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on the fuccefs of the prefent undertaking; he reaffumed, with feeming chearfulness, the work; repaired, with incredible expedition, the breach which the fea had made in the mole; and, having brought it again almost home to the city, began to batter it with all forts of warlike engines; while the archers and flingers harraffed, without interruption, those who defended it, in order to drive them from their pofts. But the Tyrians ftood their ground; and, by means of a new contrivance of wheels with many spokes, which, being whirled about with an engine, either shattered in pieces the enemy's darts and arrows, or broke their force; covered themselves against the aggreffors; and killed great numbers of them, without fuffering any confiderable lofs on their own fide. But, in the mean time, the wall began to yield to the violence of the rams that battered it night and day uninterruptedly. Whereupon the befieged, fetting all hands to work, raifed, in a very fhort time, a new wall, ten cubits broad, and five cubits diftant from the former; and, by filling up the empty space between the two walls with earth and ftones,. kept the Macedonians a long while employed, 'ere they could make, with all their engines, the leaft impreffion on this new piece of fortification. However, Alexander, having joined many of his fhips together, and mounted upon them a vaft number of battering engines, befides thofe he had already placed on the mole, fucceeded at laft in the attempt, and made a breach a hundred feet wide. But when he came to the affault, in hopes of breaking into the city over the ruins, the Macedonians,


though encouraged by the prefence of their King, were forced to give ground, and retire with great lofs to their fhips. Alexander defigned to renew the attack next morning; but the breach having been repaired by the Tyrians during the night, he perceived himfelf no further advanced than when he firft began to batter the walls. Hereupon the Macedonian refolved to change his measures; and, having first of all brought the mole home to the wall, caused feveral towers to be built, equal in height to the battlements. Thefe towers he filled with the most brave and refolute men of his army; who, pursuant to his directions, having formed a bridge with large planks, refting with one end on the towers, and with the other on the top of the ramparts, endeavoured, fword in hand, to gain the wall; but could not prevail, being oppofed by the Tyrians, with unparalelled bravery, and weapons which the Macedonians were altogether unacquianted with. These were three-forked hooks, faftened with a cord, (one end whereof they held themfelves), which, being thrown at a little diftance, stuck in the enemy's targets, and gave the Tyrians an opportunity, either of phucking their targets out of their hands, and by that means expofing them, without defence, to showers of darts and arrows; or, if they were unwilling to part with their fhields, of pulling them headlong out of the towers fome, by throwing a kind of fishingnets upon the Macedonians that were engaged on the bridges, entangled their hands; fo that they could neither defend themfelves, or offend the enemy: others, with long poles,


armed with iron-hooks, drew them off the bridges, and dashed their brains out against the wall, or on the caufey. In the mean time, a great many engines, placed on the walls, played inceffantly upon the aggreffors, with maffy pieces of red-hot iron, which swept away entire ranks at once. But what most of all disheartened the Macedonians, in the attack, and forced them, at laft, to give it over, was the fcorching fand, which the Tyrians, by a new contrivance, fhowered upon them for this fand, which was thrown in redhot fhields of iron or brafs, getting within their breaft-plates, and coats of mail, tormented them to fuch a degree, that many, finding no other relief, threw themselves headlong into the fea; and others, dying in the anguish of inexpreffible torments, ftruck, with their defperate cries, a terror into all those who heard them. This occafioned unspeakable confufion among the aggreffors, which gave new courage to the Tyrians; who, now leaving the walls, charged the enemy hand to hand, on his own bridges, with fuch refolution, that Alexander, feeing his men give ground, thought fit to found the retreat, and, by that means, in fome degree, save the the reputation of his Macedonians. Such defperate attacks were frequently renewed by the aggreffors, and always fuftained, with the fame unbroken and undaunted courage, by the befieged. And now Alexander began to entertain fome thoughts of abandoning the enterprize, and continuing his march into Egypt but again confidering the dangerous confequences that muft unavoidably attend


fuch a refolution, he determined to go on with the fiege, at all adventures; though, of all his captains, none was found, but Amyntas, who approved of that determination. Having therefore exhorted the disheartened Macedonians to ftand by him, and infufed into them all the courage he could, he furrounded the city with his fleet, and began to batter it on all fides. In the mean time, a fancy taking the Tyrians, upon a dream fome of them had, that Apollo defigned to forfake them, and go over to Alexander, they faftened his ftatue, or coloffus, with golden chains, to the altar of Hercules. This ftatue, or coloffus, (for it was of an extraordinary fize), belonged formerly to the city of Gela in Sicily, and was fent from thence by the Carthaginians, when they took Gela, to Tyre, their mother city. In this Apollo the Tyrians greatly confided; and therefore, upon the ru mour that he was to abandon them, they had recourfe even to chains, in order to prevent his departure but their utter ruin being already decreed by the true God, and foretold by his prophets, the confidence they placed in their idols could not avert the impending judgment. They were deftined to deftruction, and deftruction was their fate: for Alexander, having at last battered down the walls, and taken the town by ftorm, after seven months fiege, fully executed the fentence, which the Tyrians had, by their pride and other vices, drawn down upon themselves and their country. The city was burnt down to the ground, and the inhabitants (excepting thofe whom the Sydonians fecretly conveyed away


away in their fhips) were either deftroyed, or enlaved by the conqueror; who, upon his frit entering the city, put eight thoufand to the fword, caufed two thoufand of thefe he took prifoners to be crucified, and fold the reft, to the number of thirty thoufand, fays Arrian, to be flaves. His cruelty towards the two thousand that were crucified, was highly unbecoming a generous conqueror. Alexander treated them thus, for no other reafon, than, because they had fought with fuch bravery and refolution in defence of their country; but, to paliate the true caufe of so base an action, he gave out, that he did it to revenge, upon the prefent Tyrians, the crime which their forefathers committed, when they murdered their masters; and that, being flaves by origin, crucifixion was the punishment due to them. Upon taking the city, he unchained Apollo; returning him thanks for his intention of coming over to the Macedonians; offered facrifice to Hercules; and, after performing many other fuperftitious follies, continued his march into Egypt.

A Defcription of the city of JERUSALEM, its antient and modern state.


HIS city, in its moft flourishing state, was divided into four parts, each inclosed with its own walls, viz. 1. The old city of Jebus, that flood on Mount Zion, where the prophets dwelt, and where David built a magnificent catle and palace, which became the refidence both of himfelf and fucceffors; on which account

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