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knowing that such is perverted, and sinneth, being self condemned," Tit. iii. 10, 11.

"If any one teach other doctrine [than this] and attendeth not to the wholesome words of OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, and to the doctrine according to Godliness, he hath been puffed up, knowing nothing, and is distempered about questions and logomachies, from whence proceed envy, strife, contention, blasphemies, evil surmises, perverse disputations of men of corrupt mind, and devoid of the truth, reckoning Godliness a traffic; withdraw thyself from such," 1 Tim. vi. 3—5.

And he censures the Church of Galatia in the following strong terms:

"I wonder that ye are so soon removed from [me] who called you by the grace of CHRIST, unto a different Gospel [of the Judaizing teachers]; which, indeed, is not another Gospel, [but in reality, no Gospel at all; preached only] by some who disturb you, and wish to subvert the Gospel of CHRIST. But if even we, [the Apostles] or an Angel from Heaven, should preach to you any Gospel beside * that which we have [already] preached to you, let him be accursed."

"As we [the Apostles] said before, so now I [Paul] say again, if any one preaches among you a Gospel beside what ye have received, let him be accursed," Gal. i. 6—9.

Peter also foretels "heresies of perdition" to be foisted clandestinely into the Christian Church, by false teachers, as formerly into the Jewish, by false prophets; denying even THE LORD that purchased them [by his blood,] bringing on themselves and their numerous followers, speedy perdition; by means of whom, "the way of the truth shall be blasphemed," 2 Pet. ii. 1. Comp. Heb. vi. 6.

He seems here to comment on Paul, and both perhaps, to glance at Popery," a religion taken up, and believed from the traditions of men, and additions to the word of GOD;" as skil

seems to have been Protestant. And certainly, several Calvinist Divines of the Synod of Dort would have seconded the Old Theologian. The Remonstrants maintained the unlawfulness of religious persecution upon SCRIPTURAL grounds; yet, they were censured by the Synod.


• Tap' ò. Here, the preposition rapa, "beside" marks those additional doctrines grafted upon the GOSPEL by the Judaizing teachers; which he compares to the wood, hay, stubble, built upon the gold, silver, and precious stones of the Apostolic foundation," 1 Cor. iii. 12. Peter has given a fine comment on it in the compound verb, Tapεioažovoiv, “ they shall clandestinely introduce,” 2 Pet. ii. 1.

fully defined by Milton; whence also it follows clearly, says Milton, "that of all known Sects, or pretended Religions at this day in Christendom, Popery is the only, or the greatest Heresy: and he who is so forward to brand all others for Heretics, the obstinate Papist, the only Heretic." Hence, one of their own famous writers found just cause to style the Romish Church, "Mother of Error, School of Heresy *"


Schism (oxioua) is a "division," or "rent" in the Church. It is either partial or total. Partial, as in the disorderly mode of celebrating the Eucharist among the Corinthians; reprehended by Paul, 1 Cor. xi. 20—34. or Total, where it comes to the separating of congregations from the common rites and ordinances of religious worship; as of the Reformed Churches from the Romish.

Schisms, therefore, may subsist in a true Church as well as in a false; where they only involve secondary points of doctrine or discipline, without subverting the foundations of the Christian Faith. Hence, Lutherans, Calvinists, Arminians, &c. and Churchmen, ought not to separate from each other, nor break off communion, since they agree in fundamentals; no more than the different sects or parties in the Church of Rome, Dominicans, Franciscans, Carthusians, Thomists, Molinists, Jansenists, Jesuits, &c. who, notwithstanding the diversity of their tenets, and their mutual controversies, all live in communion with each other.

Protestant Sects, however, were, and are, imperiously required to separate from the Church of Rome, because she erred, and still errs in fundamentals, respecting Faith and Works; and this, in obedience to SCRIPTURE:-" to avoid Heresies and Heretics," subversive of the Gospel, and "to secede" from such, and "withdraw" from them for fear of contamination; "to come out of" the mystical and devoted "Babylon," the mother of "Harlots," idolatries and heresies, "that they might not be partakers of her sins and of her punishment," Rom. xvi. 17, 2 Thess. iii. 6-14; 1 Tim. vi. 3-5; 2 Tim. iii. 5; Tit. iii. 10; Rev. xiv. 6-11, xviii. 4, &c. &c.

"Grace be with all that love OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST

See Milton's excellent Tract on true religion, heresy, schism, and toleration, &c. first printed in the year 1673; and lately republished in Baron Maseres' Occasional Essays, p. 418.

incorruptly*. Amen," Eph. vi. 24.-" If any love not the LORD CHRIST [incorruptly] let him be anathema, maran atha [accursed, or excommunicated] 1 Cor. xvi. 22 †.

But the mild Spirit of Christianity abhors all manner of Religious persecution for conscience sake. "THE SON of MAN came not to destroy men's lives but to save," Luke ix. 55, 56. And the prudential and tolerant wisdom of the Gospel, suffers "the wheat and the tares" of pure and of corrupt Churches, "to grow both together" in the field of this world, "till the harvest," or general resurrection at the end of it; when a final separation shall be made between them by "OUR LORD and his reapers," the Holy Angels. See the foregoing explanation of this parable, this Vol. p. 117.

While the Gospel earnestly recommends the "divine panoply," for our defensive armour, so beautifully described by St. Paul; the only offensive weapon it permits, is the "sword of the Spirit, which is THE WORD OF GOD," (Eph. vi. 10-17.) cautiously and skilfully handled, in humble imitation of CHRIST himself in his controversy with Satan; and of Michael the Archangel, his representative, contending with the Devil. He declares, that "all they that use the temporal sword, to maintain his cause, shall perish by the sword," Matt. xxvi. 52. A most awful warning to all persecuting Churches. And is not the Church of Rome, in particular, now drinking the bitter cup of all her former persecutions, in fulfilment of prophecy? While those reformed Churches are sharing in her potion, who were infected by her example, more or less.


The spirit of Antichrist is not exclusively confined to the Church of Rome; for we are told, there are many Antichrists" among the Laity as well as the Clergy every where. Who can read, without amazement, the resolutions of the Whig parliament in 1689, to charge the Earls of Salisbury and Peterborough, Sir Edward Hales and Mr. Walker, with high treason for their conversion to popery!-How infinitely wiser was the declaration of that great lawyer, Lord Mansfield: "Nothing is more unreasonable, more inconsistent with the rights of human nature, more contrary to the precepts and spirit of the CHRIS


Ev aplapoia, "in incorruption or purity;" put for aplaрrws, incorruptly or purely." Schleusn. † Avalɛμa, is the Greek rendering of the Syro-Chaldaic, μapav ala (N♫8 179) "accursed be thou," which was the Jewish form of excommunication, Galat. i. 8.

TIAN RELIGION, more unjust and iniquitous, more impolitic, than persecution: it is against natural Religion, revealed Religion and Polity." Taylor's Thoughts on the Grand Apostacy, p. 67-70.


Τα μεν ουν Ευαγγελια ὧν ὁ Χριστος εποίησε και ειπεν ἱστορια τις εστιν· αἱ δε Πράξεις, ὧν ὁ ἑτερος Παρακλητος είπε και εποίησε.

"The Gospels, are a History of what CHRIST did and said;

The Acts, of what THE OTHER ADVOCATE said and did.—Chrysostom.

THE latter portion of the HISTORY, to which we are now arrived, is comprized in the sequel of the

IX. CHRONOLOGICAL PERIOD, reaching from OUR LORD'S ascension, A. D. 31, to the destruction of Jerusalem, A. D. 70. See this Vol. p. 1, 2. During which," beginning from Jerusalem, the GOSPEL was published among all nations, until the end" of that devoted city, Matt. xxiv. 14; Acts i. 8.

Before we proceed thereto, it will be necessary, 1. to verify its chronology, as assumed in the foregoing outline; and 2. to establish the canonical authority of the Acts and Epistles, in which the history is principally contained.


The first leading date therein is that of the martyrdom of Stephen, and ensuing persecution of the Church, A. D. 34, according to Syncellus, Usher, and Pearson. This closed the latter half of the single week of Daniel's famous prophecy of the 70 weeks, in the midst of which, "THE MESSIAH was cut off,” A. D. 31. which began, therefore, A. D. 28. See the explanation of that prophecy, Vol. II. p. 514.

The next is the conversion of Saul, afterwards the Apostle Paul, A. D. 35. This introduced a new era in the History of the Church; corresponding to the beginning of Daniel's five last weeks, or 35 years, ending with the destruction of Jerusalem, A.D. 70. In this assigned date A. D. 35, agree Syncellus, Usher, Pearson, Barrington, and the Bible Chronology*, corrected from Usher's, by Bishop Lloyd.

• Petavius and Cave, date Paul's conversion.
Lenfant, Beausobre, and Lardner

Michaelis, about....

Spanheim, Witsius and Fabricius


A.D. 33.




Pontius Pilate, the fifth procurator of Judea, was deposed by Vitellius, governor of Syria, upon a complaint of mal-administration by the Samaritans, A. D. 35, as shewn in the first volume of this work, p. 87. And the same date is thus verified from Eusebius. Pilate, according to him, was appointed procurator in the twelfth year of the reign of Tiberius, A. D. 14 + 11

A. D. 25; but he governed ten years, according to Josephus, Ant. xviii. 5, 2. And therefore was deposed A. D. 35, as before. This fixes the time of the appointment of his successor Marcellus, to the year A. D. 35, noticed by Josephus, in that place; who observes, that Tiberius was dead before the arrival of Pilate at Rome. But Tiberius died A. D. 36. This fixes Pilate's deposal in the year A. D. 35, beyond a doubt, after he had witnessed and winked at the outrageous massacre of Stephen. Soon after his disgrace, he put an end to his life, like his accomplice, Judas, for "betraying the innocent blood."

The embassy of the Jews to Caius Caligula, deprecating the erection of the emperor's statue at Jerusalem, described by the intelligent Philo, who was employed therein, took place A.D. 40, in the last year of his reign, not long before he was assassinated, as we learn from Tacitus *. He was succeeded by the emperor Claudius.

Soon after the accession of Claudius he appointed Herod Agrippa his friend king of Judea, and restored to him all the dominions of Herod the Great, his grandfather, Ant. XIX. 5, 1. We are warranted, therefore, to date Herod's reign A.D. 41. He reigned three years, and died of an extraordinary disease A.D. 44, which Josephus has caricatured from the Acts, xxii. 20-23; Ant. XIX. 8, 2.

This fixes the year of famine in Judea in the [fifth of] Claudius Cæsar, Acts xi. 28, and the second Jewish persecution by Herod, shortly before his death, A.D. 44.

After Herod's death Cuspius Fadius was appointed procurator, about A.D. 44, Joseph. Ant. XIX. 9, 2.

Tiberius Alexander succeeded him, and died in office, when Ventidius Cumanus was appointed procurator in the eighth year of Claudius, A.D. 47, Ant. XX. 4, 2.

The first Apostolic Council, held at Jerusalem to decide the

• Judæi jussi a Caio Cæsare effigiem ejus in templo locare, arma potius sumpsere: quem motum Cæsaris mors diremit, Hist. V. 9.

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