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it in ruin. For a State, thus trading, cannot grow rich but by enriching others more, in fact, than itself; and is liable to fuffer by every finifter accident, that may prevent foreigners from bringing, or fending, their commodities to market.
In Holland, almost half the people are what they call Merchants, and the reft Factors, Brokers, and Shopkeepers. Amfterdam is, perhaps, the greatest market in the universe, for all commodities in it, You may there buy almost any produce or manufacture in the world, nearly as cheap as on the spot where it grew or was made; and yet hardly an individual in the whole place is to be found, who can himself make a pair of buckles, or a penknife. Thus their manufactures are neglected; not fo much because they are incapable of making the fame improvements as other people, but out of a too univerfal fpirit of commerce, which has proved fo far destructive, as it has rendered almoít every part of their extenfive trade dependent on other nations, and has engaged by much the greater part of them in an uncertain employment, who, on any decrease of their accuftomed traffic with foreigners, muft prove a burthen to the State.
A very ftriking parallel may, perhaps, fometime or other, be drawn between the ancient Egyptians, fuch as our Author has reprefented them, and the modern Dutch.
No country, fays he, could boast a more advantageous fituation than Egypt, with refpect to the purposes of Navigation. It was, for a long time, the magazine of Rome and Conftantinople, and as it were the general ftaple of the East and Western world. But fuch at length became the fordidness and effeminacy of the people, that they fell an easy prey, fiift to the Romans, and afterwards to the Ottoman Princes. Selfish, shuffing, and cowardly, they became even objects of contempt in the eyes of their conquerors, who regarded Egypt only as their torchoufe, and its inhabitants as the flaves attending it.
As to what our Author lays fo great a ftrefs on, in that commercial States have generally too much neglected the arts of War; his reafoning is to far juft, as it fhews the abfurdity of a man's going armed at all points, when he has little or nothing to lofe, and of neglecting the means of defence when he carries a charge of money about him. But, altho' this may have been frequently the cafe with commercial States, and particularly Republics, it does not follow, as a neceflary confequence of a nation's pursuing, even to the
greatest lengths, fuch an independant and profitable com-
In countries, indeed, where agriculture is esteemed a mean employment, where labour is difgraceful, and the doing nothing, or the having nothing to do, gives a title to respect, what wonder if indolence and effeminacy fhould prevail, and create a general diftafte to a military life? If at the fame time alfo, the ill-directed fpirit of commerce fhould fo univerfally infeft the people with the love of gain, that riches fhould be the only introduction to efteem, and preferments of all kinds be fold to the best bidder, while the meaneft artifices of buying and felling fhould prove the fureft means to wealth and honour;-is there room to wonder, that individuals fhould only apply themfelves to get money, by the eafieft and speediest methods in their power?
The life of a Trader and a Soldier are, perhaps, too different to be reconciled in the fame perfon; as, we prefume, it may be difficult to perfuade the man who enjoys himself in ease and affluence, at the trouble only of a few hours attendance to the business of the counting-houfe, to undergo, with alacrity, on every alarming occafion, the hardships and dangers of a military employment. But in a country where commerce is eftablished, and purfued on a juft plan, there will ever be found fufficient number of industrious and laborious individuals, to whom military duty will appear rather an agreeable avocation than an hardship. In fuch a country too, if but that due encouragement be given to military merit which is confiftent even with its commercial interefts, there will be found a fufficient number of those also, who, having otherwife nothing to do, would yet, in that cafe, devote their lives and fervices to the defence of the public.
On the whole, we do not think that Trade, even in the light our Author has represented it, contributed fo much to the decline, or ruin, of the ancient commercial States, as fome other collateral caufes that might be pointed out: nor do we conceive, however incompatible the Soldier and Merchant may prove in the individual, that a commercial, may not, at the fame time, be a very military people.
De genuino Principio Æquilibrii corporum Solidorum, aliorumque
A Differtation on the Principles of the Equilibrium of Solids,
Principles. By Mr. Kratz, Profeffor of the Mathematics in the University of Ingoldftadt. 12mo. Munich, 1759. WE are informed of this work, as a very fcientific and methodical performance; wherein the Author endeavours to fhew the mechanical or immediate cause why two bodies of equal weight, placed at equal distances from the center of a Balance-Beam, maintain a perfect equilibrium.
It is divided into five fections: in the first of which the Author makes a variety of obfervations on the powers and properties of the Lever.
In the fecond, he difcuffes the several opinions of Philofaphers, concerning the efficient caufe of the Equilibrium, and confiders their validity.
In the third, he enters on the enquiry into the true cause of that Equilibrium, by fcrutinizing into the effects which equal weights, placed at the extremities of a Balance, have on the texture of the parts of the beam, &c.
In the fourth, the caufe of the Equilibrium is determined, and its effects at large expatiated on.
In the fifth, this caufe and its effects are further treated of, in its relation to, and dependence on, the phyfical state of folid bodies.
We have feen great encomiums on this performance; but, as the book itself is not yet come to hand, we must defer a more particular account of it to another opportunity.
For DECEMBER, 1759.
Art. 1. The Conduct of a late noble Commander candidly confidered. With a View to expose the Mifreprefentations of the anonymous Author of the Two Letters addreffed to his L————p; to place the Controverfy on a Foundation fupported by Facts; to fate the Difficulties which obftru&t a public Enquiry; and to propofe a Method of removing them. 8vo. Is. Baldwin.
difclosed in the
ROM this promifing title page, we are led to expect some new ous Controversy: but, in truth, no fuch novelty appears. What the Writer is pleafed to call facts, are no more than obfervations; and
and thofe extremely partial and defective. He does not, indeed, directly attempt to juftify the Noble Commander, but only undertakes to prove malice and fraud in the Letter-Writer. For this purpose he infifts on two points, of which one has been fufficiently laboured by former Pamphleteers, and fully replied to by the Letter-Writer, in an Appendix to his third pamphlet, entitled, Farther Animadverfions, &c. Yet no notice whatever is taken of this Reply in the Appendix, which neglect does not bear the most favourable testimony of our Author's boasted candour and impartiality.
It must be allowed, however, that he expreffes himself with great temper and decency; and though he artfully disclaims all pretenfions to merit as a Writer, yet he takes no fmall pains to excel in that capacity and it is but juft to add, that his endeavours have not proved unfuccefsful. He has,n evertheless, forgotten Horace's precept, Artis eft celare Artem: for it requires little more than moderate difcernment to discover the artifice he employs to reconcile the public to the Noble Commander, though he does not attempt a direct vindication of his conduct. This is particularly evident in his conclufion, where, in ftating the difficulties which obftruct a public enquiry, he flily infinuates, that the Noble Commander's dismission is not on account of his misbehaviour at Minden, but on account of his difagreement with Prince Ferdinand: and then he adds, that If by an unfor⚫tunate concurrence of accidents, he (meaning Prince Ferdinand) and
any British Commander, have fo difagreed, that no enquiry can be ⚫ made into the conduct of the latter, without an attempt to impeach that of the former, in this cafe, the difmiffion of the latter, without any trial, is neceffary for the public good.' Notwithstanding this he propofes, at the diftance of two or three pages, that Lord George fhould demand A board of General Officers; not to en
quire into the caufes of his difmiflion, but to enquire into the fingle fact, whether or no he disobeyed any order from Prince Ferdinand.' How difficult it is for a man who affects a character, to preferve consistency!
Art. 2. A Reply to the Second Letter to a late Noble Commander.
This Country Gentleman is, indeed, a very Ruftic: yet it must be allowed, that he has rather more urbanity than the Answerer* of the first Letter. He does not call the Letter-Writer rogue and rafcal in direct terms, but only tells him, by way of periphrafis, that he is totally unacquainted with honour and principle.'
As to the appearance of argument in this pamphlet, nothing is advanced, but what has been repeated before: and our Readers are by this time fufficiently apprized of the fubject, to judge of their validity. With refpect to the perfonal imputations caft on both fides, the fenfible part of the public, will regard the merits of the difpute, rather than the motives of the Difputants.
See our laft Review, page 447.
Art. 3. An Addrefs to a Great Man. Folio. 6d. Woodfall.
Ex Pede Herculem. This short sketch is the work of no common pen. The ftile is manly and elegant; and the design of the Address is artfully unfolded: which is no lefs than to recommend the reftoring the Duke of Cumberland to the fupreme command of the army. A measure, which the nation in general, of whom his Royal Highnefs has fo well deferved, will, we apprehend, unanimously applaud.
Art. 4. A Tour through Spain and Portugal, &c. Giving an
The first edition of this work made its appearance a few months be fore the commencement of our Review, in the year 1749, and was not mentioned by us at that time; but it may, therefore, be expected, that the prefent new edition fhould not pass unnoticed.
As we have but a very imperfect knowlege of the interior part of Spain, we were pleafed with the profpect of being introduced there by a modern Traveller, who might make us acquainted with the prefent condition of the country, and manners of its inhabitants: but in thefe expectations we have been altogether difappointed by Mr Udal ap Rhys. His defcriptions are not fufficiently geographical; the fituation of places being mentioned in too general a manner, and .not fatisfactorily afcertained. We expected to have travelled through the country with the Author, and to have been able to trace our rout from one place to another: whereas we drop abruptly upon towns without knowing how we get to them, nor yet how we leave them : in which refpect our Author treats his Readers, as adverse armies treat each other's heralds and expreffes, whom they bring blindfold to the head-quarters; where having tranfacted their business, they are led blindfolded back again.
In brief, this performance is executed after the manner of that well-known old Geographer, Ogilby; whofe works are valued for the fake of their prints, in which refpect Mr. Udal ap Rhys cannot compare with him; fince he has not fo much as given us a general Map of the country, by which to illuftrate his detached defcriptions. (He has, indeed, at the end, added a tabular lift of Spanish towns, with their respective diftances, which, if correct, is certainly useful, though it does not fupply the deficiency of a Map, and proper defcription.) Add to this, that if we except his detail of the Bullfealt, and his defcription of the Efcurial, and its paintings, his book is not enlivened with any digrefiions beyond monkish traditions, relating to fome popifh Saint, or miraculous image of which tales he has not been fparing. In thefe, he is fo mere a Relator, that we cannot difcover whether he is a true Believer of them or a Heretic. As to the Spaniards, an idea of them would have been far better conceived, from particular relations, which actual experience would furnith a Traveller with, than from the beft general character which could be drawn of them: fince we are not now to be told, that the