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ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE, &c.
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or ILE. 1. /(corrupted from cor public this there are many varieties with variegated
building. Properly aile.
Upward the columns fhoot, the roofs afcend, And arches widen, and long iles extend. Pope, (2.) * ILE. n. S. laifle, Fr.] An ear of corn. Ainsworth.
(3.) ILE, a river of Somerfetfhire, which runs into the Parret, one mile S. of Langport. ILEHARRE, a town of France, in the dep. of the Lower Pyrenees, near Mauleon. ILEIGNES, a town of Hifpaniola.
ILEN, a river of Wales, in Pembrokeshire. ILERAY, an ifland of Scotland, on the W. coaft of N. Uift, feparated from it and from the ifle of Kirkboft by fands, which are overflowed at high water. It is 3 miles long, half a mile broad, and yields good crops of barley, befides pafture for cattle.
ILERDA, in ancient geography, the capital of the ILERGETES, fituated on an eminence between the rivers Sicoris and Cinga. It was often betiéged and taken, being expofed to the incurfions from Gaul; and under Gallienus it was deftroy. ed by the Germans. It is now called LERIDA, in Catalonia, on the Segra.
ILERGETES, the people of ILERDA, erroneoudly called Iligertes by fome encyclopædifts. ILESTGAGUEN, a ftrong towa of Morocco, in the province of Hea, feated on a mountain. ILET, a river of Ruffia, which runs into the Volga, 40 miles NW. of Kazan.
ILEUS. n. f. [Latin]-An ileus, commonly called the twisting of the guts, is really either a circumvolution, or infertion of one part of the gut within the other. Arbuthnot.
(1.) ILEX. n.. [Latin.]-The ilex, or great fcarlet oak, thrives well in England, is a hardy fort of tree, and eafily raifed of acorns. The SpaRiards have a fort they call enzina; the wood of which, when old, is finely chambletted, as if it were painted. Mortimer.
(2) ILEX, the HOLM or HOLLY Tree: A genus of the tetragynia order, belonging to the tetrandria clafs of plants, and in the natural method ranking under the 43d order Dumofa. The calyx is quadridentated; the corolla rotaceous; there is no Byle; the berry is monofpermous. There are feveral fpecies; but the most remarkable is the
VOL XII. PART I,
leaves, which are propagated by the gardeners for fale, and fome years ago were in great efteem, but at present are little regarded; the old tafte of filling gardens with fhorn evergreens being abolifhed. In the difpofition of clumps, however, ör rather plantations, of evergreen trees and shrubs, a few, of the most lively colours, have a good effeet in winter, if properly difpofed. The best of thefe varieties are the painted-lady holly, British holly, Bradley's beft holly, phyllis or cream holly, milkmaid holly, Prichet's beft holly, gold-edged hedgehog holly, Chyney's holly, glory-of-the-weft holly, Broaderick's holly, Partridge's holly, Herefordfhire white holly, Blind's cream holly, Longftaff's holly, Eales's holly, filver-edged hedgehog holly. All these are propagated by budding or grafting them upon ftocks of the common green holly. There is also a variety of the common holly with fmooth leaves; but it is often found intermixed with the prickly-leaved on the fame tree, and often on the fame branch there are both forts of leaves. The common holly grows naturally in woods and forefts in many parts of England, where it rifes from 20 to 30 feet, and fometimes more, but the ordinary height is not above 25 feet: the ftem by age becomes large, and is covered with a greyith fmooth bark; and those trees which are not loped or browsed by cattle, are commonly furnished with branches the greatest part of their length, forming á fort of cone; the branches are garnished with oblong oval leaves, of a lucid green on their upper furface, but are pale on their under, having a trong midrib: the edges are indented and waved, with sharp thorns terminating each of the points, fo that fome of the thorns are raifed upward, and others are bent downward, and being very ftiff, they are troublefome to handle. The leaves. are placed alternate on every fide of the branches; and from the bafe of their footftalks come out the flowers in clusters, ftanding on very fhort footftalks; each of thefe fuftain five, fix, or more flowers. They are of a dirty white, and appear in May; but are fucceeded by roundish berries, which turn to a beautiful red about Michaelmas, and continue on the trees, if they are not destroy ed, till after Christmas. The common holly is a very beautiful tree in winter; therefore defex
ILHAVO, a town of Portugal, in Beira. (1.) ILHEOS, a fertile province of Brazil, in the middle divifion.
(2,3.) ILHEOS, the capital of the above province, feated on a river, fo named, 90 miles NE. of Porto Segaro. Lon. 41. 25. W. Lat. 15. 5. S.
ILIA, the daughter of Numitor, and mother of ROMULUS, the founder of Rome. See NUMITOR. (1.) * ILIAC. adj. fillacus, Lat.] Relating to the lower bowels.-The iliac paffion is a kind of convulfion in the belly.
(2.) * ILIAC PASSION. A kind of nervous cholic, whofe feat is the ilium, whereby that gut is twifted, or one part enters the cavity of the part immediately below or above; whence it is alfo called the volvulus, from volvo, to roll.-Thofe who die of the iliac paffion have their bellies much fwelled. Floyer on the Humours.
place in all plantations of evergreen trees and long to it. It is feated almoft oppofite Swanfea, thrubs, where its fhining leaves and red berries in Glamorganfhire, and is 49 miles NNW. of Exemake a fine variety. A few of the beft variegated.ter, and 181 W. by S. of London. Lon. 4. 5. W. kinds properly intermixed, enliven the fcene. It Lat. 51. 14. N. is propagated by feeds, which never come up the firft year, but lie in the ground as the haws do; therefore the berries should be buried in the ground one year, and then taken up and fown at Michaelmas, upon a bed expofed only to the morn, ing fun; the following fpring the plants will appear, which must be kept clean from weeds; and if the fpring prove dry, it will be of great fervice to the plants if they are watered once a-week; but they must not have it oftener, nor in too great quantity, for too much moisture is very injurious to these plants when young. In this feed bed the plants may remain two years; and then be tranfplanted in autumn, into beds about fix inches afunder, where they may ftand two years longer; during which time they must be conftantly kept clean from weeds; and if they have thriven well, they will be ftrong enough to tranfplant where they are defigned to remain; for when they are tranfplanted at that age, they will grow to a lar ger fize than those which are removed when they are much larger but if the ground is not ready to receive them, they fhould be tranfplanted into á nursery in rows two feet diftant, and one foot afunder; where they may remain two years longer. If they are to be grafted with any of the variegated kinds, that fhould be performed after they have grown one year in the nursery; but the plants fo grafted fhould continue two years after in the nursery, that they may make good shoots before they are removed; though the plain ones fhould not ftand longer than two years in the nur fery, becaufe when they are older they do not
(3.) The ILIAC PASSION is called alfo miferere mei, and chordapfus. The name is derived by fome from the Greek verb ukiw, to wind or tavit. See ANATOMY, No 298, and MEDICINE, N° 193, 894 895
(4.) ILIAC REGION. See ANATOMY, N° 267. ILIACORE, a town of Indoftan, in Malabar. ILIAD, [s, from Ilium.] an ancient epic poem, the first and fineft of thofe compofed by Homer. The poet's defign was to how the Greeks, who were divided into feveral little ftates, how much it was their intereft to preferve harmony among themselves; for which end he fets before the calamities that befel their ancestors wrath of Achilles, and his misunderstandAgamemnon; and the advantages that afterwards accrued to them from their union. The liad is divided into 24 books or rhapfodies.
tranfplant fo well. The best feafon for removing ing
hollies is in autumn, especially in dry land; but where the foil is cold and moift, they may be transplanted with great fafety in fpring, if the plants are not too old, or have not ftood long unremoved. Sheep in winter are fed with croppings of holly. Birds eat the berries. The bark fermented, and washed from the woody fibres, make the cominon bird-lime. The plant makes an impenetrable fence, and bears cropping, though it, does not in all refpects anfwer equally well with the hawthorn, The wood is ufed in fineering, and, is fometimes ftained black to imitate ebony. Hancles for knives, and cogs for mill wheels, are made of it. It is alfo made into hones for razors. Mil. lar fays, he has feen the floor of a room laid with compartments of holly and mahogany, which had a fine effect.
ILFELD, a town of Saxony, in Hohnstein. (1.) ILFORD, GREAT, two villages of Effex, (2) ILFORD, LITTLE, on the Roding, which is navigable hence to the Thames. They are hamlets to the town of Barking; and lie 7 miles NE. by E. of London.
LLFRACOMBE, a fea-port of Devonshire, with a fpacious bafin, formed by a good pier projecting into the Bristol Channel, The high tides here allow large veffels to enter the harbour. This port employs a number of brigs and floops, chiefly in carrying ore from Cornwall, coal from Wales, and corn to Bristol. A number of fishing skiffs be
ILIENSES, an ancient people of Sardinia, mentioned by Livy ; lib. 40. c. 19. l. 41. c. 6, 12. ILIENSIUM PAGUS. See ILIUM, N° 3. ILINSKOI, four towns of Ruffia, in the gov. of Novogorod, Olonfk, Tobolfk, and Tuer. (1.) ILLON, or ILIOS. See ILIUM, N° 2. (2.) ILION, a town of Afia, in Thibet. ILISSIADES, a title of the Mufes; from ILISSUS, a river running to the E. of Athens; which, with the Eridanus running on the W. fide, falls below the city into the fea. It was facred to the Mufes, and their altar flood on its bank, where the luftration in the leffer myfteries was ufually performed.
"ILITHYIA, a title of Juno and DIANA,
ILIVE, an English printer and letter founder, who published fome fingular tracts; particularly a pretended translation of the book of JASHER; and an oration, proving that this world is Hell, and that the fouls of men are fallen angels. He died at London in 1763.
(1.) ILIUM, in anatomy. See ANATOMY, N° 290.
(2.) ILIUM, ILION, or ILIOS, in ancient geogra phy, a name of Troy, but moft commonly used by the poets, and diftinguished by the epithet Ve tus; at a greater diftance from the fea than that afterwards called Ilium Novum. See N° 3. (3.) ILIUM