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Since I am thus insensibly engaged in sacred writ, I cannot forbear making an extract of several passages which I have always read with great delight in the book of Job. It is the account which that holy man gives of his behaviour in the days of bis prosperity; and if considered only as a human composition, is a finer picture of a charitable and good-natured man than is to be met with in any other author.

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Oh that I were as in months past, as in the I CANNOT defer taking notice of this letter. days when God preserved me: when his candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked through darkness: when the Almighty was yet with me; when my children were about me; when I washed my steps with butter, and the rock poured me out rivers of oil.

When the ear heard me, then it blessed me; and when the eye saw me, it gave witness to me. Because I delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him. The blessing of him that was ready to perish came upon me; and I caused the widow's heart to sing for joy. I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame; I was a father to the poor, and the cause which I knew not I searched out. Did not I weep for him that was in trouble? was not my soul grieved for the poor? Let me be weighed in an even balance, that God may know mine integrity. If I did despise the cause of my man-servant or of my maid-servant when they contended with me; what then shall I do when God riseth up? and when he visiteth, what shall I answer him? Did not he that made me in the womb, make him? and did not one fashion us in the womb? If I have withheld the poor from their desire, or have caused the eyes of the widow to fail: or have eaten my morsel myself alone, and the fatherless hath not eaten thereof: if I have (seen any perish for want of clothing, or any poor without covering: if his loins have not blessed me, and if he were not warmed with the fleece of my sheep: if I have lifted up my hand against the fatherless, when I saw my help in the gate; then let mine arm fall from my shoulder-blade, and mine arm be broken from the bone. If I rejoiced at the destruction of him that hated me, or lifted up myself when evil found him (neither have I suffered my mouth to sin, by wishing a curse to his soul). The stranger did not lodge in the street; but I opened my doors to the traveller. If my land cry against me, or that the furrows likewise thereof complain: if I have eaten the fruits thereof without money, or have caused the owners thereof to lose their life; let thistles grow instead of wheat, and cockle instead of barley *.'

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I AM but too good a judge of your paper of the 15th instant, which is a masterpiece; I mean that of jealousy: but I think it unworthy of you to speak of that torture in the breast of a man, and not to mention also the pangs of it in the heart of a woman. You have very judiciously, and with the greatest penetration imaginable, considered it as woman is the creature of whom the diffidence is raised: but not a word of a man, who is so unmerciful as to move jealousy in his wife, and not care whether she is so or not. It is possible you may not believe there are such tyrants in the world; but alas, I can tell you of a man who is ever out of humour in his wife's company, and the pleasantest man in the world every where else; the greatest sloven at home when he appears to none but his family, and most exactly well-dressed in all other places. Alas, sir, is it of course, that to deliver one's self wholly into a man's power, without possibility of appeal to any other juris diction but his own reflections, is so little an obligation to a gentleman, that he can be offended and fall into a rage, because my heart swells tears into my eyes when I see him in a cloudy mood? I pretend to no succour, and hope for no relief, but from himself; and yet he that has sense and justice in every thing else, never reflects, that to come home only to sleep off an intemperance, and spend all the time he is there as if it were a punishment, cannot but give the anguish of a jealous mind. He always leaves his home as if he were going to court, and returns as if he were entering a jail. I could add to this, that from his company and his usual discourse, he does not scruple being thought an abandoned man, as to his morals. Your own ima gination will say enough to you concerning the condition of me his wife; and I wish you would be so good as to represent to him, for he is not ill-natured, and reads you much, that the moment I hear the door shut after him, I throw myself upon my bed, and drown the child he is so fond of, with my tears, and often frighten it with my cries; that I curse my being; that I run to my glass all over bathed in sorrows, and help the ut terance of my inward anguish by beholding the

in Yorkshire, which ran thus, as we find it stated in Mr. gush of my own calamities as my tears fall from Sulivan's "Tour, performed in 1778."

Howe, howe, who is heare? That I spent, that I had :
I Robin of Duncastere
That I gave, that I have:
And Margaret my feare + That I left, that I lost.
A. D. 1597.
"Quoad Robertus Byrks, who in this world did reign
Threescore yeares and seven, but liv'd not one."
• Job xxix 2, &c. xxx. 25, &c. xxxi. 6, &c. passim.

+ Mate, or companion; a Yorkshire provincialism.

my eyes. This looks like an imagined picture to tell you, but indeed this is one of my pastimes. Hitherto I have only told you the general temper of my mind, but how shall I give you an account of the distraction of it? Could you but conceive how cruel I am one moment in my resentment, and at the ensuing minute, when I place him in the condition my anger would bring him to, how com passionate; it would give you some notion how miserable I am, and how little I deserve it. When I remonstrate with the greatest gentleness that is possible against unhandsome appearances, and that married persons are under particular rules ; when he is in the best humour to receive this, I a

* N° 171. See also No 170

pose my own reputation ealous. I wish, good sir, to serious consideration, and wives, what terms wards each other. Your ant subject will have the hich descends on such as fflicted. Give me leave to

nate humble servant,


ts, before I received the nsider this dreadful passion ; and the smart she seems me inclination I had to rea more regular behaviour, quisite of torments to those whose torment would be ove them.

are the gay part of my disciples, who require speculations of wit and humour; the others are those of a more solemn and sober turn, who find no pleasure but in papers of morality and sound sense. The former call every thing that is serious, stupid; the latter look upon every thing as impertinent that is ludicrous. Were I always grave, one half of my readers would fall off from me: were I always merry, I should lose the other. I make it therefore my endeavour to find out entertainments of both kinds, and by that means perhaps consult the good of both, more than I should do, did I always write to the particular taste of either. As they neither of them know what I proceed upon, the sprightly reader, who takes up my paper in order to be diverted, very often finds himself engaged unawares in a serious and profitable course of thinking; as, on the contrary, the thoughtful man, who perhaps may hope to find something solid, and full of deep reflection, is very often insensibly betrayed into a fit of mirth. In a word, the reader sits down to my entertainment without knowing his bill of fare, and has therefore at least the pleasure of hoping there may be a dish to his palate.

I must confess, were I left to myself, I should rather aim at instructing than diverting; but if we will be useful to the world, we must take it as we find it. Authors of professed severity discourage the looser part of mankind from having any thing to do with their writings. A man must have virtue in him before he will enter upon the reading of a Seneca or an Epictetus. The very title of a moral treatise has something in it austere and shocking to the careless and inconsiderate.

serve how little is made of , and how easily men get east agreeable where they - so. Bat this subject de■lation, and I shall observe behaviour of two or three inted with, before I preof conjugal morality. I e, to go a few miles out of w where to meet one who of a fine gentleman in the When he was a bachelor, m particularly negligent in re is no young lover living his person. One who asked For this reason several unthinking persons fall in ashing his mouth, and so de- my way, who would give no attention to lectures d wearing of his linen, was delivered with a religious seriousness or a philosohere is a woman of merit phic gravity. They are insnared into sentiments e kindly, and I think it in-of wisdom and virtue when they do not think of make her inclination go along it; and if by that means they arrive only at such a degree of consideration as may dispose them to -e himself leave to think, he listen to more studied and elaborate discourses, I sonable as to expect debau- shall not think my speculations useless. I might could live in commerce toge-likewise observe, that the gloominess in which h and blood is capable of so sometimes the minds of the best men are involved, hat a fine woman must go on very often stands in need of such Hittle incitements she is as good and impassive to mirth and laughter, as are apt to disperse mereserve a fidelity to a brute lancholy, and put our faculties in good humour. y who desires me for her sake To which some will add, that the British climate, ers with the following letter, more than any other, makes entertainments of this ks such a perseverance very nature in a manner necessary.

- I know where you visited on Thursday evening. The harged me to see no more, is 'MARTHA HOUSEWIFE.'


Y, SEPTEMBER 25, 1711.

m agitant expertia frugis: ustera poemata Rhamnes, um qui miscuit utile dulci, do, pariterque monendo.

HOR. Ars Poet. ver. 341.

ll but morality;

spiring youth: nstruction with delight,

e, carries all the votes. ROSCOMMON.

ders under two general diviand the Saturnine. The first

If what I have here said does not recommend, it will at least excuse the variety of my speculations. I would not willingly laugh but in order to instruct, or if I sometimes fail in this point, when my mirth ceases to be instructive, it shall never cease to be innocent. A scrupulous conduct in this particular, has, perhaps, more merit in it than the generality of readers imagine; did they know how many thoughts occur in a point of humour, which a discreet author in modesty suppresses; how many strokes of raillery present themselves, which could not fail to please the ordinary taste of mankind, but are stifled in their birth by reason of some remote tendency which they carry in them to corrupt the minds of those who read them; did they know how many glances of ill-nature are industriously avoided for fear of doing injury to the reputation of another, they would be apt to think kindly of those writers who endeavour to make themselves diverting, without being immoral. One may apply to these authors that passage in Waller : 'Poets lose half the praise they would have got, Were it but known what they discreetly blot.'

As nothing is more easy than to be a wit, with all | tenants at that time of the year. They yawn for a the above-mentioned liberties, it requires some genius and invention to appear such without them. What I have here said is not only in regard to the public, but with an eye to my particular correspondent, who has sent me the following letter, which I have castrated in some places upon these considerations.


Cheshire cheese, and begin about midnight, when the whole company is disposed to be drowsy. He that yawns widest, and at the same time so ratorally as to produce the most yawns among the spectators, carries home the cheese. If you handle this subject as you ought, I question not but your paper will set half the kingdom a yawning, though I dare promise you it will never make any body fall asleep.'


-Delirant reges, plectuntur Achiri,


HOR. Ep. 2. L. i. v. 14The people suffer when the prince offends. CREECH.

"HAVING lately seen your discourse upon a match of grinning, I cannot forbear giving you an account of a whistling match, which, with many others, I was entertained with about three years N° 180. WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 26, 1711. since at the Bath. The prize was a guinea, to be conferred upon the ablest whistler, that is, on him who could whistle clearest, and go through his tune without laughing, to which at the same time he was provoked by the antic postures of a merryandrew, who was to stand upon the stage and play his tricks in the eye of the performer. There were three competitors for the ring. The first was a ploughman of a very promising aspect; his features were steady, and his muscles composed in so inflexible a stupidity, that upon his first appearance every one gave the guinea for lost. The pickled herring however found the way to shake him; for upon his whistling a country jig, this unlucky wag danced to it with such variety of distortions and grimaces, that the countryman could not forbear smiling upon him, and by that means spoiled his whistle, and lost the prize.

THE following letter has so much weight and good sense, that I cannot forbear inserting it, though it relates to a hardened sinner, whom I have very little hopes of reforming, viz. Lewis XIV. of France.


his reverse of fortune; and even then I should not forbear thinking his ambition had been vain, and unprofitable to himself and his people.

As for himself, it is certain he can have gained nothing by his conquests, if they have not rendered him master of more subjects, more riches, or greater power. What I shall be able to offer upon these heads, I resolve to submit to your consideration.

AMIDST the variety of subjects of which you have treated, I could wish it had fallen in your way, to expose the vanity of conquests. This thought would naturally lead one to the French king, who has been generally esteemed the greatest conqueror of our age, till her majesty's armies had torn from The next that mounted the stage was an under-him so many of his countries, and deprived him of citizen of the Bath, a person remarkable among the fruit of all his former victories. For my own the inferior people of that place for his great wis-part, if I were to draw his picture, I should be for dom, and his broad band. He contracted his mouth taking him no lower than to the peace of Res with much gravity, and, that he might dispose hiswick, just at the end of his triumphs, and before mind to be more serious than ordinary, began the tune of The Children in the Wood. He went through part of it with good success, when on a sudden the wit at his elbow, who had appeared wonderfully grave and attentive for some time, gave him a touch upon the left shoulder, and stared him in the face with so bewitching a grin, that the whistler relaxed his fibres into a kind of simper, and at length burst out into an open laugh. The third who entered the lists was a footman, who, in defiance of the merry-andrew, and all his arts, whistled a Scotch tune, and an Italian sonata, with so settled a countenance that he bore away the prize, to the great admiration of some hundreds of persons, who, as well as myself, were present at this trial of skill. Now, sir, I humbly conceive, whatever you have determined of the grinners +, the whistlers ought to be enconraged, not only as their art is practised without distortion, but as it improves country music, promotes gravity, and teaches ordinary people to keep their countenances, if they see any thing ridiculous in their betters; besides that, it seems an entertainment very particularly adapted to the Bath, as it is usual for a rider to whistle to his horse when he would make his waters pass.


'I am, SIR, &c.

To begin then with his increase of subjects. From the time he came of age, and has been a manager for himself, all the people he had acquired were such only as he had reduced by his wars, and were left in bis possession by the peace; he had conquered not above one third part of Flanders, and consequently no more than one third part of the inhabitants of that province.

About one hundred years ago the houses in that country were all numbered, and by a just computation the inhabitants of all sorts could not then exceed 750,000 souls. And if any man will consider the desolation by almost perpetual wars, the numerous armies that have lived almost ever since at discretion upon the people, and how much of their commerce has been removed for more se curity to other places, he will have little reason to imagine that their numbers have since increased; and therefore with one third of that province, that prince can have gained no more than one third part of the inhabitants, or 250,000 new subjects, even though it should be supposed they were all contented to live still in their native country, and

After having dispatched these two important points of grinning and whistling, I hope you will oblige the world with some reflections upon yawn-transfer their allegiance to a new master. ing, as I have seen it practised on a twelfth-night among other Christmas gambols at the house of a very worthy gentleman, who always entertains his

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The fertility of this province, its convenient situation for trade and commerce, its capacity for furnishing employment and subsistence to great

⚫ A. D. 1696.

mies that have been mainedible that the remaining are equal to all his other ently by all he cannot have 00 new subjects, men, woecially if a deduction shall ave retired from the coneir old masters.

t his loss against his profit, w subjects he had acquired, had lost in the acquisition. he has seldom brought less ces than two hundred thoudes what have been left in the common computation t the end of a campaign, es, scarce four fifths can be came into the field at the His wars at several times we held about twenty years; lost, or a fifth part of his plied by 20, he cannot have of his old subjects, and all eater number than the new d.

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the destruction or banishment s reformed subjects; he could for valuing those lives so very ecommend himself to the bination.

re be industry in a country sprecarious? What subject hat his prince may reap the simony and frugality must be eople; for will any man save reason to fear will be taken ? And where is the encouing? Will any man think of hout any assurance of clothing so much as food for their belis fatal ambition he must have of his subjects, not only by tion; but by preventing their

very births, he has done as much as was possible towards destroying posterity itself.

Is this then the great, the invincible Lewis? This the immortal man, the tout-puissant, or the almighty, as his flatterers have called him? Is this the man that is so celebrated for his conquests? For every subject he has acquired, has he not " lost three that were his inheritance? Are not his troops fewer, and those neither so well fed, or clothed, or paid, as they were formerly, though he has now so much greater cause to exert himself? And what can be the reason of all this, but that his revenue is a great deal less, his subjects are either poorer, or not so many to be plundered by constant taxes for his use?

It is well for him he had found out a way to steal a kingdom*; if he had gone on conquering as he did before, his ruin had been long since finished. This brings to my mind a saying of king Pyrrhus, after he had a second time beat the Romans in a pitched battle, and was complimented by his generals; "Yes," says he, "such another victory, and I am quite undone." And since I have mentioned Pyrrhus, I will end with a very good, though known story of this ambitious madman. When he had shown the utmost fondness for his expedition against the Romans, Cyneas his chief minister asked him what he proposed to himself by this war? "Why," says Pyrrhus, "to conquer the Romans, and reduce all Italy to my obedience."-"What then?" says Cyneas. To pass over into Sicily," says Pyrrhus," and then all the Sicilians must be our subjects."-And what does your majesty intend next?"-" Why truly," says the king," to conquer Carthage, and make myself master of all Africa."-" And what, sir," says the minister, "is to be the end of all your expedi tions ?"-" Why then," says the king, "for the rest of our lives we will sit down to good wine.""How, sir," replied Cyneas, "to better than we have now before us? Have we not already as much as we can drink?"


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of husbands, and blessed with very fine children, can never be prevailed upon to forgive me. He was so kind to me before this unhappy accident, that indeed it makes my breach of duty, in some measure, inexcusable; and at the same time creates in me such a tenderness towards him, that I love him above all things, and would die to be reconciled to him. I have thrown myself at his feet, and besought him with tears to pardon me; but he always pushes me away, and spurns me from him. I have written several letters to him, but he will neither open nor receive them. About two years ago I sent my little boy to him, dressed in a new apparel; but the child returned to me crying, because he said his grandfather would not see him, and had ordered him to be put out of his house. My mother is won over to my side, but dares not mention me to my father, for fear of provoking him. About a month ago he lay sick upon his bed, and in great danger of his life: I was pierced to the heart at the news, and could not forbear going to inquire after his health. My mother took this opportunity of speaking in my behalf: she told bim with abundance of tears, that I was come to see him, that I could not speak to her for weeping, and that I should certainly break my heart if he refused at that time to give me his blessing, and be reconciled to me. He was so far from relenting towards me, that he bid her speak no more of me, unless she had a mind to disturb him in his last moments; for, sir, you must know that he has the reputation of an honest and religious man which makes my misfortune so much the greater. God be thanked! he is since recovered: but his severe usage has given me such a blow, that I shall soon sink under it, unless I may be relieved by any impressions which the reading of this in your paper may make upon him.

'I am, &c.'

instinct, and extinguish natural affection, debases his mind even below brutality, frustrates, as much as in him lies, the great design of Providence, and strikes out of his nature one of the most divine principles that is planted in it.

Among innumerable arguments which might be brought against such an unreasonable proceeding, I shall only insist on one. We make it the condition of our forgiveness that we forgive others. In our very prayers we desire no more than to be treated by this kind of retaliation. The case there fore before us seems to be what they call a case in point;' the relation between the child and father being what comes nearest to that between a creature and its Creator. If the father is inexor able to the child who has offended, let the offence be of never so high a nature, how will be address himself to the Supreme Being, under the tender appellation of a father, and desire of him such a forgiveness as he himself refuses to grant?

To this I might add many other religious, as well as many prudential considerations; but if the last-mentioned motive does not prevail, I despair of succeeding by any other, and shall therefore conclude my paper with a very remarkable story, which is recorded in an old chronicle, published by Freher*, among the writers of the German history.

Eginhart, who was secretary to Charles the Great, became exceeding popular by his behaviour in that post. His great abilities gained him the favour of his master, and the esteem of the whole court. Imma, the daughter of the emperor, was so pleased with his person and conversation, that she ‍fell in love with him. As she was one of the greatest beauties of the age, Eginhart answered her with a more than equal return of passion. They stifled their flames for some time, under apprehension of the fatal consequences that might ensue. Eginhart at length resolving to hazard all, Of all hardnesses of heart there is none so inex- rather than live deprived of one whom his heart cusable as that of parents towards their children. was so much set upon, conveyed himself one night An obstinate, inflexible, unforgiving temper, is into the princess's apartment, and, knocking gently odious upon all occasions; but here it is unnatural. at the door, was admitted as a person who bad The love, tenderness, and compassion, which are something to communicate to her from the emperor. apt to arise in us towards those who depend upon He was with her in private most part of the night; us, is that by which the whole world of life is up-but upon his preparing to go away about break of held. The Supreme Being, by the transcendent day, he observed that there had fallen a great excellency and goodness of his nature, extends his snow during his stay with the princess. This very mercy towards all his works; and because his crea- much perplexed him, lest the prints of his feet in tures have not such a spontaneous benevolence and the snow might make discoveries to the king, who compassion towards those who are under their care often used to visit his daughter in the morning. and protection, he has implanted in them an in- He acquainted the princess Imma with his fears; stinct, that supplies the place of this inherent good-who, after some consultations upon the matter, ness. I have illustrated this kind of instinct in former papers, and have shown how it runs through all the species of brute creatures, as indeed the whole animal creation subsists by it.

This instinct in man is more general and uncircumscribed than in brutes, as being enlarged by the dictates of reason and duty. For if we consider ourselves attentively, we shall find that we are not only inclined to love those who descend from us, but that we bear a kind of orogy", or natural affection, to every thing which relies upon us for its good and preservation. Dependence is a perpetual call upon humanity, and a greater incitement to tenderness and pity, than any other motive whatsover.

The man therefore who, notwithstanding any passion or resentment, can overcome this powerful

Nos. 120 and 121.

prevailed upon him to let her carry him through the snow upon her own shoulders. It happened, that the emperor, not being able to sleep, was at that time up and walking in his chamber, when upon looking through the window he perceived has daughter tottering under her burden, and carrying his first minister across the snow; which she bad no sooner done, but she returned again with the utmost speed to her own apartment. The emperor was extremely troubled and astonished at this accident; but resolved to speak nothing of it till a proper opportunity. In the mean time, Eginbart, knowing that what he had done could not be long a secret, determined to retire from court; and in

Marquard Freher, a celebrated German lawyer, born at Augsburg 1565, died at Heidelberg 1614, having publised among other works, "Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores," is which he has inserted an old monastic chronicle, that coutains the story alluded to.

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