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tude of a favage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and every known art was exercifed by women; which continues to be the cafe of American favages. And even after arts were so much improved as to be exercised by men, none who could bear arms were exempted from war. In feudal governments, the military fpirit was carried to a great height: all gentlemen were foldiers by profeffion; and every other art was defpifed, as low, if not contemptible.
Even in the unnatural ftate of the feudal fystem, arts made fome progress, not excepting thofe for amusement; and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became necessary to comfortable living. A man accustomed to manifold conveniencies, cannot bear with patience to be deprived of them he hates war, and clings to the fweets of peace. Hence the neceffity of a military establishment, hardening men by ftrict difcipline to endure the fatigues of war. By a ftanding army, war is carried. on more regularly and fcientifically than in a feudal government; but as it is carried on with infinitely greater expence, na
tions are more referved in declaring war than formerly. Long experience has at the fame time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and grandeur. These arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational caufes of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate defcendents would employ foldiers by profeffion to fight their battles! And yet this is unavoidable in every country where arts and manufactures flourish; which, requiring little exercife, tend to enervate the body, and of courfe the mind. Gain, at the fame time, being the fole object of industry, advances selfishness to be the ruling paffion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and felf-prefervation. Cyrus, tho' enflamed with refentment against the Lydians for revolting, liftened to the following advice, offered by Crofus, their former King. "O Cyrus, destroy not 86 Sardis, an ancient city, famous for arts
and arms; but, pardoning what is paft, "demand
"demand all their arms, encourage lu
xury, and exhort them to inftruct their "children in every art of gainful com
merce. You will foon fee, O King, that "instead of men, they will be women." The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain; and drove into the inacceffible mountains of Bifcay and Afturia, the few natives who ftood out, When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their fwords into ploughfhares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their ftrong holds, and to lie in wait for ftraggling parties. Finding themfelves now à match for a people, whom opulencé had betrayed to luxury and the arts of peace to cowardice; they took courage to difplay their banners in the open field; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in reconquering Spain. The Scots, inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, were an overmatch for the Picts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at laft fubdued them *.
* See the note on the following page.
Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, obferves, that by luxury and effeminacy the Greeks had contracted a degree of foftness, more proper for women than for men; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the neceffity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks. In the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrifon not exceeding 6000 men, was befieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity'; yet
A note referred to in the preceding page.
*Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the highlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other; and continued the fame practice irregularly many ages after they fubmitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repreffed, but it went on privately by depreda-. tions and reprifals. The clan-fpirit was much depreffed by their bad fuccefs in the rebellion 1715; and totally crushed by the like bad fuccefs in the rebellion 1745. The mildness with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to introduce industry among them, have totally extirpated depredations and reprifals, and have rendered them the moft peaceable people in Scotland; but have at the fame time reduced their military fpirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military difcipline has now become no lefs neceffary than to others.
not a single inhabitant had courage to take arms, all waiting with torpid defpondence the hour of utter extirpation. Venice, Genoa, and other small Italian flates, became fo effeminate by long and fuccefsful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of ferving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries, officers as well as private men, Thefe mercenaries at firft, fought confcientioufly for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were no better paid than the vanquished, they learned to play booty. In a battle particularly between the Pifans and Florentines, which lafted from fun-rifing to fun-fetting, there was but a fingle man loft, who, having accidentally fallen from his horfe, was trodden under foot. Men at that time fought on horfeback, covered with iron from head to heel. Machiavel mentions a battle between the Florentines and Venetians which lafted half a day, neither party giving ground; fome horses, wounded, not a man flain. He obferves, that fuch cowardice and diforder was in the armies of thofe times, that the turning of a fingle horfe either to charge or retreat, would have decided a battle. Charles