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other. And there with alle thei ben so proude, that thei knowen not how to ben clothed; now long, now schort, now streyt, now large, now swerded, now daggered, and in alle manere gyses. Thei scholden ben symple, meke and trewe, and fulle of Almes dede, as Jhesu was, in whom thei trowe: but thei ben alle the contrarie, and evere enclyned to the Evylle, and to don evylle. And thei ben so coveytous, that for a lytylle Sylver, thei sellen here Doughtres, here Sustres and here owne Wyfes, to putten hem to Leccherie. And on with drawethe the Wif of another: and non of hem holdethe Feythe to another: but thei defoulen here Lawe, that Jhesu Crist betook hem to kepe, for here Salvacioun. And thus for here Synnes, han thei lost alle this Lond, that wee holden. For, for hire Synnes here God hathe taken hem in to oure Hondes, noghte only be Strengthe of our self, but for here Synnes. For wee knowen wel in verry sothe, that whan zee serve God, God wil helpe zou : and whan he is with zou, no man may be azenst you. And that knowe we wel, be oure Prophecyes, that Cristene men schulle wynnen azen this Lond out of oure Hondes, whan thei serven God more devoutly. But als longe als thei ben of foule and of unclene Lyvynge, (as thei ben now) wee have no drede of hem, in no kynde: for here God wil not helpen hem in no wise. And than I asked him, how he knew the State of Cristene men. And he answerde me,

that he knew alle the state of the Comounes also, be his Messangeres, that he sente to alle Londes, in manere as thei weren Marchauntes of precyous Stones, of Clothes of Gold and of othere thinges; for to knowen the manere of every Contree amonges Cristene men. And than he leet clepe in alle the Lordes, that he made voyden first out of his Chambre; and there he schewed me 4, that weren grete Lordes in the Contree, that tolden me of my Contree, and of many othere Cristene Contrees, als wel as thei had ben of the same Contree: and thei spak Frensche righte wel; and the Sowdan also, where of I had gret Marvaylle. Allas! that it is gret sclaundre to oure Feythe and to oure Lawe, whan folk that ben with outen Lawe, schulle repreven us and undernemen us of oure Synnes. And thei that scholden ben converted to Crist and to the Lawe of Jhesu, be oure gode Ensamples and be oure acceptable Lif to God, and so converted to the Lawe of Jhesu Crist, ben thorghe oure Wykkednesse and evylle lyvynge, fer fro us and Straungeres fro the holy and verry Beleeve, schulle thus appelen us and holden us for wykkede Lyveres and cursed. And treuly thei sey sothe. For the Sarazines ben gode and feythfulle. For thei kepen entierly the Cōmaundement of the Holy Book Alkaron, that God sente hem be his Messager Machomet; to the whiche, as thei seyne, seynt Gabrielle the Aungel often tyme tolde the wille of God.

17. Wicliffe, A.D. 1324-1384 (Manual, p. 55).


Forsothe when Jhesus hadde comen mentid. And Jhesus saith to hym, I doun fro the hil, many cumpanyes folewiden hym. And loo! a leprouse man cummynge worshipide hym, sayinge; Lord, gif thou wolt, thou maist make me clene. And Jhesus holdynge forthe the hond, touchide hym sayinge, I wole; be thou maad clene. And anoon the

lepre of hym was clensid. And Jhesus saith to hym; See, say thou to no man; but go, shewe thee to prestis, and offre that gifte that Moyses comaundide, into witnessing to hem. Sothely when he hadde entride in to Capharnaum, centurio neigide to hym preyinge hym, And said, Lord, my child lyeth in the hous sike on the palsie, and is yuel tour

shal cume, and shal hele hym. And centurio answerynge saith to hym, Lord, I am not worthi, that thou entre vndir my roof; but oonly say bi word, and my child shall be helid. For whi and I am a man ordeynd vnder power, hauynge vndir me knigtis; and I say to this, Go, and he goth; and to an other, Come thou, and he cometh; and to my seruaunt, Do thou this thing, and he doth. Sothely Jhesus, heerynge these thingis, wondride, and saide to men suynge hym: Trewly I saye to you I fond nat so grete feith in Yrael. Sothely Y say to you, that manye shulen come fro the est and west, and shulen rest with Abraham

and Ysaac and Jacob in the kyngdam of heuenes; forsothe the sonys of the rewme shulen be cast out into vttremest derknessis; there shal be weepynge, and beetynge togidre of teeth. And Jhesus saide to centurio, Go; and as thou hast bileeued be it don to thee. And the child was helid fro that houre. And when Jhesus hadde comen in to the hous of Symond Petre, he say his wyues moder liggynge, and shakun with feueris. And he touchide hir hond, and the feuer lefte hir and she roose, and seruyde hem. Sothely whan the euenyng was maad, thei brougte to hym many hauynge deuelys: and he castide out spiritis by word, and helide alle hauynge yuel; that it shulde be fulfillid, that thing that was said by Ysaie, the prophete, sayinge, He toke oure infirmytees, and bere oure sykenessis. Sothely Jbesus seeynge many cumpanyes about hyın, bad his disciplis go ouer the water. And oo scribe, or a man of lawe, commynge to, saide to hym, Maistre, I shal sue thee whidir euer thou shalt go. And Jhesus said to hym, Foxis han dichis, or borowis, and briddis of the eir han nestis; but mannes sone hath nat wher he reste his heued. Sotheli an other of his disciplis saide to hym, Lord, suffre me go first and birye my fadir. Forsothe Jhesus saide to hym, Sue thou me, and late dede men birye her dead men. And Jhesu steyinge vp in to a litel ship, his disciplis sueden him. And loo! grete steryng was made in the sec, so

that the litil ship was hilid with wawis; but he slepte. And his disciplis camen aig to hym, and raysiden hym, sayinge, Lord, saue vs : we perishen. And Jhesus seith to hem, What ben yee of litil feith agast? Thanne he rysynge comaundide to the wyndis and the see, and a grete pesiblenesse is maad. Forsothe men wondreden, sayinge: What manere man is he this, for the wyndis and the see obeishen to hym. And whan Jhesus hadde comen over the water in to the cuntre of men of Genazereth twey men hauynge deuelis runnen to hym, goynge out fro birielis, ful feerse, or wickid, so that no man migte passe by that wey. And loo! thei crieden, sayinge, What to vs and to thee, Jhesu the sone of God? hast thou comen hidir before the tyme for to tourmente vs? Sothely a floc, or droue, of many hoggis lesewynge was nat fer from hem. But the deuelis preyeden him, seyinge, gif thou castist out vs hennes, sende vs in to the droue of hoggis. And he saith to hem, Go yee. And thei goynge out wente in to the hoggis; and loo! in a greet bire al the droue wente heedlynge in to the see, and thei ben dead in watris. Forsothe the hirdes fledden awey, and cummynge in to the citee, tolden alle these thingis; and of hem that hadden the fendis. And loo! al the citee wente ageinis Jhesu, metynge hym; and hym seen, thei preiden hym, that he shulde pass fro her coostis.




18. James I. 1394-1437. (Manual, p. 57.)
From the King's Quair (Quire or Book).


The longè dayès and the nightès eke,


I would bewail my fortune in this wise,
For which, again 1 distress comfort to seek
My custom was, on mornès, for to rise
Early as day: O happy exercise!

By thee come I to joy out of torment;
But now to purpose of my first intent.

Bewailing in my chamber, thus alone,
Despaired of all joy and remedy,
For-tired of my thought, and woe begone;
And to the window gan I walk in hye,2
To see the world and folk that went forby;
As for the time (though I of mirthis food
Might have no more) to look it did me good.

Now was there made fast by the touris wall
A garden fair; and in the corners set
An herbere green; with wandis long and small
Railed about aud so with treeìs set

Was all the place, and hawthorn hedges knet,
That life was none (a) walking there forby
That might within scarce any wight espy.

Of her array the form gif I shall write,
Toward her golden hair, and rich attire,

1 Against.

2 Haste.

3 Herbary, or garden of simple


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And greatè balas lemyng as the fire;
With many an emerant and faire sapphìre,
And on her head a chaplet fresh of hue,
Of plumys parted red and white and blue.

About her neck, white as the fyr amaille,
A goodly chain of small orfevyrie,
Whereby there hang a ruby without fail
Like to a heart yshapen verily,


That as a spark of lowe9 so wantonly
Seemed burnyng upon her whitè throat;
Now gif there was good parly God it wote.

And for to walk that freshè mayè's morrow,
An hook she had upon her tissue white,
That goodlier had not been seen toforrow,10
As I suppose, and girt she was a lyte 11
Thus halfling 12 loose for haste; to such delight
It was to see her youth in goodlihead,
That for rudeness to speak thereof I dread.

In her was youth, beauty with humble port,
Bounty, richess, and womanly feature :
(God better wote than my pen can report)
Wisdom largèss, estate and cunning sure,
In word in deed, in shape and countenance,
That nature might no more her childe avance.

5 Rubies.

6 Burning. 7 Mr. Ellis conjectures that this is an error, for fair 8 Goldsmith's work. 9 Fire. 10 Heretofore. 11 A little.

email, i. e. enamel. 12 Half.

19. William Dunbar, about 1465-1520. (Manual, p. 58.)

From the Dance of the Seven Deadly Sins.


And first of all in dance was Pryd,
With hair wyl'd bak, bonet on side,1
Like to mak vaistie wainis; 2
And round about him, as a quheill,3
Hang all in rumpilis to the heill,*
His kethat for the nanis.5

1 With hair combed back (and) bonnet to one side. 2 Likely to make wasteful 3 Like a wheel. 4 Hung all in rumples to the heel. 5 His cassock for the



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6 Many a proud impostor with him tripped. Through scalding fire as they skipt. 8 They grinned with hideous groans. 9 Then Ire came with trouble and strife. 1 Boasters, braggarts, and bullies. 2 After him passed in pairs. 3 All arrayed in feature of war. 4 In coats of armour and bonnets of steel. 5 Their legs were chained to the heel. (Probably it means covered with iron net-work.) Froward was their aspect. 7 Some struck upon others with brands. 8 Some stuck others to the hilt. 9 With knives that sharply could mangle. 10 Followed Envy. 11 Filled full of quarrel and felony. 12 For privy hatred that traitor trembled. 13 Him followed many a dissembling renegado. 14 With feigned words fair or white. 15 And flatterers to men's faces. 16 And backbiters of sundry races. 17 To lie that had delight. 18 With spreaders of false lies. 19 Alas that courts of noble kings. 20 Of them can never be rid.

20. Sir David Lyndsay. 1490-1557. (Manual, p. 68.) MELDRUM'S DUEL WITH THE ENGLISH CHAMPION TALBart. Then clariouns and trumpets blew,

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