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Look in thy glass, and tell the face thou vieweft,
Now is the time that face fhould form another;
Whose fresh repair if now thou not reneweft,
Thou doft beguile the world, unbless some mother.
For where is the fo fair, whofe un-eard womb
Difdains the tillage of thy husbandry ??
Or who is he fo fond, will be the tomb
Of his felf-love, to ftop pofterity ?

Thou art thy mother's glass, and the in thee
Calls back the lovely April of her prime':
So thou through windows of thine age fhalt fee,
Despite of wrinkles, this thy golden time2.
But if thou live, remember'd not to be,

Die fingle, and thine image dies with thee.

7-whofe un-ear'd womb

Difdains the tillage of thy busbandry ?] Thus, in Measure for Mea. Sure:

-her plenteous womb

"Expreffeth his full tilth and busbandry." STEEVENS. Un-ear'd is unploughed, See p. 3, n. 1. MALONE.

Or aubo is be fo fond, will be the tomb

Of bis felf-love, to stop pofterity?] So, in Romeo and Juliet:
66 -beauty, ftarv'd with her feverity,

"Cuts beauty off from all pofterity."

Again, in Venus and Adonis:

What is thy body but a swallowing grave,
"Seeming to bury that pofterity

"Which by the rights of time thou needs must have,
"If thou deftroy them not in their obfcurity ?"


Fond, in old language, is foolish. See Vol. III. p. 66, n. 5.
Thou art thy mother's glass, &c.] So, in The Rape of Lucrece:
"Poor broken glass, I often did behold

"In thy feet femblance my

old age new-born." MALONE.

■ Calls back the lovely April of her prime :] So, in Timon of Athens: "She, whom the fpital house and ulcerous fores

"Would caft the gorge at, this embalms and fpices

"To the April day again." MALONE.

2 So thou through windows of thine age foalt fee,

Despite of wrinkles, this thy golden time.] Thus, in our authour's

Lover's Complaint:

"Time had not feythed all that youth begun,

"Nor youth all quit; but, fpite of heaven's fell rage,

"Some beauty peep'd through lattice of fear'd age." MALONE

IV. Un


Unthrifty loveliness, why doft thou spend
Upon thyfelf thy beauty's legacy?
Nature's bequeft gives nothing, but doth lend;
And being frank, the lends to thofe are free 3.
Then, beauteous niggard, why dost thou abuse
The bounteous largefs given thee to give?
Profitlefs ufurer, why dost thou use

So great a fum of fums, yet canst not live?
For having traffick with thyfelf alone,
Thou of thyself thy fweet felf doft deceive.
Then how, when nature calls thee to be gone,
What acceptable audit canft thou leave?

Thy unus'd beauty must be tomb'd with thee,
Which, used, lives thy executor to be.


Those hours, that with gentle work did frame
The lovely gaze where every eye doth dwell,
Will play the tyrants to the very fame,
And that unfair, which fairly doth excell";
For never-refting time leads fummer on

To hideous winter, and confounds him there;

3 Nature's bequeft gives nothing, but doth lend

And being frank, the lends to thofe are free, &c.] So, Milton, in his

Mafque at Ludlow Cafile:

"Why should you be fo cruel to yourself,

"And to thofe dainty limbs which nature lent

"For gentle ufage, and foft delicacy?

But you invert the covenants of her trust,

"And harshly deal, like an ill borrower,

"With that which you receiv'd on other terms." STEEVENS. 4 What acceptable audit canft thou leave?] So, in Macbeth:

"To make their audit at your highnefs' pleasure." STEEVENS. Thofe hours, &c.] Hours is almost always used by Shakspeare as a diffyllable. MALONE.

5. And that unfair, which fairly doth excell;] And render that which was once beautiful, no longer fair. To unfair, is, I believe, a verb of our authour's coinage. MALONE.

For never-refting time leads fummer on-] So, in All's well that ends well:

For, with a word, the time will bring on fummer." STEEV.


Sap check'd with froft, and lufty leaves quite gone,
Beauty o'er-fnow'd, and bareness every where 7:
Then, were not fummer's diftillation left,
A liquid prifoner pent in walls of glafs,
Beauty's effect with beauty were bereft,
Nor it, nor no remembrance what it was:

But flowers diftill'd, though they with winter meet, Leefe but their fhow; their fubftance ftill lives sweet.


Then let not winter's ragged hand deface
In thee thy fummer, ere thou be distill'd:
Make sweet fome phial; treasure thou fome place
With beauty's treafure, ere it be felf-kill'd."
That ufe is not forbidden ufury,

Which happies thofe that pay the willing loan;
That's for thyfelf to breed another thee,
Or ten times happier, be it ten for one;
Ten times thyfelf were happier than thou art,
If ten of thine ten times rengur'd thee:

Then, what could death do, if thou should't depart,
Leaving thee living in pofterity?

Be not felf-will'd, for thou art much too fair

To be death's conqueft, and make worms thine heir.

7 Beauty o'er fnow'd, and bareness every where :] Thus the quarto, 1609. The modern editions have

-barrenness every where.

In the 97th Sonnet we meet again with the fame image:

"What freezings have I felt, what dark days feen!

"What old December's bareness every where !" MALONE.

8 But flowers diftill'd, though they with winter meet,

Leefe but their fhow; their fubftance ftill lives fweet.] This is a thought with which Shakspeare feems to have been much pleafed. We find it again in the 54th Sonnet, and in A Midsummer Night's Dream, A&t I. fc. i. MALONE.

9 let not winter's ragged band-] Ragged was often used as an opprobrious term in the time of our authour. See p. 136, n. 8, and Vol. V. p. 286, n. 4. MALONE.

That ufe-] Ufe here fignifies ufance. See Vol. II. p. 232, n. 6.






Lo, in the orient when the gracious light
Lifts up his burning head, each under eye
Doth homage to his new-appearing fight,
Serving with looks his facred majefty;
And having climb'd the fteep-up heavenly hill,
Refembling trong youth in his middle age,
Yet mortal looks adore his beauty ftill,
Attending on his golden pilgrimage3;

But when from high-moft pitch, with weary car,
Like feeble age, he reeleth from the day,
The eyes, 'fore duteous, now converted are
From his low tract, and look another way:
So thou, thyself out-going in thy noon,
Unlook'd on dieft, unless thou get a fon.


Mufick to hear, why hear'ft thou mufick fadly?
Sweets with fweets war not, joy delights in joy.
Why lov'st thou that which thou receiv'ft not gladly?
Or elfe receiv'ft with pleafure thine annoy?

2 And baving climb'd the fleep-up heavenly bill,

Refembling frong youth in bis middle age,] Perhaps our authour had the facred writings in his thoughts: "in them hath he fet a tabernacle for the fun, which cometh forth as a bridegroom out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a giant to run his courfe. It goeth forth from the uttermost part of the heaven, and runneth about unto the end of it again; and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof." MALONE. 3 Yet mortal looks adore bis beauty ftill,

Attending on his golden pilgrimage;] So, in Romeo and Juliet:
"Madam, an hour before the worshipp'd fun

"Peer'd forth the golden window of the eaft,-." MALONE. 4 Mufick tobear, &c.] Thou, whom to hear, is mufick, why, &c. I have fometimes thought Shakspeare might have written-Mufick to ear, &c. i. e. thou, whole every accent is mufick to the ear. So, in the Comedy of Errors:

"That never words were mufick to thine car." Hear has been printed inftead of ear in the Taming of the Shrew; er at least the modern editors have fuppofed fo. See Vol. III. p. 275, D. 7. MALONE.

If the true concord of well-tuned founds,
By unions married 5, do offend thine ear,
They do but fweetly chide thee, who confounds
In fingleness the parts that thou should'st bear.
Mark, how one ftring, fweet husband to another,
Strikes each in each, by mutual ordering;
Refembling fire and child and happy mother,
Who all in one, one pleafing note do fing:
Whose speechlefs fong, being many, feeming one,
Sings this to thee, thou fingle vilt prove none.”


Is it for fear to wet a widow's eye,

That thou confum'ft thyself in fingle life?
Ah! if thou iffuelefs fhalt hap to die,

The world will wail thee, like a makeless wife";
The world will be thy widow, and still weep,
That thou no form of thee haft left behind,
When every private widow well may keep,
By children's eyes, her husband's fhape in mind.
Look, what an unthrift in the world doth spend,
Shifts but his place, for ftill the world enjoys it;
But beauty's wafte hath in the world an end,
And kept unus'd, the ufer fo destroys it.

5 If the true concord of well-tuned founds,

By unions married,] So, in Romeo and Juliet, quarto, 1599:
"Examine ev'ry married lineament,

"And fee how one another lends content."

Again, in Troilus and Creffida:

"The unity and married calm of states-."

Milton had perhaps thefe lines in his thoughts when he wrote:

"And ever against eating cares

"Lap me in toft Lydian airs,

"Married to immortal verfe,

"Such as the meeting foul may pierce,

"In notes with many a winding bout

"Of linked fweetneis long drawn out." MALONE.

6-like a makeiefs wife;] As a widow bewails her loft husband. Make and mate were formerly fynonymous. So, in Kyng Appolyn of Thyre, 1510: " Certes, madam, I fholde have great joy yie ye had fuch prynce to your make."

Again, in The Tragicall Hyftory of Romeus and Juliet, 1562:
"Betwixt the armes of me, thy perfect-loving make." MALONE.

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