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his adverfaries not being able to follow him, by reafon of their wounds, he escaped to the other fide. By this means the forwardeft of both parties being flain, the promifcuous multitude, being left without leaders, gave over their trade of fedition for many years after, and betook themfelves to their husbandry. This combat happened in the year 1396.

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A Defcription of BABEL.


HE reader muft needs have a curiofity to fee fome account of a city and a tower which employed all the men in the world, for fo many years, in building. The fcripture informs us, that they had made ufe of burnt bricks inftead of stone, and flime instead of mortar. According to an Eastern tradition, they were three years in making and burning thefe bricks; each of which was thirteen cubits long, ten broad, and five thick. The flime with which thefe bricks were cemented, was a pitchy fubftance, or bitumen, brought from a city, in the neighbourhood of Babylon, called Is, or Hit. The Oriental authors fay, that the city built by the fons of Noah, was three hundred and thirteen fathoms in length, and one hundred and fifty one in breadth; that the walls of it were five thousand five hundred and thirty three fathoms high, and thirty three broad; and the tower ten thoufand fathoms, or twelve miles high: which dimenfions bear no manner of proportion to each other. Even Jerom affirms, from the teftimony of eye-witneffes, who examined

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mined the remains of the tower carefully, that it was four miles high. But Ado raises the height to no less than five thousand miles. But these are shameful extravagancies. The only account we can depend upon, as to the dimenfions of this tower, fuppofing it the fame tower with that which stood in the midst of the temple of Belus, afterwards built round it, by Nebuchadnezzar, must be taken from profane authors. Herodotus tells us, it was a furlong in length, and as much in breadth: and Strabo determines the height to have been a furlong; that is, the eight part of a mile, or fix hundred and fixty feet; which is itself prodigious; for thereby it appears to have exceeded the greatest of the Egyptian pyramids, in height, one hundred feventy nine feet, though it fell fhort of it, at the bafis, by thirty three. confifted of eight fquare towers, one above another, gradually decreafing in breadth; which, with the winding of the stairs from top to bottom on the outside, gave it the resemblance of a pyramid, as Strabo calls it. This antique form, joined to the extraordinary height of the structure, eafily induces us to believe it to be the fame tower mentioned by Mofes; Nebuchadnezzar finishing the design which the fons of Noan were obliged, by the confufion of tongues, to leave unexecuted.


THAT this moft wonderful city was in a flourishing ftate, and that several changes of fortune befel it, till at length it was totally deftroyed, is related by feveral historians. The ruins of this celebrated antiquity are fo defaced, that the people of the country are not certain of their fituation; which, confequent


ly, has occafioned travellers to differ pretty much in their accounts concerning these ruins, and have formed various conjectures about them. Most of them, following a tradition of the inhabitants, have judged a place about eight or nine miles to the Weft, or North-west of Baghdad, to be the tower of Babel. Rauwolf fuppofes he found the ruins of Babylon upon the Euphrates, near Felujia, about thirty fix miles to the South-west of Baghdad And Della Valle was directed, by another tradition, to look for it about two days journey lower, near an antient city called Hella, fituate upon the fame river. Here also must be placed the ruins described by a late traveller into these parts.

The Hiftory of the fiege of Tyre, by ALEXANDER the Great.

E may judge of the flourishing condition of Tyre, at that time, from the ftand it made against that victorious prince, fince it ftopped the course of his whole army full seven months. As the conqueror approached the territories of Tyre, the Tyrians fent out ambaffadors to meet him, (amongst whom was the King's own fon), with prefents for himself, and provifions for his army but when he defired to enter the city, under pretence of offering facrifice to Hercules, they refufed him admittance; which provoked Alexander, now flushed with fo many victories, to fuch a degree, that he refolved to storm the city, and enter it by force. On the other hand, the Tyrians,

Tyrians, not at all terrified by Alexander's threats, determined to ftand it out to the laft. What encouraged them to this refolution, was the ftrength of the place, and the confidence they had in the Carthaginians, their allies. The city then food on an ifland half a mile diftant from the fhore; was furrounded with a strong wall an hundred and fifty feet high; and was stored with great plenty of provifions, and all forts of warlike machines: befides, the Carthaginians, who were a powerful state, and then mafters of the feas, had promifed to fend them fuccours during the war. What animated the Tyrians to ftand a fiege, gave Alexander no fmall uneafinefs in the undertaking, and carrying it on for he could no otherwife make his approaches to it, than by carrying a mole or caufey from the continent to the island on which the city ftood. This grand work he undertook; and, as he was refolved, at any rate, to reduce the city, he accomplished it at laft, maugre the innumerable, and almost infurmountable difficulties he met with in fo bold an attempt. He was affifted in raifing the mole (which was two hundred feet in breadth) by the inhabitants of the neigh.' bouring cities, who were all called in on this occafion; and fupplied with ftones from the ruins of old Tyre, and with timber from Mount Libanus. The Tyrians at firft looked upon this undertaking as a rafh and defperate attempt, which could never be attended with any fuccefs: and therefore, from their fhips, laughing at the King, afked him, whether he believed himself to be greater than Neptune ? But, feeing the mole, contrary to their expectation,

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pectation, beginning to appear above water, they refolved, for fear of the worst, to fend their wives and children, and fuch as were not fit for fervice, to Carthage; but were prevented, by the arrival of Alexander's fleet from Cyprus. Neither could the Carthaginians affift them with the promifed fuccours, being detained at home by domeftick troubles. However, the Tyrians fainted not in the refolution of ftanding to their defence; firft from their ships, and afterwards, as the mole was brought nearer the city, from the walls, with fhowers of arrows, darts, ftones, &c. wherewith they made a moft dreadful havock of the Macedonians, who were employed in the work, and expofed without any defence. But what most of all disheartened the Macedonians, was a violent ftorm, which, arifing all on a fudden, carried away, in great part, the caufey, after it had been, with unwearied labour, and great lofs of men, brought near the walls of the city. This unlucky accident perplexed Alexander to fuch a degree, that he began to repent he had undertaken the fiege; and would have fent ambaffadors to the Tyrians with terms of peace, had he believed they would have hearkened to them. But as they had thrown headlong into the fea the ambassadors, who, before the fiege, had in his name fummoned them to furrender; he was afraid those he should send now, might meet with fuch like, or more fevere treatment. Being therefore diverted, by this apprehenfion, from all thoughts of making up matters by way of treaty; and fully apprifed, that his reputation, and the future progrefs of his arms, entirely depended


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