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A MONTHLY REVIEW
EDITED BY JAMES KNOWLES
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, & CO., 1 PATERNOSTER SQUARE
CONTENTS OF VOL. X.
THE EARLY LIFE OF THOMAS CARLYLE. By James Anthony Froude .
NEW MARKETS FOR BRITISH PRODUCE. By George Baden-Powell
SECOND CHAMBERS. By Sir David Wedderburn, Bart.
GOSSIP OF AN OLD BOOKWORM. By William J. Thoms
HEALTH AND PHYSIQUE OF OUR CITY POPULATIONS.
M. RENAN AND MIRACLES. By Frederic W. H. Myers
CONFISCATION AND COMPENSATION. By E. D. J. Wilson
UNITY IN THE CHURCH OF CHRIST. By Earl Nelson
A DREDGING GROUND. By the Hon. Emily Lawless
MAN'S PLACE IN NATURE. By the Bishop of Carlisle
THE REVOLUTIONARY PARTY.' By the Earl of Dunraven
THE COMING OF AGE OF THE VOLUNTEERS. By Sir Robert Loyd-
THE INTELLIGENCE OF ANTS (concluded). By George J. Romanes
THE ARAB MONUMENTS OF EGYPT. By Frank Dillon
PANTHEISM, AND COSMIC EMOTION. By Frederic Harrison
COUNTY CHARACTERISTICS-KENT. By H. G. Hewlett
THE DEADLOCK IN THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. By Frederic Harrison.
SCRUTIN DE LISTE ET SCRUTIN D'ARRONDISSEMENT. By M. Joseph
WOMEN AS CIVIL SERVANTS. By Margaret E. Harkness
THE WORKMAN'S VIEW OF FAIR TRADE.' By George Potter
ON COMMERCIAL CORNERS.' By William B. Halhed
CHILD LIFE FOR CHILDREN. By Elizabeth Rossiter
FAIR TRADE AND FREE TRADE. (1.) By W. Farrer Ecroyd. (2.) By
DESPAIR A DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE. By Alfred Tennyson .
THE ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY OF EGYPT. By F. W. Rowsell.
SIR WALTER RALEGH IN IRELAND. By Sir John Pope Hennessy
SHEEP-HUNTING IN THE MOUNTAINS. By the Earl of Dunraven
THE LAST GREAT DREAM OF THE CRUSADE. By the Rev. Baldwin
THE ORDER OF CORPORATE REUNION. By the Rev. Dr. F. G. Lee.
A NEW LOVE POET. By the Earl of Lytton
THE SCOTCH LAND QUESTION. By Sir Bartle Frere, Bart.
RECENT PHASES OF JUDEOPHOBIA. By Dr. Hermann Adler
OPIUM AND COMMON SENSE. By Sir Rutherford Alcock
No. LIII.-JULY 1881.
THE EARLY LIFE OF THOMAS CARLYLE.
THE river Annan, rising above Moffat in Hartfell, in the Deil's Beef Tub, descends from the mountains through a valley gradually widening and spreading out, as the fells are left behind, into the rich and wellcultivated district known as Annandale. Picturesque and broken in the upper part of its course, the stream, when it reaches the level country, steals slowly among meadows and undulating wooded hills, till at the end of fifty miles it falls into the Solway at Annan town. Annandale, famous always for its pasturage, suffered especially before the union of the kingdoms from border forays, the effects of which were long to be traced in a certain wildness of disposition in the inhabitants. Dumfriesshire, to which it belongs, was sternly Cameronian. Stories of the persecutions survived in the farmhouses as their most treasured historical traditions. Cameronian congregations lingered till the beginning of the present century, when they merged in other bodies of seceders from the established religion. In its hard fight for spiritual freedom Scotch Protestantism lost respect for kings and nobles, and looked to Christ rather than to earthly rulers. Before the Reformation all Scotland was clannish or feudal; and the Dumfriesshire yeomanry, like the rest, were organised under great noble families, whose pennon they followed, whose name they bore, and the remotest kindred with which, even to a tenth generation, they were proud to claim. Among the families of the western border the Carlyles were not the least disVOL. X.-No. 53.