinosis scabris, calycibus marginatis axillaribus. Class pentandria, order digynia), which is cultivated on the coast of the Mediterranean. It may be obtained in Britain from a variety of plants,
but principally from the salsola kali, salicornia europæa, zostera maritima, triglochin mariti mum, chenopodium maritimum, atriplex portulacoides, and littoralis, plantago maritima, tamarix gallica, eryngium maritimum, sedum telephum, dipsacus fullonum, &c. Good barilla is firm, hard, heavy, porous, dry, and sounds on percussion: it is of a blueish colour, and imparts a flavour at first slightly resembling that of a violet. The plants, about the time the seeds become ripe, are pulled up by the roots, and exposed in a suitable dry place, where they are tied up in bundles, and burned in an oven constructed for the purpose, where the ashes are continually stirred, while hot, The saline matter falls to the bottom, and, on becoming cold, forms a hard, solid mass, which is afterwards broken into pieces of convenient size for exportation. The term British barilla is applied sometimes to kelp, a much more impure soda, and sometimes, though improperly, to pearlash, or the ashes of plants containing potash.
BARILLARIUS, in antiquity, a servant whose employment was nearly the same as that of a modern butler.
BARK (True Jesuit's). See CINCHONA. BARK (False Jesuit's). See Iva. BARK (Ilathéra). See CLUTIA. BARK (Winter's). See LAURUS. BARK. In botany, the skin or outer covering of a plant. This is threefold.-1. The cuticle, epidermis. 2 The outer bark, cortex. 3. The inner bark, liber. For the rest, see BOTANY.
The nature and composition of bark are but imperfectly known, as the ingredients of which it is composed vary considerably in the bark obtained from different trees and vegetables. The barks of oak, Leicester willow, Spanish chestnut, elm, and common willow, have been examined by Mr. Davy; and the Peruvian bark, or cinchona, has been ably analysed by Foureroy. The gallic acid and tannen are found in many of the barks, probably in all that are astringent; extract, or the extractive principle, is contained in most of them; and the ligneous fibre or woody part appears common to them all; the two last differing in proportion and property in the several species.
BARK, in navigation, denotes a little vessel for the sea, usually with pointed or triangular sails, in number two, or three at the most. The term is usually appropriated by seamen to those small ships which carry three masts without a mizen-top-sail. Our northern maripers in the coal-trade apply the term to a broad-sterned ship, which carries no ornamental figure on the stern or prow.
To BARK. v. a. (from the noun.) To strip trees of their bark (Temple).
To BARK. v. n. (beoncan, Saxon.) 1. To make the noise which a dog makes when he pursues (Cowley). 2. To clamour at (Shakspeare).
BA'RK-BARED. a. Stripped of the bark (Mortimer).
BARKER. s. (from bark). 1. One that
barks or clamours (Ben Jonson). 2. One that is employed in stripping trees.
BARKING OF TREES, the peeling off the rind or bark. This must be done, in our climate, in the month of May, because at that time the sap of the tree separates the bark from the wood. It would be very difficult to perform it at any other time of the year, unless the season was extremely wet and rainy; for heat and dryness are a very great hindrance to it. BARK-MILL, a mill constructed for the purpose of grinding and preparing bark, till it is fit for the use of the tanner.
Bark-mills, like most other mills, are worked sometimes by means of horses, at others by water, at others by wind, or by steam. Several of these mills are described in different volumes of the Repertory of Arts and Manufactures, and an ingenious one in the 2d vol. of Gregory's Mechanics. Mr. Chapman's simple machinery for this purpose (for which he took out a patent in July 1805) is described as below, in No. 3 of the Retrospect of Arts and Manufactures.
In Mr. Chapman's mill, which may be worked by horses, or in any of the usual ways, a large horizontal face-wheel gives motion to a horizontal tumbling shaft, which unites with the gudgeon of a large rag-barrel: two other cylinders are posited horizontally with respect to this rag-barrel, one on each side; one of these is a smaller rag-barrel, the other is a spike roller. A moderate-sized wheel at one end of the larger rag-barrel has its teeth to play into the leaves of a pinion on the end of the spike roller, thus communicating motion to that roller and to a large fly-wheel, turning on the same axis: two or three other smaller wheels and pinions communicate motion from the larger to the smaller barrel, and in such manner that the latter has a considerably less velocity than the former, and turns the contrary way. A horizontal hollow frame contains the barrels and spike-roller, and the bottom plate of this is moveable by means of screws, so as to be capable of adjustment and placed at a suitable distance from the rag-barrels, to act as a rinding plate. Two screws whose heads are at one end of this frame, serve to place the smaller rag-barrel at a convenient distance from the larger. This large barrel has about twenty rows of plates with their indentations turning downwards, while the indentations of the smaller barrel project upwards; so that this latter barrel gathers the bark and holds it fast, while the larger one tears it to pieces: and the spike-roller on the other side of this larger bar rel keeps it clean. A sloping spout conveys the torn bark from the grinding-plate to an inclin ing cylinder, posited like the cylinders in dressing machines for flour-mills: the wires of this cylinder are of two different kinds with respect to fineness, the coarsest being lowermost; and beneath it two bins are placed, the one to receive the finer dust, the other the coarser or hand-dust from the cylinder; and next to these stands a basket, to receive the torn bark as it passes through the cylinder.
BARKER's MILL, is a kind of mill invented by Dr. Barker, which without either wheel or trundle performs the operation of grinding corn. For a description of this mill, with a history and account of its curious theory, see Brewster's Ferguson, vol. ii., and Gregory's Mechanics, vol. ii.
BA'RKY. a. (from bark.) Consisting of bark; containing bark (Shakspeare).
STEAD, a town of Hertfordshire, with a market on Mondays. Lat. 51. 44 N. Lon. 0. 31 W. This was formerly a Roman town, and Roman coins have been often dug up in. its vicinity.
BARKING, a town of Essex, with a market on Saturdays. Lat. 51. 52 N. Lon. 0. 12 E.
BARKLEY, a town of Gloucestershire, with a market on Tuesday's. Lat. 51. 42 N. Lon. 2. 26 W.
BARLAAMITES, in church history, the followers of a Calabrian monk, afterwards bishop of Emont, the great opponent of Greg. Palama and the Hesychastæ. The Barlaamites are the same with those otherwise denoninated Acindynites.
BARLENGA, a small island, the principal of a cluster in the Atlantic ocean, about three leagues from the west coast of Portugal; with a fortress: these islands are called Borlings by the English seamen, and the greater part merely rocks. Lat. 39. 20 N. Lon. 9. 5 E.
BARLE'RIA. In botany, a genus of the class didynamia, order angiospermia. Calyx four-parted; corol funnel-forin, five-cleft; two of the stamens much less than the others; capsule quadrangular, two-celled? two-valved, elastic without claws; seeds two. Thirteen species, all excepting b. solanifolia, which is of South America, being of the Cape or East Indies.
BARLETTA, a seaport town of Italy, in the kingdom of Naples, and country of Bari, on the Adriatic: four miles W. Trani. Lat. 41. 19 N. Lon. 34. 3 E. Ferro.
French carpenters also use barley-corn, grainz
BARLOWE (William), a celebrated_ma-
BARM, otherwise called YEAST OF YEST, is the foam or froth of beer or other liquors in a state of fermentation. Barm is used for a leaven or ferment in the making of bread; as serving to swell or puff it up very considerably in a little time, and to make it much lighter, softer, and more delicate: though when there is too much of it the bread is rendered bitter
Barm is said to have been first used by the Celtæ in the composition of bread. About the time of Agricola's entrance into Lancashire, a new sort of loaf had been introduced at Rome; which was formed only of water and flour, and much esteemed for its lightness and it was called the water cake, from its simple composition, and the Parthian roll, from its original inventors. But even this was not comparable to the French or Spanish bread for its lightness. The use of curmi, and the knowledge of brewing, had acquainted the Celtes with an ingredient for their bread, which was much better calculated to render it light and pleasant than the leaven, the eggs, the milk, or the wine and honey of other nations. This was the spume which arose on the
BARLEY COVE, a creek on the southwest coast of Ireland, between Mizenhead and Browhead, in the county of Cork. Lat. 51. 24 N. Lon. 9. 40 W. Greenwich. BARLEY. See HORDEUM and Hus- surface of their curw in fermentation, and
BARLEY (Pearl), and FRENCH BARLEY; barley freed of the husk by a mill; the distinction between the two being, that the pearl barley is reduced to the size of a small shot, all but the very heart of the grain being ground away.
BARLEY-WATER, a decoction of either of these, reputed soft and diluting, of frequent use in physic. This well-known decoction is a very useful drink in many disorders; and is recommended, with nitre, by some authors of reputation, in acute fevers.
BARLEY-CORN, a term used to denote a long
which the Welch denominate burm, and we barm. The Celtes of Gaul, of Spain, and most probably therefore of South-Britain, had long used it; and their bread was, in consequence of this, superior in lightness to that of any other nation in the world. It is not above a century since the bakers first introduced barm into England.
Common ale barm may be kept fresh and fit for use several months by putting a quantity of it into a close canvas bag, and gently squeezing out the moisture in a screw press, till the remaining matter be as firm and stiff as clay. In this state it should be close packed up in a tight cask, so as to secure it from the air, and it will keep fresh, sound, and fit for use a long