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time. For other methods of preparing and preserving this useful substance, see YEAST.
In the analysis of this substance, M. Westrum has discovered no less than twelve ingredients, viz. carbonic, acetic, saclactic, and Bic acids, alcohol, extract, mucilage, sugar, gluten, water, lime, and potash, with some traces of phosphoric acid and silex. There is reason, however, to suppose that gluten and any vegetable acid are alone sufficient to produce the intended fermentation; and Mr. Henry has proved that carbonic acid is capable of answering in many cases the purposes of barm. Thomson's Chemistry, iv. 450.
A very interesting property of barm has been recently discovered, namely its efficacy in the sure of putrid fevers and ulcerated sore throats. We shall close the present article with an account of experiments on the generation of yeast, made under the inspection of the Committee of Chemistry, in the month of November 1789.
"Four quarts of ground malt were put into a new stone-ware vessel, and mashed with about an equal quantity of hot water in the usnal manner for brewing. When the mash had stood about an hour, the wort was drawn off, and three quarts of boiling water poured on the grains: when this had stood a due time, the liquor was suffered to run off, and the whole liquor boiled half an hour; being then set to cool, it was poured clear from the sediment, and then put in a room where the heat was regularly kept up to summer heat, or near 800 of Fahrenheit's thermometer. It stood in this degree of heat till some signs of fermentation appeared on the surface; which came on in about three days.
"Another brewing was then made as above described; and, when of a due heat, stirred into the former liquor. In about twenty-four hours some yeast appeared, and another brewing was then made; and, when of a due heat, mixed with the two former ones, and well beat in, the heat being still kept up to the degree above mentioned: in about two days more, five ounces of excellent yeast were collected from the surface of the liquor.
"Some of this yeast being mixed with a due proportion of flour, water, and salt, answered ail the purposes intended for bread; and might rertainly have been equally well applied to brewing, in the conimon method. In fine, being pure and good yeast, it will answer all the intentions of that useful ingredient." See the articles BAKING and BREAD.
BARMAS, an East Indian people, who, in 1515, possessed all the coast extending from Bengal to Pegu. It appears also, that they were forgerly masters of Ava, the dominions of which extended as far as China; and of consequence the Barmas were masters of most of the northern part of the peninsula beyond the Ganges. Their dominions, however, were afterwards reduced to very narrow bounds, and their king became tributary to him of Pegu; but by degrees they not only recovered their former empire, but conquered
the kingdoms of Pegu, Siam, and several others. By the latest accounts, their kingdom extends from the province of Yun-nan in China, about 800 miles in length from north to south, and 250 in breadth from east to
BARMOUTH, in geography, a small watering-place in the parish of Llanabar, Merionethshire. Bingley gives an interesting description of it in his Tour round North Wales.
BARMY. a. (from barm.) Containing barm; yesty (Dryden).
BARN. s. (benn, Saxon.) In husbandry, a covered building or place, with vent-holes in the sides, for laying up any kind of grain, hay, or straw.
This kind of store-house being so well known to all rural economists, no farther description will be necessary: but as several plans have been proposed for its improvement, we shall give an account of those which appear the most worthy of notice.
In the sixteenth volume of Mr. Arthur Young's Annals of Agriculture we find the following description of a barn, &c. communicated to the editor by the Rev. Roger Kedington, of Rougham, near Bury St. Ed. mund's: Let the underpinning be of brick or stone, two feet high above ground, and let the sides be boarded: the roof of the barn will be best covered with reed or straw, and those of the stables with slate, or glazed tile; because they must be more flat, and the water which runs from the roof of the barn would injure most other coverings. At each end of the barn, and over the back-door, small doors, four feet square, should be fixed, at the height of twelve feet from the ground; the two former for putting corn in at the ends, and the latter for filling the middle of the barn, after the bays are full. All the bays should have a floor-of clay or marl, and the threshing-floor be made with hard bricks, which will be sufficient for all sorts of grain, except wheat and rye; and for threshing them, it will be good economy to have planks of oak or red deal, well fitted together and numbered, to be laid down occasionally, and confined by a frame at their ends. A barn built on such a plan would hold a great deal of corn, and be filled most conveniently: and if stacks of corn were built at each end, they might be taken in without any carting. If more buildings are requisite, two may be added on the backside, like the stables in front: otherwise, if doors are made under the eaves on the backside, as directed at the ends, and stacks be placed opposite to them (just far enough to avoid the eaves dropping), by placing a waggon between them and the barn by way of a stage, those stacks nay be taken in without carting; which method prevents a great waste of corn, and much trouble. The spars of the roofs of the stables rest upon the upper sills of the sides of the barn, and the outside wall of the stable is eight feet high: the barn supplying the highest side, and one end of each stable, and the stables in return
are buttresses to the barn, and strengthen it greatly."
This building is of the following dimensions: the length of the barn inside is 68 feet; its width 22, 1; the height of the sides 17 feet; of the front doors 15 feet; of the back doors 8 feet and 6 inches; the stable at each side, in length 26 feet 6 inches, in width 14 feet; the door 4 feet; the threshing-floor has in front an entrance of 11 feet; behind, of 9 feet 6 inches; and the width of the porch is 14 feet. The whole expence of erecting this fabric, in the year 1791, was stated to be nearly three hundred pounds.
Mr. Arthur Young has, in the same volume, inserted a plan for a barn, and other buildings necessary for cattle. The dimensions of this structure were given in consequence of a request made by the late general Washington to the author, that he would send him a sketch of a good barn, and the necessary out buildings, proportioned to a farm of five hundred acres. The threshing-floor is large enough for three men to work on, who, in the course of a winter, can thresh the corn produced on such a farm.
The inner width of the barn is 27 feet square, on each side of the threshing floor. The porch 11 feet 4 inches, by 12 feet 3 inches. Threshing-floor 39 feet by 20, on its upper end, and 124 feet at the small door of the porch, which is 64 feet in width. The great door at which the carts enter with corn, 14 feet 9 inches. The sheds for cattle, on the four longitudinal sides of the bays, are 27 feet by 12. Mangers, 2 feet broad, out of which the cattle eat their food. The passages for carrying the straw from the threshing-floor to feed the cattle, are between two and three feet wide. Each passage has a door; there are four principal posts to each shed, besides the smaller ones, and gutters for conveying the urine to four cisterns, from which it is every day thrown upon dunghills, placed at a convenient distance. From the mangers to the gutters there is a pavement of bricks upon a slope, laid in such a manner as to terminate 6 inches perpendicular above the gutters; which pavement is 6 feet broad from that edge to the manger. The gutters are from 18 to 20 inches broad. There are four sheds for various uses, one at each corner of the threshing-floor. At each end of the barn there are two yards with a shed, to be applied to any purpose wanted: one for sheep, surrounded with low racks, and the other divided for a horse, or two, loose, if necessary: the other half is for yearling calves, which thrive better in a farm-yard than when stalled. These yards are inclosed by walling, or pales. The main body of the barn rises 14, 16, or 20 feet to the eaves. There are various sheds placed against the walling, as this is the cheapest way of sheltering cattle that has yet been discovered.-Should the number of cattle intended to be kept be greater than here admitted, a circular may be erected fronting the small door of h, and the hay-stacks be conveniently
disposed near those sheds appropriated for cows, horses, or fat cattle. Corn-stacks must be built on the opposite side of the barn.
BARN-FLOORS, of the best kind, are to be found, according to Mr. Marshall, in the district of Cotswold, Gloucestershire; especially those of stone, and a species of earthen floor made there of the calcareous earth of the subsoil, a kind of ordinary gravel, and the chippings of freestone.
The barn-floors generally used in most parts of the kingdom consume a quantity of large and valuable oak-timber, often such as might be converted into two and a half inch shiptimber; they last only from fifteen to twenty years, and require frequent repairs. Hollow beech-floors, which were introduced a few years since, on account of the very high price of oak-timber, are found not to wear more than seven or eight years. We think it necessary, therefore, to give a description of a moveable barn-floor invented by Mr. John Upton, of Petworth, Sussex, for which he received a reward of thirty guineas from the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. in the year 1796.
This floor effectually prevents a waste of corn in threshing; it gives an addition of at least one foot in height at the doors, by which means a higher load of corn can be admitted; and also, as the horses do not draw the waggon up an ascent, and upon a slippery floor; but upon a hard bottom, and level with the farmyard, two horses can perform the work, where four are now generally used. It affords a warm and convenient shelter for hogs, when it is down; and, when turned up, it may be used as a stable, ox-stall, hovel, or cart-house; two men can place or displace it in five minutes: and, from its allowing, at all times, an easy access to dogs and cats under it, it affords no harbour for vermin.
"The following are statements of the materials used, and the expence of the barn-floors, respectively.
Barn-floors now in common use:-The original floor laid on the ground, with three cills, and two-inch oak-plank, which in general lasts from fifteen to twenty years, cost 19. 10s.-The hollow-floors on brick quoins, with two and a half inch oak-plank, cost 317. 10s.
"John Upton's baru-floor.-The newconstructed hollow-floor is composed of oakplank, five feet eight inches in length, and one inch and a half thick; whereas threefourths of the plank used in the original floors are fourteen feet in length:-the whole expence 237. 10s.
"The plank for the last-mentioned floor may consist of deal, beech, or elin; as they will be perfectly free from decay by damps, which will considerably lessen the expence of the new-construeted floor: these are the estimates when the materials are supplied by a carpenter. When they are furnished from the estate, a very considerable advantage arises to the landlord, as the new-constructed floor is composed of small scantlings, which may be
obtained from short timber, much inferior in value to those used for the other floors.
"Where there are more than one barn in a farm-yard, this floor may be farther useful, as it may be removed from one barn to another, and save the expence of at least one out of three. "It is supposed, that a floor constructed in this manner will last for one hundred years, or indeed as long as the barn; because it is perfeetly free from damps, on account of the distance at which it lies above the ground, with a free current of air passing under it when down; and when it is turned up (which it probably will be at least half the year), it will be as free from decay as the posts or beams of
was, probably, a forgery of some nominal Christians; and afterwards altered and interpolated by the Mahometans, the better to accord with their designs.
BARNABITES, a religious order, founded in the 16th century by three Italian gentlemen, who had been advised by a famous preacher of those days to read carefully the epistles of St. Paul. Hence they were called clerks of St. Paul, and Barnabites, because they performed their first exercise in a church of St. Barnabas at Milan.
BA'RNACLE. s. (beann, Saxon, a child, and aac, an oak.) 1. A kind of shellfish that grows upon timber that lies in the sea. 2. A bird like a goose, fabulously supposed to grow on trees. See ANATIFERA and ANAS ERYTHROPUS.
them pinchers; but they differ from pinchers, as the latter have handles, to hold by; whereas the barnacles are fastened to the nose with a lace or cord. There is another sort of barnacles, used when in want of the former, called roller-barnacles, or wood-twitchers, which are only two rollers of wood bound together, with the horse's nose between them. See the article MAURAILLE.
BARN-OWL. See STRIX and FLAMMEA. BARNABAS'S DAY (St.), a Christian festival, celebrated on the 11th of June. St. BARNACLES, called also HORSEBarnabas was born at Cyprus, and descended TWITCHERS, OF BRAKES; instruments usuof the tribe of Levi, whose Jewish ancestors ally put upon the upper lip of a horse, to are thought to have retired thither to secure make him stand quiet, in order to be shoed, themselves from violence during the trouble-blooded, or dressed for any sore. Some call some times in Judea. His proper name was Joses; to which, after his conversion to Christianity, the apostles added that of Barnabas, signifying either the son of prophecy, or the son of consolation; the first respecting his eminent prophetic gifts, the other his great charity in selling his estate for the comfort and relief of the poor Christians. He was educated at Jerusalem, under the great Jewish doctor Gamaliel; which might probably lay the foundation of that intimate friendship which was afterwards contracted between this apostle and St. Paul. The time of his conversion is uncertain; but he is generally esteemed one of the seventy disciples chosen by our Saviour himself. At Antioch, St. Paul and St. Barnabas had a contest, which ended in their separation: but what followed it with respect to St. Barnabas is not related in the Acts of the Apostles. Some say, he went into Italy, and founded a church at Milan. At Salamis, we are told, he suffered martyrdom; whither some Jews, being come out of Syria, set upon hit, as he was disputing in the synagogue, and stoned him to death. He was buried, by his kinsman Mark, whom he had taken with him, in a cave near that city.
BARNABAS'S EPISTLE (St.), an apocryphal work ascribed to St. Barnabas, and frequently cited by St. Clement of Alexandria and Origen. It was first published in Greek, from a copy of father Hugh Menard, a Benedictine monk. An ancient version of it was found in a manuscript of the abbey of Coebey, near a thousand years old. Vossius published it, in the year 1656, together with the epistles of St. Ignatius.
BARNABAS'S GOSPEL (St.), another apocryphal work, ascribed to St. Barnabas the apostle, wherein the history of Jesus Christ is related in a manner very different from the account given us by the four Evangelists. The Mahometans have this gospel in Arabic, and it corresponds very well with those traditions which Mahomet followed in his Koran. It
BARNADEʼSIA. In botany, a genus of the class syngenesia, order polygamia æqualis. Receptacle villous; down of the disk bristly, of the ray feathery; corol radiate; calyx imbricate, a little tumescent. The only known species, a. spinosa, is a native shrub of South America, with glabrous, spinous branchlets; leaves simple, ovate, very entire, a little hairy; flowers panicled, terminate.
or BERNARD'S CASTLE, a town of Durham, with a market on Wednesdays. Lat. 54. 35 N. Lon 1. 49 W.
BARNARDO ISLANDS, five islands on the north coast of South America, laid down in modern charts off the north point of the entrance into Morosquillo bay.
BARNES (Joshua), professor of the Greek language at Cambridge in the beginning of the 18th century. He was chosen queen's professor of Greek in 1695, a language he wrote and spoke with the utmost facility. His first publication was a whimsical tract, entitled, Gerania, or a new Discovery of the little Sort of People called Pygmies. After that appeared his Life of Edward III. in which he introduces his hero making long and elaborate speeches. In the year 1700, when he published many of his works, Mrs. Mason, of Hemmingford in Huntingdonshire, a widow lady of between 40 and 50, with a jointure of 2001. per annum, who had been for some time a great admirer of him, came to Cambridge, and desired leave to settle 1007. a year upon him after her death; which he politely refused, unless she would likewise condescend to make
han happy with her person, which was not very engaging. The lady was too obliging to refuse any thing to Joshua, for whom, she said, the sun stood still;" and they were accordingly married. Mr. Barnes wrote several other books besides those above mentioned, particularly, Sacred Poems; the Life of Oliver Cromwell, the Tyrant; several dramatic pieces; a poetical Paraphrase on the History of Esther, in Greek verse, with a Latin translation, &c.: and he published editions of Euripides, Anacreon, and Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, with notes, and a Latin translation. He wrote with greater ease in Greek than even in English, and yet is generally allowed not to have understood the delicacies of that language. He was of such a humane disposition, and so unacquainted with the world, that he gave his only coat to a vagrant begging at his door. This excellent man died on the 3d of August, 1712, in the fifty-eighth year of his
BARNSLEY, a town in the W. Riding of Yorkshire, having a market on Wednesdays. Here are flourishing manufactories of iron and steel work. It is 174 miles N. W. of London. Lat. 53. 35 N. Lon. 1. 28 W.
BARNSTAPLE, a sea-port town of Devonshire, with a market on Fridays, for cattle, corn, and provisions. It has sent burgesses to parliament ever since the 23d of Edward I. and is 191 miles W. of London. Lat. 51. 8 N. Lon. 4. 5 W.
BAROCHE, a town of Cambaya, in Mogulstan, Asia. It is inhabited by weavers and other manufacturers of cotton-cloth. The basias (a long fine sort of cotton stuffs so call ed) of this place, are famous all over India, the best cotton being produced in its neighbourhood. Lat. 22. 10 N. Lon. 72. 25 E.
BAROCO, in logic, denotes the fourth mode of the second figure of syllogisms. A syllogism in baroco has the first proposition universal and affirmative, but the second and third particular and negative; and the middle term, the attribute in the two first.
BAROMETER, an instrument for measuring the weight or pressure of the atinosphere; and by that means the variations in the state of the air, foretelling the changes in the weather, and measuring heights or depths, &c.
This instrument is founded on what is called the Torricellian experiment, related below, and commonly consists of a glass tube, open at one end; which being first filled with quicksilver, and then inverted with the open end downwards into a bason of the same, the mercury descends in the tube till it remains at about the height of 29 or 30 inches, according he weight or pressure of the atmosphere at , which is just equal to the weight of
that column of the quicksilver. Hence it follows that, if by any means the pressure of the air be altered, it will be indicated by the rising or falling of the mercury in the tube; or if the barometer be carried to a higher station, the quicksilver will descend lower in the tube, but when carried to a lower place, it will rise higher in the tube, according to the difference in elevation between the two places.
History of the Barometer.-About the beginning of the last century, when the doctrine of a plenum was in vogue, it was a common opinion among philosophers, that the ascent of water in pumps was owing to what they called nature's abhorrence of a vacuum, and that thus fluids might be raised by suction to any height whatever. But an accident having just discovered, that water could not be raised in a pump unless the sucker reached to within 33 feet of the water in the well, it was conjectured by Galileo, who flourished about that time, that there might be some other cause of the ascent of water in pumps, or at least that this abhorrence was limited to the finite height of 33 feet. Being unable to satisfy himself on this head, he recommended the consideration of the difficulty to Toricelli, who had been his disciple. After some time Toricelli fell upon the suspicion that the pressure of the atmosphere was the cause of the ascent of water in pumps; that a column of water 33 feet high was a just counterpoise to a column of air, of the same base, and which extended up to the top of the atmosphere; and that this was the true reason why the water did not follow the sucker any farther. And this suspicion was soon after confirmed by various experiments. Torricelli considered, that if a column of water 33 feet high were a counterpoise to a whole column of the atmosphere, then a column of mercury of about 2 feet and a half high would also be a counterpoise to it, since quicksilver is near 14 times heavier than water, and so the 14th part of the height, or near 2 feet and a half, would be as heavy as the column of water. This reasoning was soon verified; for having filled a glass tube with quicksilver, and inverted it into a bason of the same, the mercury presently descended till its height, above that in the bason, was about two feet and a half, just as he expected. And this is what has, from him, been called the Torricellian experiment.
The new opinion, with this confirmation of it, was readily acquiesced in by most of the philosophers, who repeated the experiment in various ways. Others however still adhered to the old doctrine, and raised several pretended objections against the new one, which were soon overcome by additional confirmations of the true doctrine, particularly by varying the elevation of the place. It was hinted by Descartes and Pascal, that if the mercury be sustained in the tube by the pressure of the atmo sphere, by carrying it to a higher situation, it would descend lower in the tube, having a shorter column of the atmosphere to sustain it, and vice versa. And Pascal engaged his bro