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cellent contrivance for improving speech, as without it speech would be wofully imperfect. Brute animals may have some obscure notion of these circumstances, as connected with particular objects: an ox probably perceives that he takes longer time to go round a long ridge in the plough, than a short one: and he probably perceives when he is one of four in the yoke, or only of two. But the power of abstraction is not bestowed on brute animals; because to them it would be altogether useless, as they are incapable of speech. 40. This power of abstraction is of great utility. A carpenter considers a log of wood with regard to hardness, firmness, colour, and texture; a philosopher, neglecting these properties, makes the log undergo a chemical analysis; and examines its taste, its smell, and its component principles: the geometrician confines his reasoning to the figure, the length, breadth, and thickness. In general, every artist, abstracting from all other properties, confines his observations to those which have a more immediate connexion with his profession.

41. It is observed above, p. 452, that there can be no such thing as a general idea; that all other perceptions are of particular objects, and that our secondary perceptions or ideas must be equall so. Precisely, for the same reason, there can be no such thing as an abstract idea. We cannot form an idea of a part without taking in the whole; nor of motion, colour, figure, independent of a body. No man will say that he can form any idea of beauty, till he think of a person endued with that quality; nor that he can form an idea of weight till he takes under consideration a body that is weighty. And when he takes under consideration a body endued with one or other of the properties mentioned, the idea he forms is not an abstract or general idea, but the idea of a particular body with its properties. But though a part and the whole, a subject and its attributes, an effect and its cause, are so intimately connected, as that an idea cannot be formed of the one independent of the other, yet we can reason upon the one abstracting from the other.

This is done by words signifying the thing to which the reasoning is confined; and such words are denominated abstract terms. meaning and use of an abstract term is well understood, though of The itself, unless other particulars be taken in, it raises no image nor idea in the mind. In language it serves an excellent purpose; by it different figures, different colours, can be compared, without the trouble of conceiving them as belonging to any particular subject; and they contribute, with words significant, to raise images or ideas in the mind.

42. The power of abstraction is bestowed on man for the purpose solely of reasoning. It tends greatly to the facility as well as clear. ness of any process of reasoning, that, laying aside every other circumstance, we can confine our attention to the single property we desire to investigate.

43. Abstract terms may be separated into three different kinds, all equally subservient to the reasoning faculty. Individuals appear to have no end; and did we not possess the faculty of distributing them into classes, the mind would be lost in an endless maze, and



no progress be made in knowledge. It is by the faculty of abstrac tion that we distribute beings into genera and species; finding a number of individuals connected by certain qualities common to all, we give a name to these individuals considered as thus connected, which name, by gathering them together into one class, serves to express the whole of these individuals as distinct from others. Thus the word animal serves to denote every being that can move voluntarily; and the words man, horse, lion, &c. answer similar purposes. This is the first and most common sort of abstraction; and it is of the most extensive use, by enabling us to comprehend in our reasoning whole kinds and sorts, instead of individuals without end. The next sort of abstract terms comprehends a number of individual objects, considered as connected by some occasional relation. A great number of persons collected in one place, without any other relation but merely that of contiguity, are denominated a crowd; in forming this term, we abstract from sex, from age, from condition, from dress, &c. A number of persons, connected by the same laws and by the same government, are termed a nation; and a number of men under the same military command are termed an army. A third sort of an abstraction is, where a single property, or part, which may be common to many individuals, is selected to be the subject of our contemplation: for example, whiteness, heat, beauty, length, roundness, head, arm.

44. Abstract terms are a happy invention; it is by their means chiefly that the particulars, which make the subject of our reasoning, are brought into close union, and separated from all others however naturally connected. Without the aid of such terms the mind could never be kept steady to its proper subject, but be perpetually in hazard of assuming foreign circumstances, or neglecting what are essential. We can, without the aid of language, compare real objects by intuition, when these objects are present; and, when absent, we can compare them in idea. But when we advance farther, and attempt to make inferences and draw conclusions, we always employ abstract terms, even in thinking; it would be as difficult to reason without them, as to perform operations in algebra without signs: for there is scarce any reasoning without some degree of abstraction, and we cannot easily abstract without using abstract terms. Hence it follows, that without language man would scarce be a rational being.

45. The same thing, in different respects, has different names. With respect to certain qualities it is termed a substance; with respect to other qualities a body; and with respect to qualities of all sorts a subject. It is termed a passive subject with respect to an action exerted upon it; an object with respect to a percipient; a cause with respect to the effect it produces; and an effect with respect to its cause.


ABSTRACTION, power of, 458. Its use,

Abstract terms, ought to be avoided
in poetry, 113. 381. Cannot be com-
pared but by being personified, 311.
Personified, 332, 333. Defined, 458.
The use of abstract terms, 459.

Accent defined, 275. The musical ac-
cents that are necessary in an hexameter
line, 280. A low word must not be ac-
cented, 294. Rules for accenting Eng-
lish heroic verse, 294, 295. How far
affected by the pause, 295. Accent and
pause have a mutual influence, 296.

Action, what feelings are raised by hu-
man actions, 26. 107. 161. We are im-
pelled to action by desire, 28. Some ac-
tions are instinctive; some intended as
means to a certain end, 29. Actions
great and elevated, low and grovelling,
107. Slowness and quickness in acting,
to what causes owing. 142, 147. Emo-
tions occasioned by propriety of action,
157. Occasioned by impropriety of ac-
fion,ib. Human actions considered with
respect to dignity and meanness, 164.
Actions the interpreters of the heart.
196. Action is the fundamental part of
epic and dramatic compositions, 395.
Unity of action, 403. We are conscious
of internal action as in the head, 448.
Internal action may proceed without
our being conscious of it, ib.

Action and reaction betwixt a pas-
sion and its object, 61.

Actor, bombast actor, 117. The chief
talents of an actor, 194. An actor should
feel the passion he represents, 204. Dif-
ference as to pronunciation betwixt the
French and English actors, 206, note.
Admiration, 61. 122.

Eneid, its unity of action, 404. See

Affectation, 156.

Affection to children accounted for,
40. To blood-relations, ib. For what
belongs to us, 41. Social affections
more refined than selfish, 58. Affec-
tion in what manner inflamed into a
passion, 61. Opposed to propensity, 63.
Affection to children endures longer
than any other affection, ib. Opinion
and belief influenced by affection, 81.
Affection defined, 183, 456.

Agamemnon of Seneca censured,218.
Agreeable emotions and passions, 55,
&c. Things neither agreeable nor dis-
greeable. See object.

Alcestes of Euripides censured, 228.
412, 413.

Alexandre of Racine censured, 212.
Alexandrine line, 282.

cult in painting than in poetry, 357. In
Allegory defined, 351. More diffi-
an historical poem, 399.

All for Love of Dryden censured,

Alto-relievo, 433.

choice of words, 240. Occasioned by
Ambiguity, occasioned by a wrong
a wrong arrangement, 254, 255.

Aminta of Tasso censured, 209.
Amor patriæ accounted for, 42.
Amphibrachys, 308.
Amphimacer, 308.

reasoning compared, 20.
Analytic and synthetic methods of
Anapæstus, 308.

comes to its height instantaneously, 61.
Anger explained, 44, &c. Frequently
Decays suddenly, 62. Sometimes exert-
ed against the innocent, 79, and even
against things inanimate, ib. Not infec-
tious, 88. Has no dignity in it, 163.

vision, 86.
Angle, largest and smallest angle of

Animals distributed by nature into
classes, 440.

Antibacchius, 308.
Anticlimax, 270.
Antispastus, 308.

Antithesis, 244. Verbal antithesis,

176. 244.

Apostrophe, 341; &c.

scribed in poetry as they appear, not as
Appearance, things ought to be de-
they are in reality, 371.

Appetite defined, 28. Appetites of
hunger, thirst, animal love, arise with-
out an object, 37. Appetite for fame
or esteem, 93.

ness of apprehension, to what causes
Apprehension, dulness and quick-
owing, 142.

Architecture, ch. xxiv. Grandeur of
manner in architecture, 111. The situ-
ation of a great house ought to be lofty,
155. A playhouse or music-room_sus-
ceptible of much ornament, ib. What
emotions can be raised by architecture,
416. Its emotions compared with those
to have an expression suited to its desti-
of gardening, ib. Every building ought
nation, 417.430. Simplicity ought to be
the governing taste, 416. Regularity to
be studied, 418. 427. External form of

dwelling-houses, 425, 426. Divisions
within, 426. 431.432. A palace ought to
be regular, but in a small house conve-
nience ought to be preferred, 425, 426.
A dwelling-house ought to be suited to
the climate, 427. Congruity ought to be
studied 430 Architecture governed by
principles that produce opposite effects,
432, 433. Different ornaments employ-
edi it, 430. Witticisms in architecture,
437. Allegorical or emblematic orna-
ments, ib. Architecture inspires a taste
for neatness and regularity, 438.

Ariosto censured, 149. 405.
Aristæus, the episode of Aristæus in
the Georgics censured, 307.

Aristotle censured, 450, note.
Army defined, 460.

Arrangement, the best arrangement of
words is to place them, if possible, in an
increasing series, 238. Arrangement of
members in a period, 239. Of periods in
a discourse b. Ambiguity from wrong
arrangement, 254, 255. Arrangement
natural and inverted, 265, 266.

Articulate sounds, how far agreea-
ble, 234-236.

Artificial mount, 421.
Arts. See Fine Arts.
Ascent pleasant, but descent not
painful, 106.

Athalie of Racine censured, 218.

Attention defined, 456. Impression
made by objects depends on the de-
gree of attention, ib. Attention not al-
ways voluntary. 457.

Attractive passions, 198.
objects, 90.

signs of passion, 197.
Attributes, transferred by a figure of
speech from one subject to another,
347, &c.

Avarice defined, 27.
Avenue to a house, 421.

Aversion defined, 61, 62. 183. 456.


Bajazet of Racine censured, 227.
Barren scene defined, 405.
Base of a column, 435.
Basso-relievo, 433.

Batrachomuomachia censured, 168.
Beauty, ch. iii. Intrinsic and relative,
96.422. Beauty of simplicity, 97. of fi-
gure, ib. of the circle, 98. of the square,
ib. of a regular polygon, ib. of a paral-
lelogram, ib. of an equilateral triangle,
ib. Whether beauty be a primary or se-
condary quality of objects, 100. Beau-
ty distinguished from grandeur, 103.
Beauty of natural colours, 151. Beauty
distinguished from congruity, 155.
Consummate beauty seldom produces
a constant lover, 187. Wherein con-

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Berkeley censured, 450, note.

Blank verse, 282. 300. Its aptitude
for inversion, 301. Its melody, ib.
How far proper in tragedy, 403.
Body defined, 447.

Boileau censured, 341. 397.
Bombast, 115. Bombast in action,117.
Bossu censured. 407, note.
Burlesque, machinery does well in a
burlesque poem, 54. Burlesque distin-
guished into two kinds, 167.

Business, men of middle age best
qualified for it, 142.

CADENCE, 271. 275.
Capital of a column, 436.
Careless Husband, its double plot
well contrived, 401.
Cascade, 120.

Cause, resembling causes may pro-
duce effects that have no resemblance:
and causes that have no resemblance
may produce resembling effects, 267.
Cause defined, 460.

Chance, the mind revolts against mis-
fortunes that happen by chance, 393.

Character, to draw a character is the
master-stroke of description, 375, 376.
Characteristics of Shaftsbury criti-
cised, 156, note.

Children, love to them accounted
for, 40 A child can discover a pas-
sion from its external signs, 198. Hides
none of its emotions, 202.

Chinese gardens, 423. Wonder and
surprise studied in them, 424.
Choreus, 308.

Chorian bus, 308.

Chorus an essential part of the Gre-
cian tragedy, 407.

Church, what ought to be its form
and situation, 433.

Cicero censured, 265. 272, 273.
Cid of Corneille censured, 208, 220.
Cinna of Corneille censured, 156.
206. 219.

Circle, its beauty, 98.

Circumstances, in a period where
they should be placed, 257. 260.

Class, all living creatures distribut-
ed into classes, 440, 441.


Climax in sense, 108. 207. 262.
sound, 239. When these are joined the
sentence is delightful, 270.

Coëpheres of Eschylus censured,191.
Coexistent emotions and passions,
63, &c.

Colonnade, where proper, 427.
Colour, gold and silver esteemed for
their beautiful colours, 97. A secondary
quality, 100. Natural colours, 151. Co-
louring of the human face exquisite, ib.
Columns, every column ought to have
a base, 88. The base ought to be square,
ib. Columns admit different propor-
tions, 430, 431. What emotions they
raise, 431. Column more beautiful than
a pilaster, 434. Its form, 435. Five or-
ders of columns, 435, 436. Capital of
the Corinthian order censured, 436.

Comedy, double plot in a comedy,
400, 401. Modern manners do best in
comedy, 395. Immorality of English
comedy, 33.

Comet, motion of the comets and pla-
nets compared with respect to beauty,

Commencement of a work ought to
be modest and simple, 370.

Common nature, in every species of
animals, 56. 440. We have a conviction
that this common nature is invariable,
441. Also that it is perfect or right,

Common sense, 441. 446.

Communication of passion to related
objects. See Passion. Communica-
tion of qualities to related objects.
See propensity.

Comparison, 130, &c. ch. xix. In the
early composition of all nations com-
parisons are carried beyond proper
bounds, 309, 310. Comparisons that
resolve into a play of words, 325.
Complex emotion, 64, &c.
Complex object, its power to gene-
rate passion, 42. 114.

Complex perception, 451, 452.
Complexion, what colour of dress is
the most suitable to different complex-
ions, 138.

Conception defined, 448.


Conquest of Granada of Dryden cen-

sured, 221.

Consonants, 235.

cause of inconstancy, 187.

Constancy, consummate beauty the

Construction of language explained,


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237. In a series of objects, 238 Contrast
Contrast,ch.viii. Itseffect in language,
in the thought requires contrast in the
members of the expression, 227 The
effect of contrast in gardening, 423.

Conviction intuitive. See Intuitive

Copulative, to drop the copulative
enlivens the expression, 249, &c.
Coriolanus of Shakspeare censured,


Corneille censured,
sometimes mean, 163.
Corporeal pleasure, 9, 10. Low, and

Couplet, 282. Rules for its composi-
tion, 300.

Courage of greater dignity than jus-
tice, 163.

Creticus, 308.

to him to approach with a swift pace,82.
Criminal, the hour of execution seems
Criticism, its advantages, 12, &c.
Its terms not accurately defined, 199.
Crowd defined, 460.

Curiosity, 122. 130, &c.

ders objects familiar, 122. Custom dis-
Custom and habit, chap. xiv. Ren-
puts the rich and poor upon a level,
tinguished from habit, 181. Custom
189. Taste in the fine arts improved by
custom, 445, note.

Davila censured, 149.

Declensions explained 251.
Dedications. See Epistles Dedicatory
Delicacy of taste, 57. 445.
Derision, 158. 167.

Des Cartes censured, 450, note.
Descent not painful, 106

Description, it animates a description

Concord or harmony in objects of to represent things past as present, 52.

sight, 66.

Concordant sounds defined, 63.
Congreve censured, 34. 168. 194,

note. 402.

Congruity and propriety, ch. x. A se-
condary relation, 154, note. Congruity
distinguished from beauty, 155. Distin-
guished from propriety, ib. As to quan-
tity, congruity coincides with propor-
tion, 159.

Connexion essential in all composi-
tions, 21.

The rules that ought to govern it, 370.
though the subject described be disa-
A lively description is agreeable,
sight can be well described, 452.
greeable, 385. No objects but those of

Descriptive personifications, 333.
Descriptive tragedy, 204.

action, 29 It determines the will, 89.
Desire defined, 27. It impels us to
92. Desire tends the most to happi-
Desire in a criminal to be punished,
ness when moderate, 101.

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