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under color of assisting the pope, at last put an end to the empire of Lombardy, as related under the article FRANCE.

LOMBARDY, a country of Upper Italy, is a name commonly given to the whole tract of country between the Alps and the Appennines, or between the frontiers of Switzerland and Tuscany. It is more strictly applicable to the vale of the Po only. In the more general acceptation it is about 250 miles in length, and 150 in breadth, and corresponds pretty nearly to the Gallia Cisalpina of the Romans. It derived its present name from the Lombards of the sixth century, who occupied it as a kingdom till the eighth. Lombardy is divided into Upper and Lower: the former, the western part, comprehending the Milanese, and a portion of the Sardinian territory; the latter, Parma, Modena, the papal legislation, and great part of the Austrian government of Venice. It is also divided into Cispadan, and Transpadan Lombardy: the former, or Lombardy on this side the Po, including all the territory between that river and the Appennines; Transpadan Lombardy, or Lombardy beyond the Po, all that is between that river and the Alps. The states of Lombardy at present are Austrian Italy, Sardinia, Parma, Modena, and Lucca.

LOMBLEM, one of the Sunda Islands, between the larger islands of Floris and Timor, and the eighth and ninth degrees of south latitude. It is itself about fifty miles in length, by sixteen average breadth; but has never been explored.

LOMBOCK, an island in the eastern seas, separated from that of Bally by the straits of Lombock, and from Sumbawa by the straits of Allas. It is about fifty-three miles in length, north and south, and forty-five in average breadth, very mountainous, but covered with wood and verdure. At the town of Bally, in the Straits of Allas, and in the many flourishing plantations and villages of the coast, European ships passing to the east are well supplied. The articles required in exchange are fire-arms, ammunition, or dollars. Its commerce with the neighbouring Malay Islands is also extensive. The inhabitants are supposed to have been originally emigrants from Hindostan, and retain most Hindoo customs.

LOMBOCK, THE STRAIT OF, is formed by the island of Bally west, and that of Lombock east. The south entrance is in long. 115° 43′ E., and in lat. 8° 45′ S., where is a large island, called Banditti Island, to the west of which there is no passage. The navigation is here extremely dangerous, owing to the great rapidity of the tides. The strait of Allas, formed by the island of Lombock to the westward, and that of Sumbawa eastward, is reckoned the best and safest to the eastward of Java, having generally anchorage at the towns and villages.

LOMOND HILLS, several verdant hills of Scotland, in the west part of Fifeshire, distinguished by different names. The two highest are called the Eastern and Western Lomonds. From their relative situation, more than from their magnitude, they command a very extensive and variegated prospect into many distant as well as adjacent counties, and are seen at a

very great distance by travellers in various directions.

LOMOND, EASTERN, the most regular and beautiful of the above hills, is said to be about 550 yards in height above the level of the plain; and, where it is most accessible, seems to have been fortified near the top with a deep trench. It lies a little west of Falkland, and is skirted with furze, above which it exhibits a beautiful verdure at all seasons, and rises into a conical summit. It slopes gradually on the east, but on the west the descent is steep, down to the gap or valley below; which separates it from the Western Lomond, and extends above a mile nearly on a level. Very near the top there is a small cavity about one foot and a half in diameter, which, by travellers, has been esteemed a volcanic crater. It abounds with limestone, and has also some strata of good coal, and a lead mine.

LOMOND, WESTERN, is considerably higher than the Eastern, and has a large cairn of loose stones at the top. From its summit, the southern aspect has little variety, but a gradual and uniform descent, till it joins the parishes of Leslie and Portmoak.

LOMOND, LOCH, a large lake of Scotland, in Dumbartonshire, which Mr. Pennant styles the most beautiful of the Caledonian lakes.' The view of it from Tarbat presents an extensive serpentine lake, winding amidst lofty hills on the north, barren, bleak, and rocky, which darken with their shade that contracted part of the water. About twenty-eight islands are dispersed over the lake, well wooded; of these some just peep above the surface, and are tufted with trees; others are so disposed as to form a magnificent vista. Opposite Luss, at a small distance from the shore, is a mountainous isle almost covered with wood, near half a mile long. The largest island is two miles long, and stocked with deer. lake is thirty-six miles long; its greatest breadth is eight; its greatest depth 120 fathoms. Its surface has, for many years past, been observed gradually to increase, and invade the adjacent shore. And, from a passage in Camden's Atlas Britannica, it appears, that an island existing in his time, called Camstraddan, in which was a house and orchard, is now lost. Large trees are also often found in the mud near the shore, overwhelmed in former times by the increase of water, occasioned by vast quantities of stone and gravel brought down by the rivers, and by the falls of their banks.


LOMONOZOF, a celebrated Russian poet, the great reformer of his native tongue, was the son of a fishmonger at Kolmogori, and was born in 1711. His genius for poetry was first kindled by the perusal of the Song of Solomon, versified by Polotski. He soon after left his father, and took refuge in the Kaikonospaski monastery at Moscow; where he indulged his taste for letters, and studied the Greek and Latin languages. In this seminary he made such progress in literature as to be employed by the Imperial Academy of Sciences. In 1736 that society sent him to the university of Marpurg in Hesse Cassel, where he studied universal grammar, rhetoric, and philosophy, under the celebrated Christian

Wolf. He continued at Marpurg four years, during which time he applied himself to chemistry, which he afterwards pursued with still greater success under the famous Henckel at Freyberg in Saxony. In 1741 he returned into Russia, was chosen in 1742 adjunct to the imperial academy; and, in 1743, member of that society, and professor of chemistry. In 1760 he was appointed inspector of the seminary, then annexed to the academy, and in 1764 Catharine II. made him a counsellor of state. Lomonozof excelled in various kinds of composition; but his chief merit is derived from his poetical com

positions, the finest of which are his odes. They are greatly admired for originality of invention, sublimity of sentiment, and energy of language. In this, and other species of composition, he enriched his native language with various kinds of metre, and is hence styled the Father of Russian Poetry. His principal works were printed in 3 vols. 8vo. He wrote Annals of the Russian Sovereigns; and The Ancient History of Russia, from its Origin to the Death of Yaroslaf I, in 1054; a work of great merit, as it illustrates the most obscure period in the annals of Russia. He died 4th of April, 1764.


LONDON, (Lat. Londinium and Augusta), from the British Lyn-den, signifying the town on the lake, thus supplies in its name one of the earliest and most prominent facts of its history, i.e. that at the period of its foundation the Thames in this neighbourhood was rather a lake, occasionally subsiding into a stream, than a river regularly confined by fences and embankments. The name of the village of Mort-lake still perpetuates the same idea.


EARLY HISTORY OF LONDON. Ammianus Marcellinus mentions Londinium as the capital of the Trinobantes: and Tacitus says, 'London is so called from its situation, and Augusta from its grandeur.' If we advert to more remote writers, the chronicler, Geoffry of Monmouth, tells us that London was founded in the year 1108 before the Christian era, by Brute, a lineal descendant of Eneas, and called by him, after the great scene of his ancestor's exploits, Troy Novant, or New Troy, whence the inhabitants received the name of Trinovantes, or Trinobantes; and so, as we are further told, it continued to be called for 1000 years and more, till the sceptre having devolved on king Lud, a native of Britain, he gave it the name of Caer Lud, or Ludstoun, which in process of time became softened into London. Mr. Pennant, rejecting this story, has framed another of his own, nearly as fanciful. London,' he says, 'certainly existed prior to the invasion of Cæsar; it was, at the time of his arrival in this island, the capital of the Trinobantes, who had recently come from Belgium, and composed one of the small nations into which Britain was formerly divided. The name of this nation, as we learn from Baxter's British Glossary, was derived from the three following British words-tri now hant, which signify the inhabitants of the New City, the ancient name of the renowned metropolis of Britain.'

But the Commentaries of Cæsar at once dissipate these visions of the early grandeur of our metropolis, and prove that it owed every thing worthy of that character to the Romans. He tells us that what the Britons called a town was nothing more than a thick wood, surrounded by a ditch and fortified by a rampart, into which they retired when apprehensive of invasion.'

The proofs are indubitable, that the Britons knew nothing of brick-making at this period, and had never, so far as the Romans could observe, attempted to raise one stone above another. No traces of building have ever yet been discovered about London, which could with any probability be ascribed to a period anterior to the Roman invasion; though, of the natural advantages of the place, the Britons were probably as good judges as their conquerors. We find, accordingly, that as far as regards the site of London, a stronger one for purposes of defence could scarcely have been chosen. The heart of the city was on the summit of an angle of rising ground (about where St. Paul's cathedral now stands), bounded on the one side by the marshy Thames, on the other by the Fleta, a stream or torrent since covered over, which emptied itself into the Thames, near where Blackfriars-bridge has been since erected; and behind this naturally entrenched mount there was a thick wood, which extended far into the interior. We have only in imagination to cover this mount also with thick wood,' to complete the idea which Caesar presents to us of the British town. So slowly, indeed, was the wood cleared away, that so late as the reign of Henry II. all the northern parts of the city bordered on a thick forest, where beasts of the chase roamed. When, under Cæsar, the Romans advanced to the Thames, the Trinobantes were the first of the tribes beyond that river who sent proposals of submission; and there is every reason to believe, that they formed no part of that native force which, under Cassivelaunus, attempted to oppose his progress. When victory declared for Cæsar, and he had effected the passage of the river, he found not only a friendly people in the Trinobantes, but, in their city or strong hold in the wood, as advantageous a position for encampment as the invader of an unknown territory could desire. It was such as a very slight application of the Roman skill in fortification could render impregnable to any attacks from the hostile nations of the interior: while, on the side of the Thames, he secured a free communication with the sea.

It has been a matter of dispute among antiquaries to determine the precise spot where Julius Cæsar forded the Thames. Camden and others think that it was at Shepperton, and that

what are called Cowey Stakes were planted there to obstruct his passage. Maitland, conceiving however that this would place the ford at a greater distance from London than would agree with Cæsar's account, was at great pains to discover a ford lower down. I endeavoured,' he says, 'by sounding the river at several neap tides, from Wandsworth to London-bridge, to discover a ford, which, to my no small satisfaction, I did, on the 18th of September, anno 1732, about ninety feet west of the south-west angle of Chelsea College-garden; where, in a right line from north-east to south-west, I found the deepest part of the channel to be only four feet seven inches deep.' But the state of any part of the river in modern times can be no evidence of what its state was in the time of the Romans. It is besides certain, that to the west of London-bridge, and not so high up as Chelsea, there existed, previous to the general embankment of the river, at least two well known fords. Milford Lane, opposite to St. Clement's Church in the Strand, was so called from a corn mill which anciently stood there, and from its leading to a ford across the river. At York House, the palace of the archbishop of York, which stood on the site of the streets adjoining to what still bears the name of York-stairs, there was another ford, which, as late as the beginning of the eighteenth century, had been used within the memory of many persons.

Mr. Bagford, another learned antiquary, in a letter to Hearne, written in 1714, says, And now I shall relate to you the manner of the Roman approaches near to London. These led along Kent Street, on the left hand, leading to London, and pointed directly to Dowgate, now so called, through an arch since built by the bishop of Winchester at his stairs, which, to this day, is called Stone Street, and came directly out of Surrey. It was at this very place (as I take it) that the Roman legions forded over the river of Thames, first the horse and then the foot, which might not then take them up to the shoulders. And this they might attempt (as we may conjecture) when the tide was first coming in, they then making an angle, and directing their course against the stream of the river. When they came to the middle of the stream, the tide drove them to their intended landingplace which was Dowgate.'

At whatever place the Romans forded the river, it seems certain, at least, that the passage was not effected at any part lower than the junction of the Fleta with the Thames. All the territory within the angle formed by these two streams was occupied by the Trinobantes, who were in negociation for a friendly treaty with the invader; and it must have been above it, therefore, that Cæsar found the hostile forces of Cassivelaunus drawn up to oppose his passage. possibly have been as far up as Cowey Stakes, but not less possibly as low down as the Millford;-in short, the range of reasonable conjecture is so wide, that nothing can be vainer than to attempt to come to a fixed conclusion on the subject.

It may

1. London, under the Romans.-The Romans conquered to civilise. They showed the Britons

how to fashion the clay of their soil into brickз and domestic utensils; to build houses for themselves, temples to their gods, and courts for the administration of justice; to drain and embank; to cut roads and erect causeways; to lay out their towns in streets and squares, and to surround them with walls and towers. The Britons chose the site of London, but to the Romans we must allow the praise of adorning it with its earliest monuments of art.

It was soon perceived, by this sagacious people, that London, though well fitted by its natural strength for a military station, was still better qualified to be a place of extensive commerce. Seated at a considerable distance from the sea on a broad and navigable river, which, after watering some of the fairest portions of the island, discharges itself into the ocean almost in sight of the continent of Europe, it seemed calculated to be at once the mart for a great domestic and great foreign trade. The Romans, however, were warriors, and not traffickers; and they contented themselves with directing the Britons to the cultivation of those advantages, which have raised their capital to the proud preeminence which it now holds among the cities of the earth. We find, accordingly, that London was never, like other settlements of the Romans, formed into what they termed a military colony, exclusively Roman. Here the Roman prefects resided; and from this point, as we learn from the Itinerary of Antoninus, branched most of the great roads into the interior; both decisive proofs that they regarded it as the most important station they possessed in the island: yet neither did they occupy it alone, not did they subject it to the inconvenient restrictions of a garrisontown. London remained a free city, where Roman and Briton mingled amicably together; and to which strangers from all parts were encouraged to resort with their commodities. So rapid was now the progress of London in commercial importance, that, as early as the revolt of the celebrated Boadicea, it is described by Tacitus as having become famous for the vast number of merchants who resorted to it, and the abundance of every species of commodity which it could supply. The first interruption to its prosperity arose from the early triumphs of this illustrious heroine. The Roman general Suetonius, unable in the outset to encounter so formidable a rebellion, was obliged to abandon London to its fate. Boadicea and her troops, eager to punish the ancient defection of the Trinobantes from the common cause of the native powers, and irritated by the spectacle which London presented of Roman greatness, massacred every soul they found in the city, and, setting fire to it in several places, nearly reduced the whole to ashes.

The Romans, however, again recovering the ascendancy, a new city speedily arose on the same favored spot, devoted as before to the peaceful pursuits of commerce, and flourishing by them. In the year 359 no less than 800 vessels are said to have been employed in the exportation from London of corn alone. On the decline of the empire, in the fifth century, London had to lament the departure of the be

neficent founders of her greatness. There are various statements of the period when the Romans abandoned Britain; all that is certain is, that it took place not later than the year 450, when a dominion which brought many blessings to this island had wholly and for ever ceased.

2. Roman remains.-When the Romans evacuated London, they left it encompassed with lofty and well fortified walls. The circuit of them, as described by Stowe, measured two miles and a furlong; and this did not include the side towards the Thames, which, though originally walled in, was subsequently left to its natural defence: when perfect, the walls are supposed to have been twenty-two feet high. They commenced on the east with a large fort, erected on the present site of the Tower (supposed by Bagford still to survive under the name of the White Tower), and taking a semicircular direction by the Minories, Hounsditch, Cripplegate, Aldersgate, Newgate, and Ludgate, terminated in another lofty fort on the Thames, close to Fleet Brook. Besides these two principal forts, the walls were guarded by thirteen other towers, erected at proper distances on the land side, and supposed by Maitland, from some remains of them existing in his time, to have been about forty feet high. The entrances into the city on the land side were originally but three; by Aldgate on the east; Aldersgate on the north, and Ludgate on the west; but in the course of time many new gates were opened to facilitate communication with the country, such as Newgate, Cripplegate, Moorgate, Bishopsgate, the postern on Tower Hill, &c. The barbican, specula, or watch-tower, belonging to every fortified place, stood a little without the walls to the east of Aldersgate, on the spot which still goes by the name of Barbican. Mr. Bagford's account of the uses to which this was applied is curious. Here,' he says, the Romans kept cohorts of soldiers in continual service to watch in the night, that if any sudden fire should happen they might be in readiness to extinguish it, as also to give notice if an enemy were gathering or marching towards the city to surprise them. In short, it was a watch-tower by day, and at night they lighted some combustible matter on the top thereof, to give directions to the weary traveller repairing to the city, either with provision, or upon some other occasion. The same was intended by a lantern on the top of Bow steeple before the fire of London (although seldom made use of), for burning of lights, to give direction to the travellers and to the market people, that came from the northern parts of London. Of all these extensive out-works, walls, towers, and gates, very few vestiges remain.


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The dangers which they were erected to avert, having long since ceased to exist: they have one after another been swept away in the course of modern improvement; and it is only by the names which survive, that their sites are now to be traced. The coins found at their foundations have been invariably Roman; an incontestable proof that it was to the protecting and magnificent spirit of the Roman people, that the British were indebted for the fortification of their capital. Some of the gates were very handsome and

costly structures; especially in later times, when the citizens delighted to distinguish themselves by benefactions and bequests for the embellishment of these inlets to their cherished city. Lud. gate, which was taken down and rebuilt in the reign of queen Elizabeth, was not even at that time erected at a less expense than £1500; and the expenditure on the other gates was equally munificent. When in the last stage of their dilapidation they were ordered to be pulled down, they brought, even as old materials, considerable prices. Aldgate was sold for £157 10s.; Ludgate for £148; and Cripplegate for £91.

London Stone, now to be seen in the south wall of St. Swithin's Church, Cannon Street, was another monument of the Roman power. It appears to have been a miliary, of the same kind as that in the forum at Rome, where all the highways of the country met in a point, and from which they were measured. We have before alluded to the proof which this furnishes, that London was regarded by the Romans as the chief seat of their British dominion. When Jack Cade struck this stone with his sword, exclaiming, Now is Mortimer lord of London,' he was probably not unaware of its emblematic character.

According to Bagford, the Romans had in London a field of Mars, in imitation of that at Rome; and through so long a lapse of ages did the same spot continue to be appropriated to military exercises, that this field was no other than what, in more recent times, was called the Old Artillery Ground. 'On the farther side of Whitechapel Street,' he says, 'next Bishopsgate Street, was another station of the Romans, in that part which formerly bore the name of the Old Artillery Ground, and was their field of Mars, in which place the Romans trained up and exercised their young soldiers, and likewise the youth of the neighbouring Britons, in the skill and exercise of arms, that they might be more expert in the use of them upon all emergent occasions. And, if any sudden tumults or insurrections should happen in the city, they were then ready and at hand to suppress them. This field of Mars was in imitation of that at Old Rome, where they mustered their soldiers, and which must needs have been a very large place, as the same is excellently described and likewise observed to have been a Roman camp, by a judicious author in the latter end of queen Elizabeth's reign.

Of the temples of the Romans no specimens are now extant. In Norden's Middlesex, it is said, there was one near the Tilt Yard; and Bagford makes no doubt of there having been a temple of Diana on the south side of St. Paul's. The ruins of a building, called the Camera Dianæ, situated on the eminence of St. Paul's Wharf, existed in the time of How, who wrote a continuation of Stowe; and the tenements which have been since erected on its site are still designated in the leases of them as part and parcel of the ancient Camera Dianæ. counts given of this structure, however, it does not appear to have been at all of the nature of a temple. The Camera Diana was a vaulted labyrinth, similar in its ground plan to the celebrated

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Rosamond's Bower at Woodstock, and was employed by Henry II., of amorous memory, for the same purpose. The one was the country, and the other the town repository of this jewel of his heart. At this time,' says How, some ruins of it are remaining, and many evident testimonies of intricate turnings and windings, as also a subterraneous passage to Castle Baynard, which no doubt the king made use of privately to have access to his brightest Diana, one of the most exquisite and most celebrated beauties that we find mentioned in any history.' The name Camera Dianæ had an obvious reference to those purposes of chaste seclusion, for which the building was designed; and it would be preferring a less probability to a greater, to suppose that it derived this appellation from having been erected on the same spot where a Roman temple of Diana previously stood.

In December, 1803, a large and very beautiful specimen of Roman mosaic was accidentally discovered by some workmen employed in digging for a sewer immediately opposite the East India House. It is preserved in the honorable company's museum, and suggests to us a splendid idea of the extent to which the Romans had carried the internal embellishment of their houses. It is about eleven feet square, and exhibits the centre of the floor of an apartment, which could not have been less than twenty-two feet square, but in all probability was considerably larger. The figure of the god Bacchus is represented reclining on the back of a tiger. The drawing, coloring, and shadows, are all effected with great skill and ingenuity, by the use of about twenty separate tints, composed of tessellæ, of different materials. The major part consist of baked earths, but the more brilliant colors of green and purple, which form the drapery, are of glass. These tessellæ are of different sizes and figures, adapted to the situations they occupy in the design; and are placed in rows, either straight or curved, as occasion demanded, each tessella presenting to those around it a flat side. The interstices of mortar being thus very narrow, and the bearing of the pieces against each other uniform, the work in general possessed much strength, and was, very probably, when uninjured by damp, nearly as firm as the solid stone. mosaic pavement, with a similar device, was discovered in 1711-12 at Woodstock in Oxfordshire.

main. Ethelbert, king of Kent, to whom all the Saxon nations, south of the Humber, were feudatory, made Canterbury the seat of his government; and neglected London ceases to figure in history, except for the disasters which befel it. In 664 it was ravaged by the plague; in 764 it was wasted by fire; in 798 it again suffered severely from fire, and numbers of the inhabitants perished in the flames; and in 801, before there was time to repair the ruin done, a third conflagration nearly completed the work of destruction. On the establishment of the Heptarchy under Egbert, A. D. 827, the fortunes of London brightened for a moment. Egbert chose it for his residence, and here, in 833, a wittenagemot, or parliament, was held. But on the invasion of England by the Danes, soon after, they drove Egbert from his adopted capital, and, after delivering it up to pillage and massacre, reduced nearly the whole to ashes.

In such a succession of calamities, it was inevitable, that nearly all that beauty and magnificence which the Romans had imparted to London should for ever disappear. Its naked walls, in fact, alone remained; and if a city, far transcending even the Roman Augusta, has since arisen within and around them, it is to the British themselves that the merit and the fame belong.

After a dismal lapse of nearly four centuries, the reign of the renowned Alfred brought, among many blessings, the restoration of London to its former greatness and prosperity. Having, A. D. 884, freed the kingdom from the Danish yoke, he gave directions for rebuilding the desolated cities; and of these none claimed or received a larger share of his beneficent patronage than London. He repaired and strengthened the walls; he prevailed on the inhabitants, whose houses had hitherto consisted almost wholly of wood-the cause of repeated conflagrations, to rebuild many of them of brick and stone; he presented them with models of merchant ships, that would both sail better and carry larger cargoes than those of former times; and he laid down the plan of that excellent system of municipal government which, with various modifications and improvements, subsists to the present day. A With such aids and encouragements, the renovation of London proceeded so rapidly, and the spirit of its citzens so much revived, that notwithstanding an accidental fire in 893, which occasioned very considerable injury, it was in a few years in a condition, for the first time since the departure of the Romans, not only to defend itself against invasion, but to go forth and meet the invaders. In 895 when a predatory party of the Danes, under the command of Hastings, encouraged by the absence of Alfred from his capital, had advanced as far as Beamflete, the garrison of London, joined by a body of gallant citizens who eagerly volunteered their services, went out and surprised the enemy in their camp, cut all who opposed them to pieces, took a great many prisoners, and spoiled the spoilers. When again, in 896, another body of the Danes had sailed up the river Lea to Ware, and posted themselves in a strong position between that place and Hertford, Alfred, at the head of his grateful and in

3. London to the Danish conquest.-The departure of the Romans proved the commencement of a long train of calamities to London. The sun of her prosperity seemed to have set. The Saxons, invited over to furnish that protection against the incursions of the Scots and Picts which the Romans could no longer afford, violated the compact which gave them a footing in the country; and during the vain and sanguinary struggles of the British, for nearly a century and a half, to preserve themselves from Saxon subjugation, London, from its importance, became, more than any other part of the island, a prey to the evils of intestine war. When the Saxons had at last established themselves in the sovereignty of the country, it was no longer with London that the metropolitan sceptre was suffered to re

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