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are no less striking; and we peruse with infinite satisfaction, the account of regulations established by a Governor Roberts, or the steady policy pursued in later times, by a Brooke, or a Patton.

The observation is trite, that the cor

A History of the Island of St. Helena, from its Discovery by the Portuguese, to the Year 1806; to which is added an Appendix. Dedicated, by Permission, to the Honourable the Court of Directors for Af-ruption of the best things is the worst of fairs of the United English East-India Company. By T. H. Brooke, Secretary to the Government of St. Helena. Price 8s. pp. 409. Black, Parry, and Kingsbury, London, 1808.

corruption. The instances of depravity, in the character of the chaplains to this island, narrated by our author, while they contribute to account for the perturbed condition of the people, are admonitory instances in proof of the importance attached to the sacred character, and of the consequence connected with preserving it pure and respectable.

those of the politician are anticipated Such are the inferences of the moralist : by our author, when he reasons on the Helena, even if the Cape of Good Hope propriety of retaining the island of St. should remain under the dominion of this well worth while to prevent our enemies country. There can be no doubt that it is from establishing themselves in a post, which commands the track of our most valuable vessels, and would afford them tions, to an amount not easily estimated. an opportunity of committing depreda

Is not an island, in the midst of the ocean, a State complete in itself, secure from the intrusions of ambitious neigh bours, unaffected by their jealousies, and beyond the reach of their enmities? In such a situation, if any where, we might expect to find the Utopian scheme of Sir Thomas More established in perfection. We might suppose, that here the milder virtues of humanity, if they be really the more powerful ingredients in the composition of our nature, must have the most favourable opportunity for displaying themselves in full vigour, and manifesting that predominating influence, which some have attributed to them. The island of St. Helena, distant 400 leagues from the nearest land; possessing a salubrious at- has acquired an interest in this island, Of late, commercial enterprize, also, mosphere, hill and dale in pleasing variety, capable of affording whatever is not that its products are of much consenecessary to the support of life, most of quence in speculation, but that its conthose fruits that are the luxuries of tropi-pecially to our South Sea Whalers, has venience, as a port of refreshment, escal climates,-this island, surely must be a Paradise! Alas! there is still a something deficient; its inhabitants are mere mortals; and the infirmities and imperfections of

the mortal race, counteract all the delights, and embitter all the enjoyments presented by the hand of Nature. Moral qualities are of greater consequence to the comfort and happiness of our species, than all the bounties which entertain the senses, than the most voluptuous assemblage intended to gratify the capricious desires and imagi

nary wants of man.

Such is the moral which clearly

results from the contents of the volume before us. Misconduct of the officers, misbehaviour of the settlers, mutinies among the garrison; discontents, murniurings, and sufferings, compose the greater part of the early history of this establishment. Nevertheless, the benefits attending the benevolent wisdom of an individual when vested with authority,

been sensibly felt, and may possibly prove, under certain circumstances, to be of very great importance.

We receive, therefore, Mr. Brooke's

History with pleasure; especially as, from this gentleman's official situation, we are induced to attribute the highest authority to his communications. Nevertheless, we think his volume defective by the absence of a map of the island; and bad his readers would have accepted it as a he added a view of the principal town, gratification.

The island of St. Helena (says our author) is situated in 15° 55′ south latitude, and 50 49' west longitude from Greenwich. It lies within the limit of the south-east trade wind, and is distant 400 leagues from the coast of Africa, the nearest continent. The extreme length of the island is. 10 miles, its breadth 6, its circumference about 28 miles, and its surface, in acres, 30,300.

The island, when observed at sea, presents to the eye the appearance of an abrupt and rugged rock, divested of tree, shrub, or herbage. A nearer approach brings in view the central cininences, distinguished by a softer outline, clothed with verdure, and towering to the clouds. Advancing still nearer, the scene again changes, and the green summits are shut from sight by the intervening craggy and stupendous cliffs, that seem to overhang the sea. Their great elevation excites in the mind of a stranger an idea of being too near the land; whilst the seaman, acquainted with the coast, proceeds safely to the anchorage which may be within a cable's length of the shore and in his progress, the exterior aspect of the island, and the disposition of its batteries and military works, impress an opinion of defensive strength. On rounding Munden's Point the eye is suddenly relieved by a view of the town, seated in a narrow valley between two lofty mountains; and the interspersion of trees among the white houses, has an effect picturesque and pleasing in a high degree. This valley, known by the name of James's Valley, is on the N. W. and leeward side of the island, in which situation there is good anchorage from 8 to 25 fathoms; and fresh water is conveyed in leaden pipes to the wharf, from a spring at two miles distance, which affords a plentiful supply.

In James's Town, the thermometer, in the shade, seldom rises above 80 degrees; but the reflected heat from the sides of the valley, when there is little wind, and the sky is clear, resembles that of India. In the country the temperature is much more moderate and uniform.

Thunder, lightning, or storms, rarely disturb the serenity of this mild atmosphere, in which so small a portion of electric fluid is supposed to exist, that it was imagined a machine for collecting it would be useless: but experiment has exposed the error of this supposition.

The clouds, floating at a certain height in the atmosphere, yield humidity to the higher parts of the island without discharging any moisture of the low lands; where, after a long continuance of drought, the roots of grass, &c. perish. The earth, in consequence, loses its adhesion, and when a heavy fall of rain occurs, it is washed from the declivities, which are thus divested of the means of vegetation, and either deepen into gullies, or stand in the form of proninences, where the texture is sufficiently hard to resist the effects of the rain; which seems to be the natural history of all the barren ridges that in fantastic figures terminate abruptly at the sca, and form the exterior of the island,

From these causes the luxuriance of vegetation increases in proportion to distance and height from the sea; and upon the very. summits of the interior bills oxen are to be seen up to their knees in grass; and the process of digestion being forwarded by the repose which the animal enjoys from the general diffusion of springs in those situations, the upper lands are, on every account, regarded as the prime pastures of the island.

Fruits, particularly vines, figs, oranges, and lemons, ripen best in the vallies near the sea; which are also wel! adapted to the growth of plantains and bananoes; all these fruits requiring a great degree of heat, and the enriched soil and shelter of the vallies. From a garden more interior, but finely watered and sheltered, of no greater extent than three acres of ground, 24,000 dozen apples, of a large size, were gathered in one season, besides peaches, guavas, grapes, and figs, in abundance. Cherries have been tried, but without success. Gooseberry and currant bushes turn to evergreens, and do not bear fruit. The island, however, is not to be considered as possessing a general fertility. The greater part of it is a barren, reluctant waste.

By the registered returns of the year 1805, the population of the island is stated at 504

white inhabitants, 1560 blacks, of whom

329 were free; making a total of 2064, exof the company. clusive of the garrison and civil establishinent Five thousand one hun-

dred and eight acres are in the hands of in dividuals, besides goat-ranges, which are the outskirts of the island, affording the chief supply of fresh meat both to the inhabitants and the hospital.

Lands, in general, are supposed to yield a nett profit of between 7 and 8 per cent. The price of labour is high; a carpenter can not be hired under six or seven shillings a day. A mason's wages vary from four to five shillings; and those of a labourer from two shillings to half-a-crown, or to a black man, engaged by the year, from ten to twenty pounds. In this case clothing is likewise to be provided, as well as maintenance, and medical attendance in the event of sickness.

The anchorage in the road is safe and sheltered; and though the vessels riding there sometimes drive to sea, this is owing rather to the steep declivity of the bank, than to the force or impression of the wind. The surf is occasionally high and dangerous; but the ocean beyond it is never ruffled by those hurricanes which in other climates occasion so much distress. The approach from the south-east is smooth and commodious; and on departing for Europe, the ship glides away before a gentle and a steady breeze.

Such is the picture of St. Helena, as From the scanty patches of herbage on the drawn in various parts of his introductory heights contiguous to the sea,, neither black chapter by Mr. Brooke. He describes cattle nor sheep, even had nature fitted them also, the civil and military establishment for traversing such craggy precipices, could derive nuch sustenance. But in those cliffs of the island; and narrates the events which have taken place in it, trom its dis- the goat finds excellent browzing, and which in many parts are inaccessible to men, covery, May 21, 1501, by the Portuguese, thrives where other animals would perish.. by the loss of one of their ships on it. It To obtain a good breed of these creatures was greatly improved, as a residence, by became an object of very early attention. Fernando Lopez, an unfortunate Portu- Orders were sent by the company to Bombay guese nobleman, who preferred a volun- and Surat, to forward to St. Helena a pro tary exile in it, to a disgraceful reception portion of ram and ewe goats on every homeat home. That nation preserved their ward-bound ship, until a sufficient breeding secret concerning this island, nearly 90stock was procured. But if by this it was intended to introduce a larger species, the years they were at length expelled by measure would hardly appear necessary after the Dutch; who abandoned St. Helena, what has been stated by the writer of Cavenon establishing themselves at the Cape, in dishe's Voyage. The fecundity of the goats 165', and the English East India Com- in a very few years multiplied their number pany settled on it the same year. It was to such a degree that they were regarded as surprised by the Dutch in 1972; but was wild animals, and hunted down by dogs and speedily regained by the English: and has gons without restraint. This practice was continued ever since under British autho- interdicted in the year 1078, by proclamation; but masters of families and houserity.

Mr. B. states the progressive improve-keepers were permitted, on application to the

governor and council, to appropriate flocks to their own use, and to maintait, them on

the parts of the Company's waste lands now called Goat Ranges: the Company reserving to themselves James's Valley and its vicinity for their own goats.

the advantages of keeping flocks on the Com pany's waste land, should have the limits of the respective ranges defined, and registered, and, at the expiration of the ten years, the former indulgencies should be restored.

ment of the island, from cabal and anarchy to loyalty and repose: together with the plans and endeavours of various go vernors for obviating defects, as well of the port, as of the interior of the island; and we learn, that it now exceeds, in conveBefore the destruction of the goats had niencies as well as in strength, whatever it been asserted to and agreed on, it was stipu might boast of, in former times. Welated, that those persons who had enjoyed cannot follow our author into the particulars of this history: for them we must refer to the work. Neither can we enumerate the various attempts to introduce the cultivation of the vine, for the pur-What was, therefore, al first considered as pose of making wine; of cotton, of in digo, of sugar, of tobacco, which grows spontaneously in some places. The scarcity of fuel on this island seems to be an insuperable bar to whatever requires the aid of fire to prepare it for exportation. Seasons of dryness, also, which return every seven or eight years, are very serious hindrances to the regularity of those returns that are the best supports of a planter's exertions.

an indulgence, was, upon that occasion, constituted a right. Laws were enacted which admitted and vested in certain persons, the right of keeping goats on certain parts of the Company's waste land. The land itself The value of this species of property depends still remams in property to the Company. on the safety or danger of the range, its extent, capability, and other local circumstances. The privilege of keeping one hundred goats in one situation will perhaps sell for one hundred pounds, whilst in another it is scarcely worth thirty pounds. The right in each range is generally possessed by two, three, or more proprietors, by whom stated task of difficulty and danger to any but those days are fixed for impounding the goats; a inured to it from childhood. A spectator, unaccustomed to the scenery and rural eco

The following extract describes a peculiarity, equally observable and amusing. The superabundance of goats on this island, where there are no wild animals to diminish their numbers, will be remarked by the philosophic reader: it may be compared to an occurrence at the Mau-nomy of the island, cannot but be struck ritius, as related by Buffon, where the progeny from a single pair of birds bece at length the plague of the island.

with the singularity of a St. Helena goatpounding. The eye, fearfully wandering over the abyss beneath, here and there

peal is made by punishment consisting indisgrace :-even that untractable race of men, the Malays, has been managed. by consulting their sense of dignity.

catches a glance of the rill that murmurs at the foot of the declivity. On the opposite side a dreary rugged mountain is seen to rise stupendous; here and there a small patch of herbage is discernible, but the genotal appearance exhibits liule more than They were incorporated into two comhuge impending rocks, and the apertures of panies, and trained to artillery practice.. caverns, which afford shelter to the nimble They proved extremely useful, and, duinhabitants of these wilds. The interven-ring the two years which they remained

tion of hanging clouds, which sometimes obscure the depth of the valicy from sight, leaves the uncontrolled imagination to rove in the idea of unfathomable profundity. The blacks by whom the goats are impounded spread themselves on the outskirts of the range, to collect the stragglers, and impel them in a direction towards the pound by loud shouts, and rolling down stones. The cchoes resounding through the vallies and cliffs, in the midst of such rude scenery, have an effect truly romantic After the lapse of an hour, or more, detached flocks of a dozen goats, or upwards, are seen, like so many moying specks, followed by their hunters, who with cautious footsteps tread their dangerous way through ledges where a single slip would precipitate them to destruction. As they approach nearer to their place of destination, the different flocks unite into one; the goats move with a slower step, and the cries of the blacks ine beard with quicker repetition and a shorter note, until, arriving near the entrance of the pound, the goats rush in with rapidity, and as many of them are taken as are required for use. Each pro. prietor has his respective mark cut in the animals' ears; and during the process of following the flocks, the blacks, by observ ing those kids that keep with their masters' ewes, are enabled to put on them their proper mark when impounded. Mistakes in this instance are rarely known to occur. I often happens that in driving the goats a few will break away, and effect their escape; but they are sometimes re-taken and secured by the celerity of their pursuers, who run among the ledges, and spring from rock to rock, on the brink of precipices that would justify a description such as Shakespeare has given of Dover Cliff. As many of the planters are as active and expert as the blacks in this exercise, they are well calculated for the service of riflemen, a corps in which they are embodied. A range, called the Devil's Hole, on the S. W. side of the island, is so very steep and dangerous, that the proprietors seldom procure a goat from it without the aid of a fowling-picce.

We observe with satisfaction that corporal punishment has been disused among the slaves, who are now incited by medals and rewards; and among the soldiery,to whose feelings of personal honour an ap

on the island, were no less conspicuous for their discipline than for their peaceable conduct. But this may certainly be attributed' to the peculiar manner in which they were treated. No European was suffered to strike or chastise them ou any pretence whatever ; and they were punished by no other autho-, rity than the sentence of a court martial, composed of Malay officers.

The facilities afforded by St. Helena, in recovering many hundreds of soldiers, who had quitted India in an enfeebled condition, in contributing to sudden and spirited attacks on the Dutch, as well on their shipping, as on the Cape, and since. Mr. B. composed his volume, to the expedition against Buenos Ayres, are so. many instances of the advantages to be derived from this post of observation. An Appendix coutaining charters, regulations, &c. for the colony concludes the volume.

Communications to the Board of Agricul ture; on Subjects relative to the Husbandry, and internal Improvement of the Country. Vol. VI. Part I. Price 15s. bds. pp. 207. W. Nicoll, London, 1808.

THE Board of Agriculture is one of those institutions, that do equal honour and service to the age which has effected their establishment. From the united efforts of a number of intelligent and scientific men, many beneficial results must ensue, although the communications of an individual may be thought of small importance alone. The variety of subjects, too, that are treated on, in such a collection as that before us, contributes essentially to the usefulness of the work, and may not seldom afford instruction to a party on one subject, whose researches are intendedly directed to another.

A work that consists of short essays is not susceptible of analysis: we shall there, fore only observe, that the chief contents of this volume are,- --a paper on the planting of waste lands, by the Bishop of Landaff; another by the Rev. James Willis of Sopley, Hants; a letter by J. C. Curwen,

to say that the larches are as thriving as I could wish them to be thousands of them in circumference, at six feet from the ground. measuring from fourteen to eighteen inches At the sunc time, and on the same moun

Scotch firs were planted; these looked flourishing, and annually made good shoots for six or eight years after planting; they then began to decay, and are now, literally speaking, all dead.

M. P. on soiling cattle; experiments by Edward Sheppard, esq. on Merino sheep; with an account of the cultivation of hemp and flax in Russia, &c. by James Durno, esq. British consul at Memel. The com-tain, but apart from the larches, 29,500 munications that follow these, contain various valuable hints, on different subjects, as red oats, barley, ruta-baga, carrots, beans, &c. on embankments, and reservoirs, on the methods of destroying insects, on planting roads, on the poor, The land on which the experiment re&c. We are also favoured with an op-cently made by his lordship, and to which portunity of comparing the agriculture of his letter chiefly refers, is called Gomerour neighbours in Flanders, and Germany, show. with our own; also that of far distant India. Other articles are added, of importance in their places. The whole number of papers is 32.

We think, however, that the date of several of these communications being so far back as 1794, 96, or 98, the promises of further experiments, to be reported when complete, should have given place to statements, which, we may fairly presume, have been made, of the result of those experiments, in the course of ten or a dozen years; or if their projectors had found cause to abandon them, the Secretary should have consulted the dignity of the Board, by substituting less dubious propositions, in a work intended to be standard among a considerable class of the community.

The Bishop of Landaff states the advantages to be derived from the planting of waste lands, in a very favourable manner. Soil, exposure, and other considerations. must regulate such undertakings: yet, as we are glad when we meet with mountains, or moors, formerly rude and barren, now adorned with growing woods, we cannot but recommend his lordship's paper to particular attention. The reverend writer informs us, that,


It is very rocky, producing, as to the greatest part of it, nothing but strong ling its elevation is so great, that it is seen in every direction, at a great distance, rearing its hemispherical head, above all other mountains in the vicinity of Winandermere, If the larches which are now planted, at six feet distance, quite round the sides, and on of which, from their present appearance, I top of this mountain, should thrive well, entertain the strongest hopes, we may in future become less solicitous about shelter for this hardy tree, and less disposed to plant them closer than six feet apart, than many seem at present to be. If my expectations are disappointed, the failure will not be without its use, as a warning to others.

The whole sum expended in planting 322,500 larches, at 30s. a thousand, amounts to £483, 15s. say £483. The fencing the plantation is not in this estimate, taken into the account, because the land must have been fenced before it could have been let as a sheep pasture, and the relative advantage of planting, instead of pasturing it, is the object under contemplation. If £483 be improved at the compound interest of £5 per cent. for sixty years, it will amount to £9,021 this sum is the loss sustained in sixty years by planting 322,500 larches; but it is not the whole loss. The rent of 379 acres will be lost for ten years; this rent (say £47, at 2s. 6d. an acre) being improved for ten years, will amount, to £519, and will make the whole loss in sixty years amount to £9,612.

The land called Wansfell, on which I made a plantation of forty-eight thousand larches near Ambleside, and for which I received a If any one should be of opinion, that the gold medal in 1789, from the Society for the pasture will not, at the expiration of ten years, Encouragement of Arts, &c. has been, for (on account of the space which will then be several years, let at a greater rent, as a sheep occupied by the larches), be worth more than pasture, than I could have had for it before I £27 a year, we may add to the preceding planted it; nor are the trees injured in the sum £9,612, the amount of £20 a year (the slightest degree, by the sheep. As this was supposed diminution in the value of the pas the first effort made in Westmoreland of plant- ture) improved for fifty years; that amount ing very high ground with larches; and as I will be £4,186, and the whole loss in sixty was dissuaded from planting there, by the ge-years, by planting 322,500 larches on 379 neral opinion, that no tree would ever arrive in acres of land, worth half a crown an acre, that situation at the thickness (as was said) of will be £13,798. aknife haft, I have great pleasure in being able

Having thus stated, with sufficient minute

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