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modes of cultivation, and machinery adopted for watering the grounds; the different breeds of cattle; the extent and tenures of the farms, and the usual price of labour; the cultivation and preparation of cotton, pepper, sandal wood and cardamums, and the means by which these may be extended; the state of the manufactures and manufacturers; the climate and seasons of Mysor; and, lastly, the general condition of the inhabitants with respect to food, clothing and habitations, as well as the subdivision of casts and tribes prevalent among them. It was stated, that the information expected to result from this investigation, might not only prove advantageous to Mysor itself, but that a comparison with the situation of other parts of the Company's territories in those particulars, might eventually lead to improvements in agriculture and manufactures there also, and open channels of commerce hitherto unexplored.

The English reader has frequently ascended the lofty mountains which support the flat but elevated land of Mysor, in the train of hostile armies, marking the wide-spreading desolation of war, or pursuing the flying hosts of Indian cavalry, till stopped by some fortress which nature meant to be impregnable. In retracing these steps, in the suite of a mission suggested solely by benevolent views, our sensations acquire force by contrast, and novelty adds her charm to the illusion.

Dr Buchanan began his journey from Madras on the 23d April 1800. His route through the Company's Jaghir, lay nearly in a westerly direction; and the frequent occurrence of inns or choultrics, evinces an attention to travellers. At these places, the poorest, without expense, have shelter from the inclemencies of the weather; and the richest traveller can purchase, both for himself and his cattle, at least the necessaries of life.' The tank of Swagambrahm is formed by shutting up, with an artificial bank, an opening between two natural ridges of ground, and contains an expanse of water seven or eight miles in length, and three in width. This, applied to the purpose of irrigation during the dry season, is sufficient to supply with water, during eighteen months, the lands of 32 villages, containing 5000 persons employed in agriculture. A level country, and wretched soil, extends to Conjeveram; but the affluent natives have, in pursuance of their religious tenets, contributed to the comfort and fertility of the country, by the erection of choultries, or the excavation of tanks. Conjeveram is a large and regular, but not a populous town. The Brahmans belonging to two great temples, are the principal inhabitants. A desolate country, little capable of improvment, extends nearly to Arcot, excepting where the tank of Caveripak supplies moisture to the parched soil. Arcot is seated on the Pa

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lar, there about half a mile broad; but at that season two narrow channels only contained a scanty stream. This capital of the Carnatic is extensive, but surrounded with barren granite hills, in a state of decomposition. The narrow valley through which the Palar runs, is verdant and fertile, as far as Vellor, a well built town, at the foot of a hill fortified by the antient Canarese monarchs. A fine valley containing water for two crops of rice, extends to Paligonda; and the ruins which fill the towns, announce their former opulence and present decline.

The mountains of the Ghats terminate the dominions of the Nuab of the Lower Carnatic, and are much less barren than those to the east. The grand component part of these mountains, is a granite consisting of white feldspar and quartz, with a dark green mica, in a small proportion to the other two ingredients. Vencatagherry was formerly the residence of a polygar, but is now in ruins. Its inhabitants are Telingas, whom the English unaccountably style Gentoos, from a Portuguese appellation for the natives of all India. Iron is here smelted from black sand; the soil abounds in calcareous nodules; and from the low wet grounds, culinary salt is extracted. In this country, all the houses are collected in villages, and each village is fortified by a stone wall and parapet of mud, with a door in it only accessible by a ladder. An almost uncultivated country led to the village of Taycullum, where the Cannara or Carnataca language prevailed during the rest of the journey to the capital. The soil in the vicinity of Walluru is highly unfavourable to cultivation; yet the town itself consists of 500 houses, most of them white washed within, and painted red and white without; terraced with mud, and roofed with tiles. The course of the southern Pennar gave a luxuriant vegetation to the environs of Catcolli; but a tract rather naked than barren, extended to Bangalor.

The fort of Bangalor was considered by the Moslems as a masterpiece of military architecture; and the palace, though com, posed of mud, is not without magnificence. The gardens formed here by Hyder and Tippu, are extensive, and divided into square plots, separated by walks, ornamented with fine cypress trees. Vines, apples and peaches, are successfully cultivated, and the first produces luxuriantly. In the route from hence to Seringapatnam, in a south westerly direction, the fort and town of Chinapatnam, containing 1000 houses, is situated in a romantic woodland.

The naratives of our victories have illustrated the topography of Seringapatnam. Our author states its actual population at 31,895 persons, and estimates the former population of the island at 150,000 persons, who were entirely supported by the court and

and army, scarcely any manufactures having been established.' Having procured from the minister authority to call upon all the native officers for information, our author, after inspecting the country contiguous to Seringapatnam, proceeded to visit the chief places of the Rajah's dominions, returning at the end of each tour to the capital, as a central situation.

His first tour embraced the districts situated towards the northeast. In this direction much arable land is unoccupied, even near the capital. The depopulation occasioned by the march of hostile armies renders unavailing, at Muduru, the beneficent labours of an antient Hindu prince, for the irrigation of his dominions. China. patan possesses manufactures of glass and steel wire, and extensive plantations of coco nut and betel palms in its vicinity. Numerous herds of cows and goats pasture near the banks of the Arcavati. The hilly tract near it is inhabited by a tribe in a very low state of civilization, but whose language attests their Hindu origin.

The trade of Bangalor, formerly considerable for an inland mart, begins to revive. It consists principally in betel nut, black pepper, sandal, and woollen cloths, which are universally worn throughout the Mysor dominions. From Bangalor, Dr Buchanan proceeded north-east, through a country generally level, but mostly uncultivated, to Colar, the birth-place of Hyder. The vicinity of Colar, formerly the capital of a province subject to the Mohamedan sovereign of Vigayapur, is fertile, and well cultivated, but entirely dependent on artificial irrigation. This mart escaped the ruin which awaited Bangalor in the late hostilities, and continues a thriving emporium, whence the imports and productions of the coasts are disseminated in the interior districts. From Colar in a north-westerly direction to Silagutti, a depopulated country bears only the traces of former prosperity. Little Balapur was formerly a place of great commerce, and is again beginning to revive. It at present contains 400 houses. The soil of the neighbouring lands is fertile, but the scantiness and poverty of the inhabitants impedes its cultivation.

Great Balapur contains 2000 houses, and was formerly the seat of a polygar, become independent after the fall of Vijayanagar. The route to Sira discovered the same marks of present depopulation and former prosperity. That city was ruined by Tippu, who removed 12,000 of the inhabitants to the suburbs of his capital. In addition to the causes so frequently assigned for the scanty cultivation, the dryness of the climate concurs, in Sira, to discourage the labours of the husbandman. From Sira, Dr Buchanan visited the pastoral country which skirts the frontiers of the Nizam's dominions, and returned to Seringapatnam by a different route.


In the same manner, our author pursued his investigations in the countries south of the Caveri; and, penetrating the thick forests which cover the western ridges of the Ghats, he descended into the plains of Malabar. Skirting the coasts northwards, he reached the confines of the Portuguese territory, whence he returned to Seringapatnam by an inland route. To follow Dr' Buchanan on this journey, would add only a few features of discrimination to the general character which our readers are already impressed with of the general aspect of the country.. This, indeed, is only what might be conjectured of a kingdom recently conquered, and at the expiration of a reign entirely occupied in warfare, during which, hostile armies repeatedly traversed it in every direction.

With respect to the information which these travels afford on the important points suggested by Lord Wellesley, it must be our province, rather to enable our readers to appreciate, than to attempt to detail it. The industry and talents of Dr Buchanan, united with such opportunities as he possessed of procuring information on the spot, might undoubtedly have enabled him to compose a regular and digested account of the agriculture of Mysor. But the work before us is a journal, in which every thing is treated of incidentally, as suggested by some local circumstance, or casual occurrence. Each day something is said of agriculture; and the subject is suspended to speak of the customs or religion of some cast or tribe; and these again recur very frequently in the course of the journey, with new particulars, Nowhere is one subject fully discussed; and the impression left by one day's observation is totally destroyed the next, to revive on a future occasion. This, indeed, is an inconvenience attached to journals, and we therefore impute no blame to Dr Buchanan on this account; yet it is certain that, whoever should attempt to exhibit a distinct and copious exposition of the statistics of those countries, from the work now before us, must undertake a greater literary effort than the author could have made in the composition.

According to the Mogul system of finance, the revenues rise and decline with the improvement of the country. This system, though unquestionably prejudicial to agriculture, was attended with one good effect, that of procuring frequent and copious statistical accounts from every part of the country. The useful hereditary office of the Canungu, resident in each subdivision, preserved and embodied these accounts. Until the permanent settlement of the revenues of Bengal, effected by the Marquis of Cornwallis, the native or English officers transmitted to the Board of Revenue, with more or less detail and ability, annual accounts


of the state of their respective districts, as a foundation for the bundubust or settlement of the ensuing year. The great financial operation of Lord Cornwallis just alluded to, was the result of much investigation and local research. Since its establishment, various circumstances, of an incidental nature, have rendered local inquiries indispensable. The whole of the documents produced by these inquiries are now in the possession of the Bengal government, and constitute ample and authentic materials for a regular statistical work, superior, probably, to any that could be obtained in most kingdoms of Europe. The extension of the permanent settlement to the peninsula, has rendered similar information necessary there. Dr Buchanan's travels show what progress the gentlemen recently appointed to the charge of districts, had already made in procuring valuable and solid materials for judging of the state of the country. The established officers of government had, indeed, many advantages of which Dr Buchanan was destitute. The object of their inquiries was understood and definite. Falsehood would have incurred, and deserved punishment. Previous acquaintance with the districts, long residence, and personal reputation, furnished in abundance the means of detection. Under widely different circumstances were the inquiries of our author conducted. Notwithstanding the adjustment of the treaty, it might perhaps be. allowable even for the minister himself to suspect, that a discovery of unexpected resources might pave the way for additional demands by the English government. The inquiries of our author must, on the other hand, have suggested to the peasantry new demands of rent; and concealment and evasion would of course be employed to elude them.

In appreciating, therefore, the correctness of the information. contained in these pages, we must never lose sight of the impression under which it was given. Every thing the author has seen is described perspicuously, unaffectedly, and, beyond all question, with the strictest veracity. All that he has heard we are disposed to receive with no common portion of scepticism. Thus, when he describes the simple processes of husbandry employed by the Hindu peasantry, we rely implicitly on his account: But when, advancing further, he attempts to ascertain the produce of the field, and its numerary value, whence an inference might be drawn as to the ability of the husbandman to submit to an increase of rent, our scepticism returns with redoubled force.

One lamentable defect appears to have been unavoidable, from the nature of his instructions,--that of treating subjects which his information by no means qualified him even to investigate; for in nothing, perhaps, is knowledge more requisite, than to enable


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