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senger of comfort vouchsafed to the stricken mother, who had just laid her darling in the grave? Was he sent by the angel Willie, to the door of her lonesome home? May-be it was only fancy; but the lady seemed to hear, as she rose from beside the stranger-child, with prayer on her lips and her eyes lifted to heaven-she seemed to hear a silver-toned whisper, falling like a note of music through the dusky air, and saying to her heart" Remember Willie !" Did Carlo hear it, too, that he stood so quietly, his paws' upon the breast of the boy-outcast, and looked up pleadingly, with his black eyes, to the face of his weeping mistress?

Much the good coachman wondered, when his lady bade him lift the child tenderly, and carry him into the hall. And much the servants of the mansion marvelled to see that little orphan one, after a few days, clothed in garments like those of their departed Willie, and gam

bolling with the dog Carlo over the greensward. But the young stranger soon became a favourite among the household, and, in his love and gratitude toward his protectors, there seemed always to enter something of a higher spirit, as if he were indeed a link of remembrance, and a medium of blessing between Willie in the angelworld, and his beloved mother upon earth.

And not alone this little waif, adopted from the threshold, but many another poor neglected child of the great city, had cause for gratitude, deep and abiding, that the lady of the marble mansion now bowed her heart to the holy influ ence of charity. Many an outcast did she seek out and rescue from the by-ways of suffering, uplifting their sad hearts to thankfulness, and their souls nearer to the light of heaven, where dwells in happiness her own dear absent Willie, rescued and cherished by Jesus, the lover of children.

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at eighteen years of age, and of another who joins at the advanced age of forty:

The value of the young man's life, on his joining the Society, is more than forty years; while that of his elder brother is worth little more than five-andtwenty! The liability to the payment of the mortalityinsurance in the latter case is fifteen years nearer than in the former, and yet a portion of the said half-crown is presumed to be sufficient to form an equitable contribution for this purpose.

QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF THE INDE PENDENT ORDER OF ODDFELLOWS. (Manchester.)-In the current number of this quarterly the Editor (Mr. Hardwick, who has done and is still doing so much in the interest of the Society of which this publication is the organ, and who has made many sagacious revelations on the subject of friendly-society finance) draws attention to the false principles of many competing clubs, which profess to give, on impossibly - inadequate terms, advantages equal to those in which the terms of membership are much higher. For a common subscription of The writer then goes on to point out that the sixpence a week, and an initiation-fee of half-acrown, from young men who join between the young man's liability to sickness for the first ages of eighteen and thirty, the following bene-twenty years after entrance is little more than fits are promised, viz.:

Ten shillings a week during all sickness; ten pounds on the death of a member or his wife, and five pounds on the death of a member's widow. In addition to these insurances, free medical attendance and medicine are provided, as well as relief to those travelling in search of employment.

The working-expenses of the Society are to be paid out of the money thus raised, and "the only recognition," says the writer, "of the startling truth that, as men grow older, they are liable to increased incapacity to labour, owing to sickness," &c., is to be found in an announcement that persons joining between the age of thirty and forty are required to pay a double entrance-fee. Very forcefully the author of the forthcoming "Manual of Friendly Societies" shows the utter fallacy of such a scheme, and the impossibility of a pitiful half-crown paying the difference in the liability of a man entering

equivalent to the young man's fifteen years' annual

of

sixteen weeks, while the liability of the man entering at forty, for the first twenty years his membership, is more than forty weeks:

Yet the remaining fraction of the aforesaid halfcrown is coolly presumed to be sufficient to meet the demand for the additional twenty-four weeks' pay, at the rate of ten shillings per week, as well as to provide for the still heavier sickness after age sixty! Of tions are appropriated to the liquidation of the decourse it results that the young men's early subscripmands of their elder brethren ()-and when their time of heavier sickness comes, they will find the club bankrupt, like hundreds that have gone before it, or else that they have been compelled to continue the "sell" on other young men who have followed in their wake.

Ignorant of financial laws, members rush to join these unsound clubs which promise impossibilities; but, by-and-bye, when young men are sufficiently educated to understand these laws, they will carefully examine the foundation

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on which such specious promises are built, and | women, being healthy, clean, and capable of execution recognize themselves the absolute necessity, at home. Deaf and dumb women may make good as well as the equity, of a graduated scale dressmakers, but one can hardly imagine how they of in-payments according to age on entry." can be employed as servants. No mistress who could Amongst several amusing articles we particu- afford to give ordinary wages would take a deaf and Early notice a paper, by Mr. W. F. Peacock, dumb servant, except out of charity, and it would be a entitled "Up Cader Idris Overnight," which most severe exercise of that virtue to engage a woman Contains some nice descriptive paragraphs, and who could neither answer a bell, take a message, nor is generally interesting. "A Tale without a understand a direction, unless it was written down, Title" is continued. Miss J. Munro contributes sketch of travel from her inexhaustible repertoire of South African scenery. Mrs. C. A. White gives a short paper on the "Flora of the Sea-side," and Mr. John Ingram an amusing one, aptly entitled "Amongst some Oddfellows,' in which a numerous procession of traditional monsters, bearing some affinity to the human race, pass before us-giants nine feet high dwarfs short of three feet-Cynocephali (or dog-headed people)-Monoscelli (who have but one leg each)Sciopodes (who lie on their backs at the hottest season of the year, make umbrellas of their huge feet)-goat-like creatures with men's faces, and others again headless, but with eyes and mouths in their breasts-a description that tallies with that of St. Augustin, who, in his thirty-third sermon, entitled to his "Brothers in the Desert," testifies that when he went into Ethiopia to preach the Gospel, he saw many men and women without heads, who had two large eyes in their chest. Altogether, this is a good number, and very agreeable reading.

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The

The writer suggests that as many as possible of the girls who discover a taste for them, should be taught "wood-engraving, designing, or some other pleasant trade, more or less connected with the arts, such as glass-engraving, ivorycarving" anything, in fact, would be preferable perhaps this idea is making its way in the minds to domestic service for these unfortunates; and of the executive; for the census shows us that eleven deaf and dumb women are at present employed as upholstresses; but while 68 men are engaged as and painters, engravers, lithoand draughtsmen, no women graphers, wood-carvers, modellers, designers, ployed." Wig-making employs thirteen deaf are thus emand dumb men, and the writer sensibly suggests that this trade offers a suitable employment for such women also. Passing from the exemplification of the principle, that "the happiness of of men," in the case of the deaf and dumb, the women is of less importance than the happiness author goes on to show that there is no subject on which this false principle more distinctly shows itself than in discussions on the employChildren of Lutetia," Blanchard Jerrold's acment of women. She quotes from count of the decline of wages in the Paris glovetrade since the introduction of women-workers, and reminds us that the persons who have real special trade of needlework men have introduced cause of complaint are the women into "whose themselves." From the earliest ages the needle has been specially appropriated to women. The writer then goes on to show the causes that have gradually tended to wrest the exclusive it appears, to deprive her shortly of that most use of it from her hands-causes which threaten, feminine calling the business of dress-making. One West-end tailor, it appears, has already introduced the trade in his establishment, and is assumed to be a profitable innovation. The we may now look for the gradual spread of what writer goes on to show why greater excellence women's work than by women themselves. is attainable by men in this competition for The lucidity and carefulness with which this article is written would tempt us to follow it to the end did our space allow of our doing so; as it is, we can only quote the following

ENGLISH WOMAN'S REVIEW.-(London: 23, Great Marlborough-street, Regent-street, W. Kent & Co., Paternoster-row.)—The first article in the current part of this quarterly (the claims of which to the interest and encouragement of our feminine readers we pointed out in a previous number of our magazine) draws attention, under the title of "A False Principle," to the presumed fact that, in practice, the happiness of women is less considered than the happiness of men. In the first place the author illustrates her statement by reference, to the system prevalent in a certain asylum for the deaf and dumb, where the boys who discover talent (and these unfortunates have very often a keen perception of form and colour) are taught to draw and design, and, in after-life, obtain a livelihood by illustrating newspapers and serials, and by making designs for manufacturers, "by which means they earn excellent wages and are employed in a manner which is not disagreeable to them, and in which the sense of their infirmity is not constantly pressed painfully upon them."

The girls, however, in the same institution, are taught little drawing, and become, in after-life, servants and dressmakers. Now it is difficult to see why the girls should not be taught drawing as well as the boys, unless the above doctrine comes into play. Wood-engraving is an excellent employment for women-numbers of women, not deaf and dumb, engage in the occupation and earn good wages. It is one of the few trades which possess no drawbacks for

passage:

One reason of his (the man's) success is probably the greater length of time which men remain in the trade compared to the time women remain. The number of milliners and dressmakers of the age of 20 is 68,634; the number of the age of 40, is 17,715. The number of tailors of the age of 20 is 12,220; the number at 40 is 12,110, Thus, if a

head-milliner starts with sixteen young women in her
employment, at the end of twenty years only four of
these experienced hands will remain; the other twelve
workers will be comparatively new hands. If a master-
tailor has sixteen young men in his employment, at
the end of twenty years he will still have fifteen of
them left only one new hand will be required, unless
his custom has increased. It is evident, therefore,
that first-rate tailors have a terrible advantage over
first-rate milliners; and one fears that, both in London |
and Paris, the milliners must eventually succumb, in
a great measure, to their male rivals,

:

The long resumé, entiled "Public Opinion on Questions concerning Women," is wholly taken up with the subject of the suffrage for women, and the bias of the various journals and reviews with regard to the subject. The "Westminster Review is quoted in its favour, and gives sound and well-considered grounds for its arguments, and for its faith in the righteousness and wisdom of the measure. The concluding paragraph will show their drift:

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The details of the current report are of the most satisfactory description, and exhibit an ever-widening sympathy on the part of indivi duals, public bodies, and provincial townships, with the objects of this nobly conceived and as nobly maintained Institution. Thirty-three new life-boats have been built during the past year, and the Insitution now numbers a fleet of one hundred and seventy-four life-boats; but large as the number looks, and bravely as they are The homes of the working-classes, education, fac-manned, the Wreck Register of the Board of tory acts (regulating the labour of women and children), sanitary laws, water supplies, drainage (all municipal legislation, in fact), the whole administration of the poor-laws, with its various subdivisions care of the pauper-sick, pauper-schools, &c.-all these are subjects which already, by common consent, are included in the peculiarly feminine province of home and charity. If the possession of a vote should induce more women to extend their interest to the comfort and happiness of other homes besides their own, it will certainly not have exercised a deteriorating influence on their character.

The Times, whilst acknowledging the fact that men monopolise the national spoil with shameful greediness (?), that of the seventy millions raised by taxation (if the dividends be deducted of which women get their share) they do not get a hundredth part.

Even in our great commercial undertakings, such as railways, they are not employed, though thousands are, in France. Their wrongs are great, and our laws bear on their very face the stamp of man-made-law. But nevertheless, strong as the case may be, it only proves to us that women should be more cared for-not that they should be invited to care for themselves.

Trade shows the sum total of 1,787 shipwrecks, and the loss of 602 lives, against 17 vessels and 426 lives saved by the gallant life-boats men in the past year. Every new life-boat (or the means of building one) given to the Institu tion strengthens our seaports and coast-villages with enlarged power to aid imperilled ships and their crews. A new station is opened, from time to time, and the boat (franked to her destination by our great steam and railway companies) is received in triumph by her future guardians. The day of her arrival becomes a local holiday. She is drawn to her place of shelter on beach or strand, amidst the heartprayers and plaudits of the people. And brave men are never wanting to form a crew; for the Life-Boat Institution is in some sort a school of heroism and humanity, and its honorary medals and awards, prizes to be fought for at risk of life itself. Nor does it only encourage the persons in connection with its own machinery,

495 lives were rescued last year by fishing boats and other means, a result accruing from the rewards bestowed by the Institution" on all who are instrumental in saving life from shipwreck on our coast. We have so recently drawn attention to this great national undertaking for the succour of our ships and seamen, that we We are must refer our readers to the report itself for the interesting statistics in connection with it.

And the writer thence diverges to scathe the
idea of suffrage for women with what is evi-
dently meant for withering sarcasm.
not able to follow the reasonings of the "Con-
temporary Review," the "Sunday Magazine,"
"Fraser's Magazine," and the Weekly Dispatch,
all of which advocate the belief that a new and
better political element is wanted-and the
want points to the enfranchisement of woman.

Donations and annual subscriptions will be thankfully received by all bankers in town and country and by the Secretary, Richard Lewis Esq., at the office of the Institution, 14, Johnstreet, Adelphi, London.

WHITBY

On the 25th of August, the great annual fair, which was instituted in honour of the good and pious St. Hilda, has been held at Whitby ever since the days of Henry the Second. Paltry, indeed, are the amusements, business and mirth, which now characterize these yearly gatherings in comparison with those of former days. The granting of a fair was considered a great boon to the neighbourhood, as attracting the wandering merchants with their goods, and enabling the housewives of the district to lay in their yearly stores without the long ride on the pillion through the miry and almost impassible bogs, which surrounded this out-of-the-world place. Money exchanged hands, news of six month's date was made public, and not the least jolly and important personages were the monks of the Abbey. This beautiful monastic pile had its origin in the great battle which was fought on the site of the modern Leeds, by Oswy, King of Northumbria, against three other kings. According to the fashion of those times, he devoted his little daughter to be immured in a nunnery if God gave him the victory, and placed her under the care of the noble and saintly Hilda, who chose the site of Streoneshalk or Whitby, for the new Monastery.

The celebrated Hilda, was the niece of Edwin King of Northumbria, to whom Paulinus had long preached the Gospel; but the monarch wishing to consider the subject well before he decided, called a wittenagemot or parliament, where the christian Bishop, and Coifi, the high priest of the Pagan worship should discuss together. The former carried the day, and Coifi himself going over to the popular side led his priests to the holy sanctuary of the gods, near the village of Godmanham, in Yorkshire, where they demolished the altars, broke down the hedges, and the idols. The same memorable day saw Edwin and Hilda baptised, and shortly after Paulinus is said to have performed the same ceremony for ten thousand persons in one day in the river Swale. Hilda resolving to devote herself to religion retired to France, where she was Abbess of Cole, until the wishes of Aidan induced her to return to her own country. The veneration with which her name has been regarded, prove that her virtues were of no ordinary character; for centuries after her death the people loved to think that she still hovered over the spot where so many of her charities had been performed. During the summer months about ten in the morning the sunbeams fall on the inside of the northern part of the choir of the church, and a person standing on the west of the churchyard can imagine a resemblance to a female figure wrapped a shroud appearing in the highest window of

ABBEY.

the abbey; this reflection of the sun's rays is supposed to be St. Hilda in her glorified state. The miracles she performed are of the most wonderful description; the ammonites or snake stones, which are so plentiful on this coast, owe their origin to the snakes which infested the neighbourhood, and were driven over the cliffs by the prayers of Hilda, and losing their heads were transformed into stones. More interesting to us is the fact that here, in 664, was held that famous synod to settle the disputes about the time of keeping Easter, and the mode of administering baptism, when one of the Romish party quoted the saying of our Lord to St. Peter about the keys. "Well then," said Oswy, "I tell you that he is a porter, I will not contradict; but to the utmost of my knowledge will obey all his statutes, but perhaps, when I come to the gates of heaven, there be none to open to me, being at variance with him who holds the keys." Henceforth the Saxon Church was merged into the Roman; to this change Hilda, as well as the venerable Colman, were much opposed.

The beautiful and romantic glen of Hackness, with its steep hills covered with the richest vegetation, through which the Derwent gently glides, offered a delightful solitude to Hilda, towards the close of her life. Here she erected a nunnery or cell and called the place Hactenus, afterwards corrupted into its present name; though some think it was derived from Hawkness or headland, as four centuries afterwards William Rufus used to come here for the purpose of hawking. In 680 this celebrated lady died at the age of sixty-six.

Under the rule of the proud Wilfrid, Bishop of Northumbria, Whitby became celebrated for its learned inmates; six were appointed to bishoprics, and our earliest Saxon poet Cædmon sang his holy hymns within its walls. He began a translation of the Scripture into metre in the vulgar tongue, and it is said that Milton himself borrowed some of his lofty thoughts from the old monk; but the incursions of the Danes brought ruin and destruction to the peaceful home, and in 867 the whole province was laid waste, the monastery abandoned and left to decay. The Norman monks of the Benedictine order rebuilt it in 1078, 'the land having been granted to William de Percy by the Conqueror. This ancestor of the great Earls of Northumberland died near Jerusalem, during the Crusade; but was a most liberal benefactor of the Priory, and appointed his brother Serlo, the Prior. Once more was it attacked by the Norwegians in 1175, who pillaged it of all its possessions and laid the surrounding country waste; but a period was put to its misfortunes, for ever after

it was a most flourishing community, possessing broad and fair lands with a rental enough to support the monks in the rich merry life tradition leads us to suppose they delighted in. A curious and melancholy event happened to one of the monks of Whitby Abbey, during the reign of Henry the Second, about the year 1160. Two Lords in the neighbourhood, William de Bruce and Ralph de Percy, were hunting the wild boar in the forest of Eskdaleside which belonged to the Abbot of Whitby. The hounds having fouud a large wild boar, there was a long and hard chase after the animal, until a hermitage was reached, built by a monk who had retired there from the Abbey, for the sake of deeper seclusion and penitence. The boar being closely pursued, rushed into the chapel, lay down on the floor and immediately died, the hermit closed the door against the dogs and continued at his prayers. The gentlemen arriving on the spot found their hounds at bay, and called the hermit to open the door: this he did; but when the hunters rushed in and found the boar dead, these cruel lords were in such a fury at their sport being spoiled, that they ran upon the hermit with their boar staves and inflicted such injuries upon him, that he was on the point of death. They immediately fled to take sanctuary at Scarborough, but the Abbot of Whitby, who was in great favour with the King, got them removed for trial. But the hermit, before his death, sent for the Abbot and his murderers, and said, "I am sure to die of these wounds."

"Yes," replied the Abbot, "but they shall die for it."

Not so," said the hermit, "for I will freely forgive them my death, if they are content to be enjoined this penance for the safeguard of their souls."

The gentlemen, thankful to save their lives at any price, promised to fulfil his wish, when he made this curious request.

"You and yours shall hold your land, of the Abbot of Whitby, in this manner: That, upon the Eve of Ascension Day, you shall come to this wood, and there shall the officer of the Abbot blow his horn and deliver to each of you ten stakes, eleven strut-stowers, and eleven yadders cut with a knife of a penny price; and these you shall bear on your backs to the town of Whitby, before nine o'clock in the morning; and, at low water, ye shall set your stakes at the water's brim and fasten them with the yadders, so that they stand three tides-to remind you that you did slay me. And that you may the better call to God for mercy, repent yourselves and do good works, and the officer of Eskdaleside shall blow, Out on you! out on you! out on you! for this heinous crime of yours." The Abbot then said: "I grant all that you have said, and will confirm it by the faith of an honest man."

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Then the hermit said: "My soul longeth for the Lord, and I as freely forgive these gentlemen my death as Christ forgave the thief on the cross!"-and so he yielded up his ghost.

It appears that William de Bruce, of Skelton Castle, founded a chantry in the church of Pickering, Yorkshire, to pray for his soul, his ancestors, and all Christian souls; and there his monument may still be seen. As for the service to which he was condemned, it was continued by his descendants until a very recent period, and was intended to keep out the cattle from the landing-place for goods on the east-side of the river Esk. The monks of the Abbey had, from time immemorial, performed the duty of making this horn-garth, or stake and yether hedge, as it was called, until it was thus transferred to the Percy and Bruce families, and the custom was continued long after circumstances rendered it necessary.

The bold Robin Hood was a frequent visitor at Whitby in the time of Richard the First. When the soldiers were in too hot pursuit of him in Nottinghamshire, he took refuge in the wild and inaccessible rocks where the village now stands which bears his name-Robin Hood's Bay. The moors, over which horses could scarcely pass, were his security on the land side, and a number of fishing vessels lay in the bay, ready to carry him away if danger pressed. On the occasion when he and Little John were dining with the Abbot of Whitby, the latter wished to see a shot from the bows of men who were so famous for their skill in archery, and begged them to give him a specimen after dinner. The went up to the top of the Abbey, when the two outlaws each shot an arrow, and in the places where they fell the Abbot set up a pillar: the distance was more than a mile, which seems a little beyond belief. The field where the one pillar is bears the name of Robin Hood's Field, and the other John's Field; the old deeds and conveyances all bearing the same testimony we may suppose that tradition is not altogether at fault.

After the dissolution of the monasteries the site of the Abbey came into possession of the Cholmeleys of Cheshire, a family which may be traced back as far as the Roman Conquest. They built a mansion between the church and the ruined abbey, which, during the troubles of the time of Charles the First, was converted into a garrison by the Parliamentary forces and plundered of everything valuable. In the meantime Sir Hugh Cholmeley was bravely defending the Castle of Scarbro' for the King, a siege which lasted more than twelve months, during all which time of trial Lady Cholmeley staid with him, nursing the sick and wounded with all a woman's care and patience. After the Castle surrendered, in 1645, Sir Hugh and his family were exiled and his estates sequestered until 1649, when he was permitted to return home, where he employed himself in establishing the alum-works, which have proved such a profitable source of commerce to the neighbourhood. The first of these alum-works were made at Gisbro', by Sir Thomas Chaloner, an eminent naturalist and traveller, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who, having visited the Pope's monopoly near Rome, was convinced that the same

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