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with the King of Swedeland, and the Duke of Brandenburgh having made some difficulty of joining, they both stood on some niceties till they had like to have ruined themselves all at once.

Brandenburgh had given up the town of Spandau to the king by a former treaty to secure a retreat for his army, and the king was advanced as far as Frankfort upon the Oder, when on a sudden some small difficulties arising, Brandenburgh seems cold in the matter, and with a sort of indifference demands to have his town of Spandau restored to him again. Gustavus Adolphus, who began presently to imagine the duke had made his peace with the emperor, and so would either be his enemy, or pretend a neutrality, generously delivered him his town of Spandau; but immediately turns about, and with his whole army besieges him in his capital city of Berlin. This brought the duke to know his error, and by the interpositions of the ladies, the Queen of Sweden being the duke's sister, the matter was accommodated, and the duke joined his forces with the king.

But the Duke of Saxony had like to have been undone by this delay; for the imperialists, under Count de Furstemburgh, were entered his country, and had possessed themselves of Halle, and Tilly was on his march to join him, as he afterwards did, and, ravaging the whole country, laid siege to Leipsic itself; the duke, driven to this extremity, rather flies to the Swede than treats with him, and on the second of September the duke's army joined with the King of Sweden.

I had not come to Leipsic but to see the Duke of Saxony's army, and that being marched as I have said for Torgau, I had no business there; but if I had, the approach of Tilly and the imperial army was enough to hasten me away, for I had no occasion to be besieged there; so on the 27th of August I left the town, as several of the principal inhabitants had done before, and more would have done had not the governor published a proclamation against it; and besides they knew not whither to fly, for all places were alike exposed. The poor people were under dreadful apprehensions of a siege, and of the merciless usage of the imperial soldiers, the example of Magdeburgh being fresh before them, the duke and his army gone from them, and the town, though well furnished, but indifferently fortified.

In this condition I left them, buying up stores of provisions, working hard to scour their moats, set up palisadoes, repair their fortifications, and preparing all things for a siege; and following the Saxon army to Torgau, I continued in the camp till a few days before they joined the King of Sweden. I had much ado to persuade my companion from entering into the service of the Duke of Saxony, one of whose colonels, with whom we had contracted a particular acquaintance, offering him a commission to be cornet in one of the old regiments of horse; but the difference I had observed between this new army and Tilly's old troops had made such an impression on me, that I confess I had yet no manner of inclination for the service; and therefore persuaded him to wait a while till we had seen a little farther into affairs, and particularly till we had seen the Swedish army, which we had heard so much of.

The difficulties which the elector Duke of Saxony made of joining with the king were made up by a treaty concluded with the king, on the 2nd of September, at Coswick, a small town on the Elbe, whither the king's army was arrived the night before; for General Tilly being now entered into the duke's country, had plundered and ruined all the lower part of it, and was now actually besieging the capital city of Leipsic. These necessities made almost any conditions easy to him; the greatest difficulty was that the King of Sweden demanded the absolute command of the army, which the duke submitted to with less good will than he had reason to do, the king's experience and conduct considered.



I HAD not patience to attend the conclusions of their particular treaties, but as soon as ever the passage was clear I



quitted the Saxon camp, and went to see the Swedish army. I fell in with the out-guards of the Swedes at a little town called Beltsig, on the river Wersa, just as they were relieving the guards, and going to march; and, having a pass from the English ambassador, was very well received by the officer who changed the guards, and with him I went back into the army. By nine in the morning the army was in full march, the king himself at the head of them on a grey pad, and, riding from one brigade to another, ordered the march of every line himself.

When I saw the Swedish troops, their exact discipline, their order, the modesty and familiarity of their officers, and the regular living of the soldiers, their camp seemed a well ordered city; the meanest countrywoman with her marketware was as safe from violence as in the streets of Vienna. There were no regiments of whores and rags as followed the imperialists; nor any woman in the camp, but such as being known to the provosts to be the wives of the soldiers, who were necessary for washing linen, taking care of the soldiers' clothes, and dressing their victuals.

The soldiers were well clad, not gay, furnished with excellent arms, and exceeding careful of them; and though they did not seem so terrible as I thought Tilly's men did when I first saw them, yet the figure they made, together with what we had heard of them, made them seem to me invincible. The discipline and order of their marchings, camping, and exercise was excellent and singular, and which was to be seen in no armies but the king's, his own skill, judgment, and vigilance, having added much to the general conduct of armies then in use.

As I met the Swedes on their march I had no opportunity to acquaint myself with anybody, till after the conjunction of the Saxon army, and then it being but four days to the great battle of Leipsic, our acquaintance was but small, saving what fell out accidently by conversation.

I met with several gentlemen in the king's army who spoke English very well, besides that there were three regiments of Scots in the army; the colonels whereof I found were extraordinarily esteemed by the king; as the Lord Rea, Colonel Lumsdell, and Sir John Hepburn. The latter of these, after I had by an accident become acquainted with, I found had been for many years acquainted with my

father, and on that account I received a great deal of civility from him, which afterwards grew into a kind of intimate friendship. He was a complete soldier indeed, and for that reason so well-beloved by that gallant king, that he hardly knew how to go about any great action without him.

I was

It was impossible for me now to restrain my young comrade from entering into the Swedish service, and indeed everything was so inviting that I could not blame him. A captain in Sir John Hepburn's regiment had picked acquaintance with him, and he having as much gallantry in his face as real courage in his heart, the captain had persuaded him to take service, and promised to use his interest to get him a company in the Scotch brigade, I had made him promise me not to part from me in my travels without my consent, which was the only obstacle to his desires of entering into the Swedish pay; and being one evening in the captain's tent with him, and discoursing very freely together, the captain asked him very short, but friendly, and looking earnestly at me, Is this the gentleman, Mr. Fielding, that has done so much prejudice to the king of Sweden's service? doubly surprised at the expression, and at the colonel, Sir John Hepburn, coming at that very moment into the tent; the colonel hearing something of the question, but knowing nothing of the reason of it, any more than as I seemed a little to concern myself at it; yet after the ceremony due to his character was over, would needs know what I had done to hinder his majesty's service. So much truly, says the captain, that if his majesty knew it, he would think himself very little beholden to him. I am sorry, sir, said I, that I should offend in anything, who am but a stranger; but if you would please to inform me, I would endeavour to alter anything in my behaviour that is prejudicial to any one, much less to his majesty's service. I shall take you at your word, sir, says the captain; the king of Sweden, sir, has a particular request to you. I should be glad to know_two things, sir, said I; first, how that can be possible, since I am not yet known to any man in the army, much less to his majesty and secondly, what the request can be? Why, sir, his majesty desires you would not hinder this gentleman from entering into his service, who it seems desires nothing more, if he may have your consent to it. I have too much honour for his majesty, returned I, to deny anything which



he pleases to command me; but methinks it is some hardship, you should make that the king's order, which it is very probable he knows nothing of. Sir John Hepburn took the case up something gravely, and drinking a glass of Leipsic beer to the captain, said, Come, captain, don't press these gentlemen; the king desires no man's service but what is purely volunteer. So we entered into other discourse, and the colonel perceiving by my talk that I had seen Tilly's army, was mighty curious in his questions, and seeming very well satisfied with the account 1 gave him.

The next day the army having passed the Elbe at Wittemberg, and joined the Saxon army near Torgau, his majesty caused both armies to draw up in battalia, giving every brigade the same post in the lines as he purposed to fight in. I must do the memory of that glorious general this honour, that I never saw an army drawn up with so much variety, order, and exact regularity since, though I have seen many armies drawn up by some of the greatest captains of the age. The order by which his men were directed to flank. and relieve one another, the methods of receiving one body of men if disordered into another, and rallying one squadron without disordering another, was so admirable; the horse everywhere flanked, lined, and defended by the foot, and the foot by the horse, and both by the cannon, was such, that if those orders were but as punctually obeyed, it were impossible to put an army so modelled into any confusion.

The view being over, and the troops returned to their camps, the captain with whom we drank the day before meeting me, told me I must come and sup with him in his tent, where he would ask my pardon for the affront he gave me before. I told him he needed not put himself to the trouble; I was not affronted at all, that I would do myself the honour to wait on him, provided he would give me his word not to speak any more of it as an affront.

We had not been a quarter of an hour in his tent but Sir John Hepburn came in again, and addressing to me, told me he was glad to find me there; that he came to the captain's tent to inquire how to send to me; and that I must do him the honour to go with him to wait on the king, who had a mind to hear the account I could give him of the imperial army from my own mouth. I confess I was at some loss in my mind how to make my address to his majesty; but I had

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