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He resigned his place to a friend. Discontent, disgust, and the love of repose, are the ordinary inducements for men to resign honourable and lucrative employments.

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It would be a good appendix to the art of living and dying, if any one would write the art of growing old, and teach men to resign their pretensions to the pleasures of youth.

I soon resigned an idea which I had only rather reserved it for some moment of golden never cease to hope will one day arrive to us. The miser thus a shilling sees,

Which he's obliged to pay;
With sighs resigns it by degrees,
And fears 'tis gone for aye.

(Steele.) imperfectly formed, or leisure such as we (Bulwer's France.)

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(Gay's Beggars' opera.)

And at the castle's battled verge,
With sighs, resigned his honoured charge.

(W. Scott's Lady of the Lake.)

My heart, that now must every joy resign,
Incapable of change, is only thine.

(Falconer's Shipwreck.)

2. To renounce. Hat eine weniger directe Bedeutung als to resign; ein Abtreten, Fahrenlassen, Entsagen durch stillschweigende Folgerung, und gleich to resign eine freiwillige, aber weniger förmliche Handlung bezeichnend. Es wird noch besonders in religiösen Gegenstånden gebraucht.

He will renounce his pretensions to the throne, because they are extravagant. He renounces the pleasures of the world. For ministers to be silent in the cause of Christ is to renounce it, and to fly is to desert it. (South.) What should we know of the character of Descartes, supposing him to have renounced his science, and his brother to have written his biography? (Bulwer's Student.) Strange! there should be found

Who, self-imprison'd in their proud saloons,
Renounce the odours of the open field

For the unscented fictions of the loom.

(W. Cowper's Poems.)


14. Vermindern, sich vermindern, abnehmen.

Die ersten drei Zeitwörter werden als transitive und intransitive, das leşte nur als ein intransitives gebraucht.

1. To abate. Es bezieht sich auf die Kraft einer Handlung.

His fever is abated or abates; the violence of the storm abates; pain and anger abate.

Grief and disappointement abate the ardour of youth.

My wonder abated, when upon looking around me, I saw most of them attentive to three Syrens clothed like goddesses, and distinguished by the names of Sloth, Ignorance and Pleasure. (Addison.)

Made for his use, all creatures if he call,
Say what their use, had he the pow'rs of all;
Nature to these, without profusion, kind,
The proper organs, proper pow'rs assign'd;

Each seeming want compensated of course,
Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force;
All in exact proportion to the state;
Nothing to add, and nothing to abate.

(Pope's Essay on Man.) 2. To lessen. Wird auf Größe, Quantität und Zahl angewendet, und in abstracter Bedeutung größtentheils durch diminution ersegt.

The size of a room or garden is lessened. An evil may be lessened when it cannot be removed by the application of remedies.

The husband, who saw himself richer every day, grew impatient for an heir; and as time rather lessened than increased the hopes of one, he became by degrees indifferent, and at last averse to his wife.

(The World.)

He sought fresh fountains in a foreign soil;
The pleasure lessened the attending toil.


3. To diminish. Von dem vorhergehenden Zeitworte insofern verschieden, daß es mehr in bildlicher und höherer Bedeutung gebraucht wird. The credit and respectability of this gentleman is diminished. Cruelty always diminishes the lustre of a great deed. Objects apparently diminish according to the distance from which they are observed. My friendships are increased by new ones, yet no part of the warmth I felt for the old is diminished. (Pope's Letters.) 4. To decrease. Verminderung hinsichts der Fortdauer.


A retreating army will decrease rapidly when, exposed to all the privations and hardships attendant on forced marches, it is compelled to fight for its safety. Some things decrease so gradually, that it is some time before they are observed to be diminished.

These leaks shall then decrease; the sails once more
Direct our course to some relieving shore.

While man is growing, life is in decrease,
And cradles rock us nearer to the tomb.
Our birth is nothing but our death begun,
As tapers waste that instant they take fire.


(Young's Night Th.)


14. Verabscheuen.

Alle vier Zeitwörter bezeichnen ein Gefühl des Abscheus und des Widerwillens.

1. To abhor. Unsern sittlichen Gefühlen widersprechend, unsere mo= ralische und religiöse Gesinnungen verlegend. Unmenschlichkeit und Grausam= keit wird verabscheut, abhorred.

The chaste Lucretia abhorred the pollution to which she had been exposed. I abhor his principles.

The tender mind will abhor what is base and atrocious,
The lie that flatters I abhor the most.

The self-same thing they will abhor
One way, and long another for.


(Butler's Hudibras.)

2. To detest. Mit Unwillen verdammen; besonders was unsern moralischen Grundsåßen entgegen ist, als Verbrechen und Ungerechtigkeit. Brutus detested the oppression and the oppressor. The thirst of kindred blood my sons detest. (Dryden.)

We all agree to detest his conduct. It is true the nation have long held that colour in great detestation, in consequence of a dispute they had some twenty years since with the barbarians of the British Islands. (W. Irving's Salmagundi.)

I am not a papist, for I renounce the temporal invasions of the papal power, and detest their arrogated authority over princes and states.

(Pope's Letters.)

He knew himself detested, but he knew
The hearts that loathed him, crouched and dreaded too.

With early virtues plant your breast,
The specious arts of vice detest.

(Byron's Corsair.)

(Gay's Fables.)

A bard was selected to witness the fray,
And tell future ages the feats of the day;
A bard who detested all sadness and spleen,
And wish'd, that Parnassus a vineyard had been.

(Burns' Poems.) 3. To abominate. Im höchsten Grade verabscheuen, weil unsere religiösen und sittlichen Gefühle verlegt worden; Gottlosigkeit und Ruchlosig= keit erregen dieses Gefühl.

The conscientious man will abominate every breach of the Divine law. He has reason to fear that his very prayer is an abomination.

4. To loath. Drückt Abneigung und Widerwillen aus, welche sich bei dem Anblick von Gegenständen, die uns widrig sind, äußern.

The agonized mind loaths the sight of every object which recalls to its recollection the subject of its distress.

No costly lords the sumptuous banquet deal,
To make him loath his vegetable meal.

How I loath'd the free


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1. Ability. Umfaßt die Fähigkeit, etwas zu thun im Allgemeinen, ohne die Eigenschaft oder den Grad anzugeben; sie kann physisch oder geistig sein. Sie bezicht sich auf irgend eine Handlung, und ist in ihrem Umfange nicht beschränkt. Im Plural gebraucht, ist es bloß auf geistige Gaben anwendbar. I look upon an able statesman out of business like a huge whale,

that will endeavour to overturn the ship unless he has an empty cask to play with. (Steele.) Though a man has not the abilities to distinguish himself in the most shining parts of a great character, he has certainly the capacity of being just, faithful, modest and temperate. (Addison.) Elizabeth's natural abilities were great: she had studied under experienced masters; and her stock of literature was much more ample than that of most females of the age. (Lingard's hist. of England.)

I must be pardoned for not excepting even Barthélemy. His Anacharsis is a work of wonderful ability, labour, elegance, and research. But there is no life in it! It does not, to be sure, profess to be actually a romance, but even as a book of imaginary travels, it is formal and tedious. (Bulwer's Last days of Pompeii.)

I know not whether I shall have courage enough to undertake the task I have chalked out: I distrust my abilities with reason, and I shall want several informations, not easy, I doubt, for me to obtain.

(Bolingbroke's Lett.)

To show wisdom in a book, it is but necessary that we should possess the theoretical wisdom; but in life, it requires not only the theoretical wisdom, but the practical ability to act up to it. (Bulwer's Stud.)

2. Capacity. Ist eine besondere Art der Fähigkeit, und nur geistig; sie bezieht sich auf Denken, und seht einen positiven und höheren Grad von Fähigkeit voraus, als ability, obgleich es durch Beiwörter näher bestimmt werden kann. Es ist jene besondere Eigenschaft und jener Geistesumfang, welche den Besizer in einem hohen Grade über Andere erheben.

A man of a capacious mind. A great capacity of thought. A boy of capacity will have the advantage over his schoolfellows, particulary if he be classed with those of a dull capacity. A person may be able to write a letter, who is not capable of writing a book. Sir Francis Bacon's capacity seemed to have grasped all that was revealed in books before. (Hughes.)

All the trials customary in America, when a youth is admitted into the class of warriors, or when a warrior is promoted to the dignity of captain or chief, are accomodated to this idea of manliness. They are not displays of valour, but of patience; they are not exhibitions of their ability to offend, but of their capacity to suffer.

(Robertson's hist. of America.)


1. Schimpf, Schmach. 2. Schmähung, Lästerung.

1. Abuse. Persönliche Schmähung, größtentheils mündlich, veranlaßt durch Zorn, der allen Anstand verlegt und sich jedes Zwanges entzieht.

The more rude and ignorant the man, the more liable he is to indulge in abuse. We must expect to meet with abuse from the vulgar whom we offend.

I dark in light, expos'd

To daily fraud, contempt, abuse, and wrong.

(Milton's Samson.)

2. Invective. Ein Schimpf der größtentheils schriftlich zugefügt wird, veranlaßt durch Partheigeist, ungezügeltes Gefühl in Meinungssachen, und Aufwallung des Eifers und der Bösartigkeit in öffentlichen Angelegenheiten.

In high stations, our conduct will draw forth invective from busybodies whom spleen has converted into oppositionists.

This is the true way of examining a libel; and when men consider

that no man living thinks the better of their heroes and patrons for the panegyric given them, none can think themselves lessened by their invee(Steele.)



1. Annahme, 2. Bedeutung.

Obgleich beide von dem Zeitworte to accept abgeleitet, so ist doch folgende Verschiedenheit: das erste Subst. bezeichnet die abgezogene Handlung im Algemeinen, das zweite wird in Bezug auf die einzelne Bedeutung der Wörter gebraucht.

It is not necessary to refuse benefits from a bad man, when the acceptance implies no approbation of his crimes. (Johnson.)

On the subject of dress I may add, by way of caution, that the ladies would do well not to forget themselves. do not mean this in the common acceptation of the phrase. (Mackenzie.)


1. Zufall, 2. Zufall.

Ersteres von gewesenen Dingen; accident, der Zufall, kann nicht verhindert, aber zuweilen ihm abgeholfen werden, er erzeugt Kummer und größtentheils unheil. Das zweite Subst. von zukünftigen Dingen; auf diesen Bufall, chance, kann man nicht rechnen, man kann ihn nicht beherrschen; er erweckt Hoffnung und erzeugt oft Tauschung.

It is an accident when a house falls; it is a chance when and how it may fall.

That little accident of Alexander's taking a fancy to bathe himself caused the interruption of his march; and that interruption gave occasion to that great victory that founded the third monarchy of the world. (South.) (South.)

Surely there could not be a greater chance than that which brought

to light the Powder - Treason.

If a foreign war break out, there is a chance of a military republic; if internal agitation long continue, there is a chance for the Bonapartes there is even a chance of Henry the Fifth. (H. Bulwer's France.) In despotic states, the plebeian has even a greater chance of rising than in free. (Bulwer's England.)

O Richard! if my brother died,
'Twas but a fatal chance.

(Lady of the Lake.)



1. Zufall, zufälliges Ereigniß, 2. Zufälligkeit, 3. Zufall, Ungefähr.

Beide bezeichnen ein von unsern Absichten unabhängiges Ereigniß. Accidents bedeutet mehr als Contingencies. Das erstere Wort umfaßt Ereignisse mit ihren Ursachen und Folgen, das lektere Nebenhandlungen, oder den Ereignissen anhängende Umstände; accidents entstehen häufig aus Sorglosigkeit, contingencies aus Versehen, casualties find gänzlich von uns unabhängig.

The overturning of a carriage is an accident; our situation in a car

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