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cers and crew, is pleasingly apparent. A frank and gentlemanly spirit, and a kindly heart, give a sunshiny tone to the whole composition, and a strong feeling of reverence for true religion, without the slightest touch of fanaticism, is seen wherever circumstances call for the expression of any opinions on the subject.
Justice could not be done to the scientific parts of the work, except in a review set apart for that purpose. Suffice it here to say, that as nothing was left undone which could fulfil the views of the government, and benefit the country by the expedition, nothing has been omitted which could give value to the work; and while the public in general read it for entertainment, the naturalist and the philosopher will find much genuine information, and great matter for thought.
Some beautiful engravings by Fin den are scattered through the volumes; but, though this is an age in
which the grown babies of society never seem satisfied, without imagination be helped out with a picture, yet Captain Beechey's descriptions are so graphic, that they require little assistance from the pencil.
To conclude, the expedition of the Blossom has been any thing but in vain. An accurate survey has been made of the greater part of the Pa. cific. A more complete and general account of the islands of that sea, than ever was before obtained, has been laid before the public. A thousand important errors have been corrected, a thousand important facts have been ascertained. In the Arctic regions, discoveries, great in themselves, and great in their consequences, have been added to those which went before; an hundred and forty-six miles alone remain untraversed; these may easily be accomplished, and certainty will be finally
Although we have purposely abstained from noticing the scientific parts of Captain Beechey's narrative, yet it is but fair to state, that the theories which he advances with the modest diffidence of true genius, display an extent of views and depth of knowledge which do him the highest credit. The minute, circumstantial, and accurate account given of the drift wood at page 580, is in itself highly valuable, as illustrative of a very curious question; and the opinion to which Captain Beechey inclines, that this immense quantity of loose timber is borne down from the interior by the rivers running into Bristol Bay, Port Clarence, Norton and Kotzebue Sound, Schismar, Hotham, and Wainwright's Inlets, though not absolutely proved to be correct, has every probability in its favour.
In regard to the currents also, Captain Beechey's account is wonderfully clear and accurate, considering the difficulty of examination, while the ship was close in shore engaged in the laborious occupation of surveying, and the labour which he bestowed in ascertaining how far these currents extended below the surface-for it must be remembered that almost all currents are quite superficial-entitles him to the highest praise.
To correct a clerical error in our text, it may be as well to state here, that the precise extent of coast discovered by Captain Beechey's expedition, including the discoveries of the boat, was 126 miles.
IRELAND AND THE REFORM BILL.
WHAT a strange destiny is that of Ireland-how incorrigible in her faults-how pitiable in her misfortunes! The whole page of her history-the whole aspect of her national character-are made up, like a German story, of combinations of the ludicrous and the terrible;-there is no calm-no resting-place of peace and comfort, upon which the mind can repose with satisfaction and thankfulness. Whether we look upon times past or present, we behold frantic exultation, fierce contention, and deep despair, following each other in rapid succession-the sounds of wild and fantastic glee seem scarcely to have died upon the echoes, till they are succeeded by the yells of savage fury,-and these again give place to the hopeless wail that despondency puts forth over the dying and the dead.
The Irish seem to be utterly unteachable in the most ordinary lessons of prudence-all experience is lost upon them, and we would be almost constrained to look upon them as a doomed people-as a race foreordained to wretchedness, were it not that we know that they enjoy a great deal of happiness when potatoes are plenty, and the sun shines merrily above their heads; and when the misery they have suffered, and may suffer again, is no more thought of than the dark clouds of November, in this joyous month of June. The western shores of Ireland being open to the Atlantic ocean, the chilling storms that sweep across that vast mass of waters frequently injure, and sometimes totally destroy, the crops of the farmer, compensating him only with huge piles of seaweed, which the force of the storm tears from the inaccessible depths of the ocean, and flings upon the shore, from which it is removed for manure, or dried for burning. It might have been supposed that where such visitations were common, some habits of preparation would have grown up among the people, and that they would no longer trust entirely to the potatoe-the stock of which must be renewed every season. But there is no such thing
the peasant of Mayo, or Galway, takes as little thought of the vicissitude of the seasons, as he of Carlow or Kilkenny, whose crop almost never disappoints him. Indeed we have some doubt whether the Connaught peasant would not think it a sinful mistrust of Providence to make any unusual provision for the future; and when the torment of famine comes, he submits with melancholy resignation to what he calls "the will of God." In the places most subject to famine, there is an habitual patience of misery, which none but those who have witnessed it would deem possible"they die, and make no sign." The author of an admirable book, descriptive of the manners and habits of the peasantry in the part of Ireland of which we speak, says that the observation, 66 sure it was too much trouble entirely," reconciles them to the smoke that darkens their little cabin, and the rain that patters through the unthatched roof; and the same feeling inclines them to lie down and die, when Providence has blasted their potatoe crop, and deprived them of the fruit of their labours. Hard as was the task, it was sometimes necessary to refuse that relief which could not be extended to all in full proportion to their wants; but never was the refusal met by a murmur or a reproach. On one such occasion, "God help us!" was the answer of the poor man, with an expressive movement of his shoulders; "God help us then; for if your honour can do nothing for us, there is no one that can. There is something peculiarly touching in this submissive patience; and clamorous and reiterated supplication is much more easily repulsed, than the "God bless you-sure it can't be helped then?"
It is among the contradictions that belong to Ireland, that while no soil in Europe is more generally rich and fertile, in no other country of Europe have there been such frequent recurrences of famine. In other countries there has been some care for provision even in war, but in Ireland all was laid waste, and
many more perished by famine than by the sword. When Lord Edward Bruce, the brother of the deliverer of Scotland, pushed his way from the north to the south of Ireland, famine obliged him speedily to return; and when he got back to Ulster, so horrible was the state of the army, that the dead bodies of those who had died were torn from their graves, and ⚫ their flesh boiled in their own skulls, and eaten by the famishing survivors. After Desmond's rebellion in the reign of Elizabeth, Spenser tells us that" out of every corner of the woods and glynnes they came creeping forth upon their hands, for their legges could not beare them; they looked like anatomies of death,they spake like ghosts crying out of their graves; they did eate the dead carrions, happy where they could find them, yea, and one another soon after, insomuch as the very carcases they spared not to scrape out of their graves; and if they found a plot of water-cresses or shamrocks, there they flocked, as to a feast for the time."
In the rebellions of the two O'Neales, the horrors of war were also greatly aggravated by those of famine; but even in peace this scourge has not ceased to visit fertile Ireland, and that which did result from the dire necessities of warfare, is now the consequence of errors in social arrangement, and civil government. The Irish starve, while Ireland over. stocks the English market with corn and cattle. The poor that dwell in the land have no protection, save the hand of casual charity; but though all is done by charity that private charity can do, what does it avail to "a people in beggary-a nation which stretches out its hands for food ?"
But what, says the impatient reader who gapes for the wisdom which he doubts not is about to be poured forth touching the Irish Reform Bill," what has this to do with the matter in hand?" "Most excellent, praiseworthy, and attentive reader," I answer, "No exordium to the brief discourse which I intend to deliver for your learning, can be more natural, for it brings us directly to the consideration of the real Reform which is wanting, and teaches us to perceive the hollowness and cruel
absurdity of the sham Reform which his Majesty's Ministers propose to a country in a state so deplorable." The indignant language of Scripture says, shall he ask for bread, and shall you give him a stone!" But even this mockery would not be so bad as that of our government, who, when a people is distracted by ignorance, barbarism, and starvation, offer them a more extended right of returning representatives to the Imperial Parliament! This is beginning at the wrong end with a vengeance. Nothing can save Ireland but a strictness of government coming more near to despotism than the now existing British constitution will admit of, even in the most extreme cases; and instead of this, an attempt is made to loosen the force of government, and to scatter its power among the unruly hands of a wild and disaffected multitude. It is not possible to conceive more deplorable infatuation; and throughout Ireland, it is the general fear of the conservative party, and the universal boast of the noisy supporters of the Revolutionary Bill, that once it is passed, it must be followed by a separation from the legislative government of England, or, at the least, by an abandonment of the Church property to the funds of the State, and thence to the payment of the Roman Catholic clergy. That the English Reform Bill will not satisfy the popular craving for change which it has excited, is matter of reasonable conjecture; that the proposed Irish Reform Bill will not satisfy the Irish, is already proved by Mr O'Connell's letter, for he is too cunning to have expressed his dissatisfaction, without being well aware that he could carry the mass of the people along with him :-and now that I have mentioned this letter, I shall say something about it, in conjunction with the proposed measure which it criticises. Feeling, as I do, as much interest as a foreigner possibly can feel, in the honour and glory of the kingdom of Kerry, I reflect with no small shame upon the circumstance of one of its representatives in Parliament having put forth such a rambling piece of botheration as this letter on the Reform Bill. Indeed the fact of having suffered Dan O'Connell to be elected for Kerry, is in my mind no small
disgrace to my favourite kingdom; and I marvel where its ancient aristocratic pride is gone, when a man, whose grandfather was nobody, has been suffered to seize the representation even without a fight for it. What can he feel for Kerry, that a Kerry man should feel? How can he sympathize with the land of lakes and Latin, of mountains and mathematics-of clouds and classicalityof scenery and science? He has no feeling for any thing but the rant of radicalism, with a riotous rabble roaring in his rear. I am not, thank Heaven, a Member of Parliament, being in no degree ambitious of the martyrdom of stewing in Saint Stephens's five nights in the week from June to September, in the company of such a group of talkers as the Reform-stricken populace returned at the late election; but if I were thus to suffer, I don't know the place I would more willingly suffer for than Kerry. Rich and rare is its beauty; the very grass seems to rejoice in growing as it shoots up, green and luxuriant, out of the dark soil. Far more delicious than the flesh of ordinary sheep is thy small mutton, O Kerry, slightly heather-flavoured! Thy rivers, that " wander at their own sweet will," not too huge, nor yet diminutive-how exquisite their fish! How abundant and incomparable the trout, how admirable the salmon in size and flavour-better than if they were bigger I think, yet a monster is sometimes taken, and "what a delicate monster!" Excellent are thy small well-proportioned black cattle, that spend their youth ful days upon the mountain-slopes, picking the herbage not unmixed with heath; and magnificent are these mountains, rearing their eagle haunted tops into the clouds! Honour and fame be unto you, Mangerton, with the "Devil's punch bowl" lying deep and still within your bosom, and to you, loftier Carran Thual," and the rest," and your neighbouring lakes, island-studded; where the green and crimson of the arbutus festoon the fantastic rocks, drooping to the water, made beautiful with their shadows. The red deer still dwells within thy natural woods, fair Killarney; and we drop our oars that we may watch him sweeping along the hills-but he is
gone, and we draw near the shore, and climb our way to where O' Brien's cascade thunders down, tear. ing its way through the thick wood, in the season the dwelling-place of innumerable woodcocks, which Pat, Dennis, Dan, and Larry, hunt down to the water's edge, while you, standing or seated in your boat, deal death continually from your double-barrelled detonator.
Dan O'Connell feels nothing of all this, as a representative of Kerry ought to do-the place that his soul loveth is that where there is crowd, and bustle, and noise, and newspapers. He should represent some town-some clamorous, prating, riotous, litigious town, stuffed with radi cal manufacturing men, and flaunting loquacious women. He should have nothing to do with the county
I mean the kingdom-of Kerry. But this digression may seem to be beside the matter-so now for the letter, and the Bill. The letter commences with the usual whining rant about the extreme excellence of the "genuine Irish," and the bad usage they have received from the English. Nobody ever did justice to Ireland who was "impregnated with Angleism." This whole phrase is an O'Con nellism-" Angleism" has nothing to do with English, and I venture further to affirm, that it is not "genuine Irish"-but why should the “Liberator" be bound by the trammels of grammar? Let us come to his facts:
"We genuine Irish," he says, "have always behaved well to England-we deserve well of the English people-we have observed every national treaty-we have performed with perfect good faith every stipu lation." It is perhaps not too much to affirm, that O'Connell knows no more of Irish history than of English grammar-What he has learned of either is merely casual, such as may be picked up in conversation or from newspapers. It would be uncharitable to suppose, that he made such an assertion about the "genuine Irish," with any knowledge of the historical facts which it falsifies. The most prominently distinguishing feature of their history, is their inconstancy to political engagements. Other nations that have been attacked by a powerful enemy, have fought while there was any hope in resist
ance, and when that ceased, they have submitted, and become faithful to their conquerors, until by degrees they became incorporated with them; but the Irish never did make a general resistance to the Englishtheir fashion was to submit, when ever a great force, or even an important individual, was at hand to require their submission; but no sooner was the power that had overawed their imagination withdrawn, than they broke their engagement, and relapsed into what they called independence. Thus it is, that in truth"Ireland has never been conquered," because the Irish never would wait for that to happen-they yielded to the English-then began to fight among themselves, and then, being in the humour, began to fight against the power to which they owed allegiance-and this process went on, not once merely, but repeatedly. Even Sir John Davies, whom Irish patriots love to quote, because, being an English lawyer, he has nevertheless vowed at the end of his book, and probably at the end of his bottle also, that "there is no nation of people under the sun that doth love equal and indifferent justice better than the Irish, or will rest better satisfied with the execution thereof, although it be against themselves,"-even he tells us, that in Henry the Eighth's time the Irish made their fourth general submission, "whereof the first was made to King Henry the Second-the second to King John-the third to King Richard the Second-and this last to Sir Anthony St Leger in the thirtythird of Henry the Eighth." Four general submissions anterior to the days of Elizabeth, does not look very like "the_constant and undeviating course of perfect good faith" of which Mr Dan O'Connell boasts, without in reality knowing any thing at all about the matter; yet it is upon the ground of the transcendent merits of the Irish in this matter that he demands a greater share for Ireland in the senate of the United Kingdom, than even the new constitution-making Ministry are pleased to allow.
He has one other argument, to be sure, the logic of which must make every undegenerate Kerryman blush up to, and over, the ears. To the
Irish, he says, the British nation is indebted for the adoption of the principle of the Reform Bill-there was
majority of Scotch members against that principle-there was a majority of English members against that principle-but it was carried through the second reading by " the great and overwhelming majority of the Irish members in its favour." Thus, because Ireland, a distracted, uncivilized portion of the empire, unable to pay any thing like its fair proportion of the taxes, while the outrageous habits of its population require an enormous expense for civil and military force-because Ireland is able, by the number of its representatives, to force the principle of revolution upon the United Kingdom, in spite of decided majorities of the representatives of the wealthy, and powerful, and peaceable portions of the empire against it, this Ireland is to get a yet larger share of the general representation! If this be not using the argumentum ad absurdum, where an argument of serious cogency was intended, such a blunder was never made. It is impossible to adduce a stronger ar gument than this, to prove that the reasonable Reform of Irish represent ation would be found in its curtail ment.
My objection to the Irish Reform Bill commences with the second clause of its preamble-it is almost needless to go farther than this and the succeeding clause, for if the preamble be false, then the mea sure founded upon it is erroneous, ab initio, and ought not to pass. The Irish Reform Bill commences thus-" Whereas it is expedient to diminish the expenses of elections in Ireland, and to extend the elec tive franchise to many of his Ma jesty's subjects therein, who have no heretofore enjoyed the same, and to increase the number of representatives for certain cities and boroughs in that part of the United Kingdom." The first clause is true, also it is true that the moon is not made of green cheese-the second and third clauses are both flagrantly untrue.
The propositions need but to be calmly considered for one minute by any man who is not mad, nor Irish, to appear in their true colour of glaring falsehood. Why should the elective