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tude of a savage for war, which makes little alteration in his manner of living. In early times accordingly, the men were all warriors, and every known art was exercised by women; which continues to be the case of American savages. And even after arts were so much improved as to be exercised by men, none who could bear arms were exempted from war. In feudal governments, the military spirit was carried to a great height: all gentlemen were foldiers by profession; and every other art was despised, as low, if not contemptible.

Even in the unnatural state of the feudal system, arts made fome progress, not excepting those for amusement; and many conveniencies, formerly unknown, became necessary to comfortable living. A man accustomed to manifold conveniencies, cannot bear with patience to be deprived of them : he hates war, and clings to the fweets of peace. Hence the necessity of a military establishment, hardening men by ftrict difcipline to endure the fatigues of war. By a standing army, war is carried on more regularly and scientifically than in a feudal government; but as it is cara ried on with infinitely greater expence, na

tions are more reserved in declaring war than formerly. Long experience has at the same time made it evident, that a nation feldom gains by war; and that agriculture, manufactures, and commerce, are the only folid foundations of power and. grandeur. These arts accordingly have become the chief objects of European governments, and the only rational causes of war. Among the warlike nations of Greece and Italy, how would it have founded, that their effeminate descendents would employ soldiers by profession to fight their battles ! And yet this is unavoidable in every country where arts and manufactures flourish; which, requiring little exercise, tend to enervate the body, and of courfe the mind. Gain, at the same time, being the fole object of industry, advances selfishness to be the ruling passion, and brings on a timid anxiety about property and self-preservation. Cyrus, tho' enflamed with resentment against the Lydians for revolting, listened to the following advice, offered by Cræfus, their former King. O Cyrus, destroy not

Sardis, an ancient city, famous for arts and arms; but, pardoning what is past,

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“ demand all their arms, encourage lu

xury, and exhort them to instruct their “ children in every art of gainful commerce,

You will soon fee, O King, that instead of men, they will be women.” The Arabians, a brave and generous people, conquered Spain ; and drove into the inaccessible mountains of Bifcay and Asturia, the few natives who itood out. When no longer an enemy appeared, they turned their fwords into ploughshares, and became a rich and flourishing nation. The inhabitants of the mountains, hardened by poverty and fituation, ventured, after a long interval, to peep out from their ftrong holds, and to lie in wait for itraggling parties. Finding themselves now à match for a people, whom opulence had betrayed to luxury and the arts of peace to cowardice; they took courage to display their banners in the open field ; and after many military atchievements, fucceeded in reconquering Spain. The Scots, inhabiting the mountainous parts of Caledonia, were an overmatch for the Picts, who occupied the fertile plains, and at last fubdued them *. * See the note on the following page.


Benjamin de Tudele, a Spanish Jew, who wrote in the twelfth century, observes, that by luxury and effeminacy the Greeks had contracted a degree of softness, more proper for women than for men ; and that the Greek Emperor was reduced to the necessity of employing mercenary troops, to defend his country against the Turks. In the year 1453, the city of Conftantinople, defended by a garrison not exceeding 6000 men, was befieged by the Turks, and reduced to extremity'; yet

A note referred to in the preceding page. * Before the time that all Scotland was brought under one king, the highlanders, divided into tribes or clans, made war upon each other ; and continued the same practice irregularly many ages after they submitted to the king of Scotland. Open war was repressed, but it went on privately by depreda-, tions and reprisals. The clan-spirit was much depressed by their bad success in the rebellion 1715; and totally cryshed by the like bad success in the rebellion 1745. The mildness with which the highlanders have been treated of late, and the pains that have been taken to introduce industry among them, have totally extirpated depredations and reprisals, and have rendered them the most peaceable people in Scotland; but have at the same time reduced their military spirit to a low ebb. To train them for war, military discipline has now become no less necesary than to others.


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not a single inhabitant had courage to take arms, all waiting with torpid despondence the hour of utter extirpation. Venice, Genoa, and other small Italian states, became so effeminate by long and successful commerce, that not a citizen ever thought of serving in the army; which obliged them to employ mercenaries, officers as well as private men, Thefe mercenaries at first, fought conscientiously for their pay; but reflecting, that the victors were 110 better paid than the vanquished, they learned to play booty. In a battle particularly between the Pisans and Florentines, which lasted from sun-rising to sun-setting, there was but a single man lost, who, having accidentally fallen from his horse, was trodden under foot. Men at that time fought on horseback, covered with iron from head to heel. Machiavel mentions a battle between the Florentines and Venetians which lasted half a day, neither party giving ground; fome horses wounded, not a man lain. He observes,l. that such cowardice and disorder was in the armies of those times, that the turning of a single horse either to charge or ctrcat, would have decided a battle.


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