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tably attended with the utter ruin of thofe who had fent them. As for the subject of their embaffy, they could not promife themfelves a favourable fentence from a judge, who would not fo much as hear them, being highly incenfed against their whole nation, as the only people fubject to Rome who refufed to acknowledge his divinity. They continued in the city, waiting with the greatest anxiety imaginable for the decision of their caufe; for, upon the fentence which the Emperor might think fit to pronounce, depended the fate of the whole Jewish nation; who would be every where perfecuted, and ftripped of their effects, privileges, oratories, &c. if the Emperor fhould countenance the Alexandrians in their cruel and unwarrantable proceedings against them. Jofephus feems to fpeak of another audience granted by Caius to the Jewish and Alexandrian ambaffadors; wherein Apion inveighed with great bitternefs against the Jews, alledging many things against them: but his main charge was, That whereas temples and altars were erected to Caius by all other nations, and the fame adoration paid to him, as to the reft of the gods, the Jews alone obftinately re, fufed either to confecrate images to him, or to fwear by his name. When Philo was about to reply in behalf of the Jews, Caius, in a great rage, commanded him to be filent, and with dreadful menaces bid him be gone. Hereupon Philo, turning to his colleagues, "Let us take courage, faid he; now Caius is "against us, God will be for us.” What fentence Caius pronounced in the end, we find nowhere recorded: all we know is, that,
during his whole reign, the Jews were grievously perfecuted and oppreffed by the Alex- andrians; and that Alexander Lyfimachus, brother to Philo, and alabarch of the Alexandrian Jews, was, by Caius's order, committed to prifon, and there detained, till he was difcharged by Claudius; upon whofe acceffion to the empire, the Jews, notwithstanding their boafted patience, betook themselves to arms; which occafioned a great tumult at Alexandria. Claudius, upon the first tidings of the commotion, wrote to the governor of Egypt, injoining him to appease it; and, at the requeft of the two kings, Agrippa and Herod, enacted an edict, which he fent to Alexandria, confirming to the Jews all the privileges they had ever enjoyed in that city, and declaring all the proceedings of Caius against them null and void.
A fuccinct Hiftory of James I. King of Scotland.
[Taken from the Scottish Hiftory.]
OBERT III. King of Scotland, had, by his Queen Annabella Drummond, of the family of Stobhall, two fons and one daughter: The daughter was first married to James Kennedy of Drummuir, afterwards to George Douglas, the firft Earl of Angus of that firname; and, thirdly, fhe was married to the Lord Graham. The Earl of Caffilis is the off fpring of her firft marriage, the Duke of Dou glas of the fecond, the Laird of Fintray of the third. His two fons were David, and James, who
who afterwards reigned. The eldest fon Da vid was a youth of no mean accomplishments, but extremely addicted to vice and debauchery; which gave great uneasiness to his father. When David was eighteen years of age, his father, in an affembly of the ftates at Perth, created him Duke of Rothfay; and he created his own brother Robert, then Earl of Monteith and Fife, Duke of Albany. Thefe were the first Dukes that were created in Scotland.
Shortly after the death of Archibald Douglas the year before, there immediately followed the decease of the Queen Annabella, and. of Walter Trayle Archbishop of St. Andrews; infomuch that all mens minds did prefage a great change of affairs. For the fplendor of military matters was upheld by Douglas; the ecclefiaftical authority and refemblance (in fome fort) of ancient difcipline, by Trayle; and the dignity of the court, by the Queen, as did foon appear by what happened after her death.. For David, the King's fon, was a young man of a fierce difpofition, and inclined to wantonnefs and luft. The indulgence of his father increafed thofe vices; for though he had not authority enough to maintain the reverence due to him, yet, by the diligent admonition of those who were appointed to be David's tutors in his youth, but much more by the counsel and advice of his mother, his youthful heats of temper were somewhat reftrained but when he was dead, he, as now freed from this curb, returned to his own manners and luftful courfes; for, laying afide all fhame and fear, he took away other mens wives by force, nay, and virgins toc, though
well defcended; and thofe that he could not perfuade by fair means, he ravished by compulfion; and, if any one endeavoured to abridge him in his debauched courfes, he was fure never to come off without fuffering for it. Many complaints were brought to his father about these his exorbitancies; fo that he wrote to his brother, the Governor, to keep him with him, and to have a strict eye over his conversation, till that spirit of lewdnefs fhould abate, and till he gave fome hopes of his amendment of life. The Governor had now an opportunity put into his hands, to effect what he most defired; and that was, to deftroy his brother's iffue: So that, meeting David three miles from St. Andrews, he carried him into the caftle there, which he kept in the nature of a garrison, after the Archbifhop's death. After a while he took him from thence, and carried him to his own caftle of Falkland; and there fhut him up clofe prifoner, intending to ftarve him. But that miferable death, to which his uncle's cruelty had defigned him, was protracted for a few days, by the compaffion of two of the female fex. One was a young maid, whofe father was governor of the caftle and garrifon. She gave him oatcakes made fo thin, that they could be folded up together, (as it is ufual in Scotland to make them), and, as often as fhe went into the garden near the prifon, fhe put them under a linnen vail or hood, which she did, as it were, carelessly caft over her head, to keep her from the fun, and thruft them into the prifon to him through a small crany, rather than a window. The other was a country-nurfe, who
milked her breast, and, by a little canal, conveyed it into his mouth. By this mean fare, which ferved rather to increafe, than affwage his hunger, his wretched life and punishment was lengthened out for a little while; till at length, by the vigilance of the guards, they were difcovered, and put to death; the father mightily abhorring the perfidioufnefs of his own daughter, whilft he endeavoured to manifeft his fidelity to an unfaithful regent. The young man being thus left deftitute of all human fupport, having, by force of hunger, gnawed and torn his own flefh, died at length more than a fingle death. His end was long concealed from his father, though it was commonly known abroad, becaufe no man durft be the messenger of fuch fad tidings to him.
In the mean time, the Scottish King heard of the death of David his eldeft fon, by the unnatural cruelty of his uncle. The author was fufficiently pointed at by private whifperings, though no man dared publickly to accufe fo potent a man. Whereupon the King fends for his brother, and sharply expoftulates with him concerning the matter. He had prepared his tale before-hand, and charges 0-.. thers with the guilt of the young man's death; as for him and his, they were ready, forfooth, whenever the King pleafed, to plead and affert their innocency, in a due courfe of law; but as for the murderers, fome of them he hadtaken already, and the rest he would make diligent fearch after. Thus the matter being brought to examination according to law, the author of the wickednefs fummons a counfel; fets up accufers; and he who was impleaded