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into a woody country about three leagues, and taking possession of an old ruined castle, posted their army behind it.

This old castle they fortified, and placed a very strong guard there. The king having viewed the place, though it was a very strong post, resolved to attack it with the whole right wing. The attack was made with a great deal of order and resolution, the king leading the first party on with sword in hand, and the fight was maintained on both sides with the utmost gallantry and obstinacy, all the day, and the next night too; for the cannon and musket never gave over till the morning. But the imperialists having the advantage of the hill, of their works and batteries, and being continually relieved, and the Swedes naked, without cannon or works, the post was maintained; and the king finding it would cost him too much blood, drew off in the morning.

This was the famous fight at Attembergh, where the imperialists boasted to have shown the world the King of Sweden was not invincible. They call it the victory at Attembergh; 'tis true, the king failed in his attempt of carrying their works, but there was so little of a victory in it, that the imperial general thought fit not to venture a second brush, but to draw off their army, as soon as they could, to a safer quarter.

I had no share in this attack, very few of the horse being in the action; but my comrade who was always among the Scots volunteers, was wounded and taken prisoner by the enemy. They used him very civilly, and the king and Wallestein straining courtesies with one another, the king released Major-general Sparr without ransom, and the imperial general sent home Colonel Tortenson, a Swede, and sixteen volunteer gentlemen, who were taken in the heat of the action, among whom my captain was one.

The king lay fourteen days facing the imperial army, and using all the stratagems possible to bring them to a battle, but to no purpose; during which time we had parties continually out, and very often skirmishes with the enemy.

I had a command of one of these parties in an adventure, wherein I got no booty, nor much honour. The king had received advice of a convoy of provisions which was to come to the enemy's camp from the Upper Palatinate, and having a great mind to surprise them, he commanded us to waylay them with twelve hundred horse, and eight hundred dragoons.

I had exact directions given me of the way they were to come, and posting my horse in a village a little out of the road, I lay with my dragoons in a wood, by which they were to pass by break of day. The enemy appeared with their convoy, and being very wary, their outscouts discovered us in the wood, and fired upon the centinel I had posted in a tree at the entrance of the wood. Finding myself discovered, I would have retreated to the village where my horse were posted, but in a moment the wood was skirted with the enemy's horse, and a thousand musketeers advanced to beat me out. In this pickle I sent away three messengers, one after the other, for the horse, who were within two miles of me, to advance to my relief; but all my messengers fell into the enemy's hands. Four hundred of my dragoons on foot, whom I had placed at a little distance before me, stood to their work, and beat off two charges of the enemy's foot, with some loss on both sides; mean time, two hundred of my men faced about, and rushing out of the wood, broke through a party of the enemy's horse, who stood to watch our coming out. I confess I was exceedingly surprised at it, thinking those fellows had done it to make their escape, or else were gone over to the enemy; and my men were so discouraged at it, that they began to look about which way to run to save themselves, and were just upon the point of disbanding to shift for themselves, when one of the captains called to me aloud to beat a parley and treat. I made no answer, but, as if I had not heard him, immediately gave the word for all the captains to come together. The consultation was but short, for the musketeers were advancing to a third charge, with numbers which we were not likely to deal with. In short, we resolved to beat a parley, and demand quarter, for that was all we could expect; when on a sudden the body of horse I had posted in the village, being directed by the noise, had advanced to relieve me, if they saw occasion, and had met the two hundred dragoons, who guided them directly to the spot where they had broke through, and altogether fell upon the horse of the enemy who were posted on that side, and mastering them before they could be relieved, cut them all to pieces, and brought me off. Under the shelter of this party, we made good our retreat to the village, but we lost above three hundred men, and were glad to make off from the village too, for the enemy were very much too strong for us.



Returning thence towards the camp, we fell foul with two hundred Crabats, who had been upon the plundering account. We made ourselves some amends upon them for our former loss, for we showed them no mercy; but our misfortunes were not ended, for we had but just despatched those Crabats, when we fell in with three thousand imperial horse, who, on the expectation of the aforesaid convoy, were sent out to secure them.

All I could do, I could not persuade my men to stand their ground against this party; so that, finding they would run away in confusion, I agreed to make off, and facing to the right, we went over a large common at full trot, till at last fear, which always increases in a flight, brought us to a plain flight, the enemy at our heels. I must confess I was never so mortified in my life; it was to no purpose to turn head, no man would stand by us, we run for life, and a great many we left by the way, who were either wounded by the enemy's shot, or else could not keep race with us.

At last, having got over the common, which was near two miles, we came to a lane. One of our captains, a Saxon by country, and a gentleman of a good fortune, alighted at the entrance of the lane, and with a bold heart faced about, shot his own horse, and called his men to stand by him and defend the lane. Some of his men halted. and we rallied about six hundred men, which we posted as well as we could, to defend the pass; but the enemy charged us with great fury.

The Saxon gentleman, after defending himself with exceeding gallantry, and refusing quarter, was killed upon the spot. A German dragoon, as I thought him, gave me a rude blow with the stock of his piece on the side of my head, and was just going to repeat it, when one of my men shot him dead. I was so stunned with the blow, that I knew nothing; but recovering, I found myself in the hands of two of the enemy's officers, who offered me quarter, which I accepted; and indeed, to give them their due, they used me very civilly. Thus this whole party was defeated, and not above five hundred men got safe to the army, nor had half the number escaped, had not the Saxon captain made so bold a stand at the head of the lane.

Several other parties of the king's army revenged the quarrel, and paid them home for it; but I had a particular loss in this defeat, that I never saw the king after; for though

his majesty sent a trumpet to reclaim us as prisoners the very next day, yet I was not delivered, some scruple happening about exchanging, till after the battle of Lutzen, where that gallant prince lost his life.

The imperial army rose from their camp about eight or ten days after the king had removed, and I was carried prisoner in the army till they sat down to the siege of Coburgh Castle, and then was left with other prisoners of war, in the custody of Colonel Spezuter, in a small castle near the camp called Newstad. Here we continued indifferent well treated, but could learn nothing of what action the armies were upon, till the Duke of Friedland, having been beaten off from the castle of Coburgh, marched into Saxony, and the prisoners were sent for into the camp, as was said, in order to be exchanged.

I came into the imperial leaguer at the siege of Leipsic, and within three days after my coming, the city was surrendered, and I got liberty to lodge at my old quarters in the town upon my parole.

The King of Sweden was at the heels of the imperialists; for finding Wallestein resolved to ruin the elector of Saxony, the king had re-collected as much of his divided army as he could, and came upon him just as he was going to besiege Torgau.

As it is not my design to write a history of any more of these wars than I was actually concerned in, so I shall only note, that, upon the king's approach, Wallestein halted, and likewise called all his troops together, for he apprehended the king would fall on him; and we that were prisoners fancied the imperial soldiers went unwillingly out, for the very name of the King of Sweden was become terrible to them. In short, they drew all the soldiers of the garrison they could spare out of Leipsic, and sent for Papenheim again, who was gone but three days before, with six thousand men, on a private expedition. On the 16th of November, the armies met on the plains of Lutzen; a long and bloody battle was fought, the imperialists were entirely routed and beaten, twelve thousand slain upon the spot, their cannon, baggage, and two thousand prisoners taken, but the King of Sweden lost his life, being killed at the head of his troops in the beginning of the fight.






It is impossible to describe the consternation the death of this conquering king struck into all the princes of Germany; the grief for him exceeded all manner of human sorrow. people looked upon themselves as ruined and swallowed up; the inhabitants of two-thirds of all Germany put themselves into mourning for him; when the ministers mentioned him in their sermons or prayers, whole congregations would burst out into tears. The elector of Saxony was utterly inconsolable, and would for several days walk about his palace like a distracted man, crying the saviour of Germany was lost, the refuge of abused princes was gone, the soul of the war was dead; and from that hour was so hopeless of outliving the war, that he sought to make peace with the emperor.

Three days after this mournful victory, the Saxons recovered the town of Leipsic by stratagem.

The Duke of Saxony's forces lay at Torgau, and perceiving the confusion the imperialists were in at the news of the overthrow of their army, they resolved to attempt the recovery of the town. They sent about twenty scattering troopers, who, pretending themselves to be imperialists fled from the battle, were let in one by one, and still, as they came in, they stayed at the court of guard in the port, entertaining the soldiers with discourse about the fight, and how they escaped, and the like; till the whole number being got in, at a watchword, they fell on the guard, and cut them all to pieces; and immediately opening the gates to three troops of Saxon horse, the town was taken in a moment.

It was a welcome surprise to me, for I was at liberty of

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