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bility to all around me, and acting with ease before many, have quite left me. I am come to that, with regard to my person, that I consider it only as a machine I am obliged to take care of, in order to enjoy my soul in its faculties with alacrity; well remembering, that this habitation of clay will in a few years be a meaner piece of earth than any utensil about my house. When this is, as it really is, the most frequent reflection I have, you will easily imagine how well 1 should become a drawing-room: add to this, what shall a man without desires do about the generous Pharamond? Monsieur Eucrate has hinted to me, that you have thoughts of distinguishing me with titles. As for myself, in the temper of my present mind, appellations of honour would but embarrass discourse, and new behaviour towards me perplex me in every habitude of life. I am also to acknowledge to you, that my children, of whom your majesty condescended to inquire, are all of them mean, both in their persons and genius. The estate my eldest son is heir to, is more than he can enjoy with a good grace. My self-love will not carry me so far, as to impose upon mankind the advancement of persons (merely for their being related to me) into high distinctions, who ought for their own Bakes, as well as that of the public, to affect obscurity. I wish, my generous prince, as it is in your power to give honours and offices, it were also to give talents suitable to them: were it. so, the noble Pharamond would reward the zeal of my youth with abilities to do him service in my age.

Those who accept of favour without merit, support themselves in it at the expense of your majesty. Give me leave to tell you, sir, this is the reason that we in the country hear so often repeated the word prerogative. That part of your law which is reserved in yourself, for the readier service and good of the public, slight men are eternally buzzing in our ears, to cover their own follies and miscarriages. It would be an addition to the high favour you have done me, if you would let Eucrate send me word how often, and in what cases, you allow a constable to insist upon the prerogative. From the highest to the lowest officer in your dominions, something of their own carriage they would exempt from examination, under the shelter of the word prerogative. I would fain, most noble Pharamond, see one of your officers assert your prerogative by good and gracious actions. When is it used to help the afflicted, to rescue the innocent, to comfort the stranger? Uncommon methods, apparently undertaken to attain worthy ends, would never make power invidious. You see, sir, I talk to you with the freedom your noble nature approves in all whom you admit to your


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I NEED not tell with what disadvantages mm low fortunes and great modesty come int) * world; what wrong measures their dibdeno? themselves, and fear of offending, often oblige 201 to take; and what a pity it is that their great virtues and qualities, that should soonest re mend them, are the main obstacles in the way. their preferment.

This, sir, is my case; I was bred at a com school, where I learned Latin and Greek. à misfortunes of my family forced me up to ter where a profession of the politer sort has protea" me against infamy and want. I am now eleta lawyer, and in times of vacancy and recessi business, have made myself master of Italize an French; and though the progress I have ma my business has gained me reputation enouga one of my standing, yet my mind suggests to ar every day, that it is not upon that foundatio am to build my fortune.

'The person I have my present dependa upon, has it in his nature, as well as in his pa to advance me, by recommending me to a ger man that is going beyond sea in a public emp ment. I know the printing this letter would p me out to those I want confidence to spras and I hope it is not in your power to me making any body happy. 'September 9, 1712. • Yours, &c.

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Compositus melius cum Bitho Bacchius; in jus
Acres procurrunt
HOR. Sat. vil I. 1. O
Not better match'd with Bithus Bacchius strore:
To law they run, and wrangling dearly love.

different notions which different persons have
Ir is sometimes pleasant enough to consider t

But, to return to your majesty's letter, I hum-the same thing. If men of low condition w bly conceive that al! distinctions are useful to men, often set a value on things which are not pra only as they are to act in public; and it would be by those who are in a higher station of life, to a romantic madness for a man to be a lord in his are many things these esteem which are in to 14 closet. Nothing can be honourable to a man apart among persons of an inferior rank. Comtat pe from the world, but the reflection upon worthyple are, in particular, very much astonished w actions; and he that places honour in a consciousness of well-doing, will have but little relish of any outward homage that is paid him, since what gives him distinction to himself, cannot come within the observation of his beholders. Thus all the words of lordship, honour, and grace, are only repetitions to a man that the king has ordered him to be called so; but no evidences that there is any thing in himself, that would give the man, who applies to him, those ideas, without the creation of

bis master.

they hear of those solemn contests and debu which are made among the great upon the pr lios of a public ceremony; and wonder to that any business of consequence should be retar by those little circumstances which they represe to themselves as trifling and insignincant. 144 mightily pleased with a porter's decision in one sa Mr. Southern's playst, which is founded up.


Mr. Robert Harper, an eminent converance, of Lib + The Fatal Marriage; or, The Innocent Adultery.

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fine distress of a virtuous woman's marrying a se-
ond husband, while her first was yet living. The
irst husband, who was supposed to have been dead,
eturning to his house after a long absence, raises
noble perplexity for the tragic part of the play.
n the meanwhile, the nurse and the porter con-
erring upon the difficulties that would ensue in
uch a case, honest Samson thinks the matter may
e easily decided, and solves it very judiciously by
he old proverb, that, if his master be still living,
the man must have his mare again.' There is
othing in my time which has so much surprised
nd confounded the greatest part of my honest
ountrymen, as the present controversy between
Mount Rechteren and Monsieur Mesnager, which
mploys the wise heads of so many nations, and
olds all the affairs of Europe in suspense.
Upon my going into a coffee-house yesterday,
nd lending an ear to the next table, which was
ncompassed with a circle of inferior politicians,
ne of them, after having read over the news very
ttentively, broke out into the following remarks:
I am afraid,' says he, this unhappy rupture be-
ween the footmen at Utrecht will retard the peace
f Christendom. I wish the pope may not be at
e bottom of it. His holiness has a very good
and at fomenting a division, as the poor Swiss
antons have lately experienced to their cost. If
Monsieur What-d'ye-call-him's domestics will not
ome to an accommodation, I do not know how
he quarrel can be ended but by a religious war.'
'Why, truly,' says a wiseacre that sat by him,
were I as the king of France, I would scorn to
ake part with the footmen of either side: here's
the business of Europe stands still, because
Monsieur Mesnager's man has had his head broke.
f Count Rectrum had given them a pot of ale
fter it, all would have been well, without any of
his bustle; but they say he's a warm man, and
loes not care to be made mouths at.'

Upon this, one that had held his tongue hitherto, began to exert himself; declaring, that he was very well pleased the plenipotentiaries of our Christian princes took this matter into their serious consileration; for that lackeys were never so saucy and pragmatical as they are now-a-days, and that e should be glad to see them taken down in the treaty of peace, if it might be done without prejudice to the public affairs.


punishment that was due to their insolence. To which he added, that the French nation was so addicted to grimace, that, if there was not a stop put to it at the general congress, there would be no walking the streets for them in a time of peace, especially if they continued masters of the West Indies. The little man proceeded with a great deal of warmth, declaring that, if the allies were of his mind, he would oblige the French king to burn his gallies, and tolerate the protestant religion in his dominions, before he would sheath his sword. He concluded with calling Monsieur Mesnager an insignificant prig.

The dispute was now growing very warm, and one does not know where it would have ended, had not a young man of about one-and-twenty, who seems to have been brought up with an eye to the law, taken the debate into his hand, and given it as his opinion, that neither Count Rechteren nor Monsieur Mesnager had behaved themselves right in this affair. Count Rechteren,' says he, should have made affidavit that his servants had been affronted, and then Monsieur Mesnager would have done him justice, by taking away their liveries from them, or some other way that he might have thought the most proper; for, let me tell you, if a man makes a mouth at me, I am not to knock the teeth out of it for his pains, Then again, as for Monsieur Mesnager, upon his servants being beaten, why, he might have had his action of assault and battery. But as the case now stands, if you will have my opinion, I think they ought to bring it to referees.'

I heard a great deal more of this conference, but I must confess with little edification; for all I could learn at last from these honest gentlemen was, that the matter in debate was of too high a nature for such heads as theirs, or mine, to comprehend.

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Floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant.

LUCR. i. iii. ver. 11.
As from the sweetest flow'rs the lab'ring bee
Extracts her precious sweets.


One who sat at the other end of the table, and seemed to be in the interest of the French king, told them, that they did not take the matter right, WHEN I have published any single paper that falls for that his most Christian majesty did not resent in with the popular taste, and pleases more than this matter because it was an injury done to Mon-ordinary, it always brings me in a great return of sieur Mesnager's footmen; for, says he, what are letters. My Tuesday's discourse, wherein I gave Monsieur Mesnager's footmen to him? but because several admonitions to the fraternity of the henit was done to his subjects. Now,' says he, 'let pecked, has already produced me very many corme tell you, it would look very odd for a subject respondents; the reason I cannot guess, unless it of France to have a bloody nose, and his sovereign be that such a discourse is of general use, and not to take notice of it. He is obliged in honour every married man's money. An honest tradesman, to defend his people against hostilities; and, if the who dates his letter from Cheapside, sends me Dutch will be so insolent to a crowned head as, in thanks in the name of a club, who, he tells me, any wise, to cuff or kick those who are under his meet as often as their wives will give them leave, protection, I think he is in the right to call them and stay together till they are sent for home. He to an account for it.' informs me, that my paper has administered great consolation to their whole club, and desires me to give some further account of Socrates, and to acquaint them in whose reign he lived, whether he was a citizen or a courtier, whether he buried Xantippe; with many other particulars: for that, by his sayings, he appears to have been a very wise man, and a good Christian. Another, who writes himself Benjamin Bamboo, tells me, that, being coupled with a shrew, he had endeavoured

This distinction set the controversy upon a new foot, and seemed to be very well approved by most that heard it, until a little warm fellow, who had declared himself a friend to the house of Austria, fell most unmercifully upon his Gallic majesty, as encouraging his subjects to make mouths at their betters, and afterwards screening them from the

* Count Rechteren.

to tame her by such lawful means as those which I mentioned in my last Tuesday's paper, and that in his wrath he had often gone further than Bracton allows in those cases; but that for the fature he was resolved to bear it like a man of temper and learning, and consider her only as one who lives in his house to teach him philosophy. Tom Dapperwit says, that he agrees with me in that whole

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discourse, excepting only the last sentence, where N° 483. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 15, 1**:

I affirm the married state to be either a heaven or a hell, Tom has been at the charge of a penny upon this occasion to tell me, that by his experience it is neither one nor the other, but rather that middle kind of state, commonly known by the name of purgatory.

Nec deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nadus
HOR. Ars Poet, ver

Never presume to make a god appear,
But for a business worthy of a god.

We cannot be guilty of a greater act of unchar
bleness than to interpret the afflictions which te
our neighbours as punishments and judgments i
aggravates the evil to him who suffers, when
looks upon himself as the mark of divine vetgea
and abates the compassion of those towards t
who regard him in so dreadful a light. The

The fair sex have likewise obliged me with their reflections upon the same discourse. A lady, who calls herself Euterpe, and seems a woman of letters, asks me whether I am for establishing the Salic law in every family, and why it is not fit that a woman who has discretion and learning should sit at the helm, when the husband is weak and illiterate? Another of quite contrary character, subscribes herself Xantippe, and tells me that shemour, of turning every misfortune into a judg follows the example of her namesake; for, being married to a bookish man, who has no knowledge of the world, she is forced to take their affairs into her own hands, and to spirit him up now and then, that he may not grow musty, and unfit for conversation.

After this abridgment of some letters which are come to my hands upon this occasion, I shall publish one of them at large.


proceeds from wrong notions of religion, w
its own nature produces good-will towards a
and puts the mildest construction upon every =>
dent that befals them. In this case, therefore, to
not religion that sours a man's temper, but it
temper that sours his religion. People of gla
uncheerful imaginations, or of envious medias
tempers, whatever kind of life they are eng
in, will discover their natural tincture of m
all their thoughts, words, and actions. A
finest wines have often the taste of the soil, to e
the most religious thoughts often draw somet
that is particular, from the constitution of the m
in which they arise. When folly or supers.
strike in with this natural depravity of tens
it is not in the power, even of religion itsel
preserve the character of the person who is p
sessed with it from appearing highly absurd a

You have given us a lively picture of that kind of husband who comes under the denomination of the hen-pecked; but I do not remember that you have ever touched upon one that is of the quite different character, and who, in several places of England, goes by the name of " a cot-queen." I have the misfortune to be joined for life with one of this character, who, in reality, is more a woman than I am. He was bred up under the tui- An old maiden gentlewoman, whom I shall c tion of a tender mother, till she had made him as ceal under the name of Nemesis, is the grea good a housewife as herself. He could preserve discoverer of judgments that I have met with. apricots, and make jellies, before he had been two can tell you what sin it was that set such a years out of the nursery. He was never suffered house on fire, or blew down his barns. Talk to i to go abroad, for fear of catching cold: when he of an unfortunate young lady that lost her beast should have been hunting down a buck, he was by the small-pox, she feiches a deep sigh, and by his mother's side learning how to season it, or you, that when she had a fine face she was alway put it in crust; and was making paper boats with looking on it in her glass. Tell her of a piece his sisters, at an age when other young gentlemen good fortune that has befallen one of her ac are crossing the seas, or travelling into foreign ance, and she wishes it may prosper with be, countries. He has the whitest hand that you ever her mother used one of her nieces very barbaruss saw in your life, and raises paste better than any Her usual remarks turn upon people who had ga woman in England. These qualifications make estates, but never enjoyed them by reason of s him a sad husband. He is perpetually in the flaw in their own or their father's behaviour. kitchen, and has a thousand squabbles with the can give you the reason why such an one des cook-maid. He is better acquainted with the milk-childless; why sucir an one was cut off in the & score than his steward's accounts. I fret to death of his youth; why such an one was unhappy i when I hear him find fault with a dish that is not marriage; why one broke his leg on suca à pardressed to his liking, and instructing his friends cular spot of ground; and why another was that dine with him in the best pickle for a walnut, with a back-sword, rather than with any other or sauce for an haunch of venison, With all this of weapon. She has a crime for every mustart: he is a very good-natured husband, and never fell that can befal any of her acquaintance; and w out with me in his life but once, upon the over- she hears of a robbery that has been made or a roasting of a dish of wild-fowl. At the same time murder that has been committed, enlarges mort d I must own, I would rather he was a man of a the guilt of the suffering person, than on that of rough temper, that would treat me harshly some- the thief, or assassin. In short, she is so go a times, than of such an eleminate busy nature, in a Christian, that whatever happens to herse province that does not belong to him. Since you trial, and whatever happens to her eghbour a have given us the character of a wife who wears a judgment. the breeches, pray say something of a husband that

The very description of this folly, in ordina”?

life, is sufficient to expose it; but, when it appears in a pomp and dignity of style, it is very apt to amuse and terrify the mind of the reader. Herodotus and Plutarch very often apply their judgments as impertinently as the old woman I have before mentioned, though their manner of relating them makes the folly itself appear venerable. Indeed, most historians, as well Christian as pagan, have fallen into this idle superstition, and spoken of ill success, unforeseen disasters, and terrible events, as if they had been let into the secrets of Providence, and made acquainted with that private conduct by which the world is governed. One would think several of our own historians in particular had many revelations of this kind made to them. Our old English monks seldom let any of their kings depart in peace, who had endeavoured to diminish the power or wealth of which the ecclesiastics were in those times possessed. William the Conqueror's race generally found their judgments in the New Forest, where their father had pulled down churches and monasteries. In short, read one of the chronicles written by an author of this frame of mind, and you would think you were reading an history of the kings of Israel or Judah, where the historians were actually inspired, and where, by a particular scheme of Providence, the kings were distinguished by judgments, or blessings, according as they promoted idolatry, or the worship of the true God.

I cannot but look upon this manner of judging upon misfortunes, not only to be very uncharitable in regard to the person whom they befal, but very presumptuous in regard to Him who is supposed to inflict them. It is a strong argument for a state of retribution hereafter, that in this world virtuous persons are very often unfortunate, and vicious persons prosperous; which is wholly repugnant to the nature of a Being who appears infinitely wise and good in all his works, unless we may suppose that such a promiscuous and undistinguishing dis tribution of good and evil, which was necessary for carrying on the desigus of Providence in this life, will be rectified, and made amends for in another. We are not therefore to expect that fire should fall from heaven in the ordinary course of providence; nor when we see triumphant guilt, or depressed virtue in particular persons, that Omnipotence will make bare his holy arm in the defence of the one, or punishment of the other. It is sufficient that there is a day set apart for the hearing and requiting of both, according to their respective merits.

Another consideration, that may check our pre sumption in putting such a construction upon a misfortune, is this, that it is impossible for us to know what are calamities, and what are blessings. How many accidents have passed for misfortunes, which have turned to the welfare and prosperity of the persons in whose lot they have fallen! How many disappointments have, in their consequences, saved a man from ruin! If we could look into the effects of every thing, we might be allowed to pronounce boldly upon blessings and judgments; but for a man to give his opinion of what he sees but in part, and in bis beginnings, is an unjustifiable piece of rashness and folly. The story of Biton and Clitobus, which was in great reputation among the heathens (for we see it quoted by all the ancient authors, both Greek and Latin, who have written upon the immortality of the soul), may teach us a caution in this matter. These two brothers, being the sons of a lady who was priestess to Juno, drew their mother's chariot to the temple at the time of a great solemnity, the persons being absent who by their office were to have drawn her chariot on that occasion. The mother was so transported with this instance of filial duty, that she petitioned her goddess to bestow upon them the greatest gift that could be given to men; upon which they were both cast into a deep sleep, and the next morning found dead in the temple. This was such an event, as would have been construed into a judgment, had it happened to the two brothers after an act of disobedience, and would doubtless have been represented as such by any an cient historian who had given us an account of it.

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Of all the young fellows who are in their progress through any profession, none seem to have so good a title to the protection of the men of eminence in it, as the modest man; not so much because his modesty is a certain indication of his merit, as because it is a certain obstacle to the pro

The folly of ascribing temporal judgments to any particular crimes, may appear from several considerations. I shall only mention two. First, that, generally speaking, there is no calamity or afflic-ducing of it. Now, as of all professions this virtue tion, which is supposed to have happened as a judgment to a vicious man, which does not sometimes happen to men of approved religion and virtue. When Diagoras, the atheist, was on board one of the Athenian ships, there arose a very violent tempest: upon which the mariners told him, that it was a just judgment upon them for having taken so impious a man on board. Diagoras begged them to look upon the rest of the ships that were in the same distress, and asked them whether or no Diagoras was on beard every vessel in the fleet. We are all involved in the same calamities, and subject to the same accidents: and, when we see any one of the species under any particular oppression, we should look upon it as arising from the common lot of human nature, rather than from the guilt of the person who suffers.

is thought to be more particularly unnecessary in that of the law than in any other, I shall only apply myself to the relief of such who follow this profession with this disadvantage. What aggravates the matter is, that those persons who, the better to prepare themselves for this study, have made some progress in others, have, by addicting themselves to letters, increased their natural modesty, and consequently heightened the obstruction to this sort of preferment; so that every one of these may emphatically be said to be such a one as “laboureth and taketh pains, and is still the more behind." It may be a matter worth discussing then, why that, which made a youth so amiable to the ancients, should make him appear so ridiculous to the moderns? And why, in our days, there should be neglect, and even oppression of young beginners, instead of

that protection which was the pride of theirs? In the profession spoken of, it is obvious to every one whose attendance is required at Westminster-Hall, with what difficulty a youth of any modesty has been permitted to make an observation, that could in no wise detract from the merit of his elders, and is absolutely necessary for the advancing his own. I have often seen one of these not only molested in his utterance of something very pertinent, but even plundered of his question, and by a strong sergeant shouldered out of his rank, which he has recovered with much difficulty and confusion. Now, as great part of the business of this profession might be dispatched by one that perhaps

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Messala, nec scit quantum Causellius Aulus ;"
HOR. Ars Poet. ver. 370.

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wants Messala's powerful eloquence, And is less read than deep Causellius;"


so I cannot conceive the injustice done to the public, if the men of reputation in this calling would introduce such of the young ones into business, whose application to this study will let them into the secrets of it, as much as their modesty will hinder them from the practice: I say, it would be laying an everlasting obligation upon a young man, to be introduced at first only as a mute, till by this countenance, and a resolution to support the good opinion conceived of him in his betters, his complexion shall be so well settled, that the litigious of this i-land may be secure of his obstreperous aid. If I might be indulged to speak in the style of a lawyer, I would say, that any one about thirty years of age might make a common motion to the court with as much elegance and propriety as the most aged advocates in the hall.

and to defy all contradiction, prevail over that deference and resignation with which the modest man implores that favourable opinion which the other seems to command?

'As the case at present stands, the best con-olation that I can adininister to those who cannot get into that stroke of business (as the phrase is) which they deserve, is to reckon every particular acquis tion of knowledge in this study as a real increase of their fortune; and fully to believe, that one day this imaginary gain will certainly be made out, br one more substantial. I wish you would talk to us a little on this head, you would oblige, SIR,

'Your humble servant."

The author of this letter is certainly a man of good sense; but I am perhaps particular in my opinion on this occasion; for I have observed thai, under the notion of modesty, men have indulged themselves in a spiritless sheepishness, and been for ever lost to themselves, their families, their friends. and their country. When a man has taken care to pretend to nothing but what he may justly aim at, and can execute as well as any other, without is justice to any other; it is ever want of breeding. or courage, to be brow-beaten, or elbowed out of bis honest ambition *. I have said often, modesty must be an act of the will, and yet it always in plies self-denial: for, if a man has an ardent desire to do what is laudable for him to perform, and from an unmanly bashfulness shrinks away, and lets his merit languish in silence, he ought not to be angry at the world that a more unskilful actor succeeds in his part, because he has not confidence to come upon the stage himself. The generosity my correspondent mentions of Pliny cannot be enough applauded. To cherish the dawn of merit, and hasten its maturity, was a work worthy a I cannot advance the merit of modesty by any noble Roman, and a liberal scholar. That concern argument of my own so powerfully as by inquiring which is described in the letter, is to all the wor into the sentiments the greatest among the ancients the greatest charm imaginable; but then the m of different ages entertained upon this virtue. If dest man must proceed, and show a latent resol we go back to the days of Solomon, we shall find tion in himself; for the admiration of his modesty favour a necessary consequence to a shame-faced arises from the manifestation of his merit. Int man. Pliny, the greatest lawyer and most elegant confess we live in an age wherein a few empty writer of the age he lived in, in several of his blusterers carry away the praise of speaking, whir epistles is very solicitous in recommending to the a crowd of fellows overstocked with knowledge public some young men of his own profession, and are run down by thein: I say overstocked, because very often undertakes to become an advocate, they certainly are so, as to their service of ma upon condition that some one of these his favou-kind, if from their very store they raise to them rites might be joined with him, in order to produce the merit of such, whose modesty otherwise would have suppressed it. It may seem very marvellous to a saucy modern, that multum sanguinis, multum verecundia, multum solicitudinis in ore; to have the "face first full of blood, then the countenance dashed with modesty, and then the whole aspect as of one dying with fear, when a man begins to speak;" should be esteemed by Pliny the necessary qualifications of a fine speaker. Shakspeare also has expressed himself in the same favourable strain of modesty, when he says,

"In the modesty of fearful duty

I read as much as from the rattling tongue
Of saucy and audacious eloquence-

selves ideas of respect, and greatness of the occa sion, and I know not what, to disable themselves from explaining their thoughts. I must confes, when I have seen Charles Frankair rise up with a commanding mien, and torrent of handsome words, talk a mile off the purpose, and drive down twenty bashful boobies of ten times his sense, who at the same time were envying his impudence, and de spising his understanding, it has been matter of great mirth to me; but it soon ended in a secret lamentation, that the fountains of every thing prast worthy in these realms, the universities, should be so muddled with a false sense of this virtue, as t produce men capable of being so abused. I wi be bold to say, that it is a ridiculous education which does not qualify a man to make his best ap

woman, to whom he can address himself. Were this judiciously corrected in the nurseries of lear ing, pert coxcombs would know their dataser but we must bear with this false modesty in our

'Now, since these authors have professed them-pearance before the greatest man, and the test selves for the modest man, even in the utmost confusions of speech and countenance, why should an intrepid utterance and a resolute vociferation thunder so successfully in our courts of justice? And why should that confidence of speech and behaviour, which seems to acknowledge no superior,

* See Nos. 231, 234, and 455

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