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cessive becomes selfish, 108., consi-
dered with respect to dignity and
meanness, 174., seldom constant when
founded on exquisite beauty, 199., ill
represented in French plays, 232.,
when immoderate is silent, 236.
Love for Love, censured, 431.
Lowness, is neither pleasant nor pain-
Lucan, too minute in his descriptions,
21., censured, 415.
Ludicrous, 137., may be introduced into
an epic poem, 151.
Lutrin, censured for incongruity, 166.,
Luxury, corrupts our taste, 471, 472.
Machinery, ought to be excluded from
an epic poem, 57. 421., does well in a
burlesque poem, 57.
Malice, how generated, 64. Why it is
Man, a benevolent as well as a selfish
being, 97, 98., fitted for society, 100.
Conformity of the nature of man to
his external circumstances, 113. 127.
130. 163. 208. Man intended to be
more active than contemplative, 175.
The different branches of his internal
constitution finely suited to each other,
Manners, gross and refined, 62. The
bad tendency of rough and blunt man-
ners, 212, note. Modern manners
make a poor figure in an epic poem,
Manufactures, the effect of their produc-
tions with respect to morality, 451,
Marvellous, in epic poetry, 423.
Means, the means or instrument con-
ceived to be the agent, 365, &c.
Measure, natural measure of time, 89,
&c., of space, 92, &c.
Meaux, Bishop of, censured, 149.
Medea, of Euripides censured, 438.
Melody or modulation defined, 290., dis
tinguished from harmony, ib., note.
In English heroic verse are four dif-
ferent sorts of melody, 300. 311. Me-
lody of blank verse superior to that of
rhyme, and even to that of hexameter,
Members of a period have a fine effect
placed in an increasing series, 252.
Memory, and judgment in perfection
seldom united, 21. Memory and wit
often united, ib., greater with respect
to perceptions than ideas, 91. Me-
Merry Wives of Windsor, its double
plot well contrived, 426.
Metaphor, 368, &c. In early composi-
Moderation in our desires contributes
the most to happiness, 108.
Modern manners, make a poor figure in
an epic poem, 419.
Modification, defined, 484.
Modulation, defined, 289.
Monosyllables, English, arbitrary as to
Morality, a right and a wrong taste in
morals, 468. Aberrations from its
true standard, 471.
Moral sense, 28. Our passions as well
as actions are governed by it, 60.
Moral tragedy, 415.
Motion, requires the constant exertion of
an operating cause, 63., productive of
feelings that resemble it, 94 Its laws
agreeable, 127. Motion and force,
What motions are the most
agreeable, 128, &c. Regular motion,
128. Accelerated motion, ib. Up-
ward motion, ib. Undulating mo-
tion, ib. Motion of fluids, ib. A
body moved neither agreeable nor dis-
agreeable, ib. The pleasure of mo-
tion differs from that of force, 129.
Grace of motion, 130. Motions of
the human body, ib. Motion explain-
Motive, defined, 32. A selfish motive
arising from a social principle, 32,
Movement, applied figuratively to me-
Mount, artificial, 448.
Mourning Bride, censured, 226. 233, 243.
Music, emotions raised by instrumental
music have not an object, 39. Music
disposes the heart to various passions,
437., refined pleasures of music, 35
Vocal distinguished from instrumen-
tal, 74, 75. What subjects proper for
vocal music, 75, &c. Sentimental
music, 74, note. Sounds fit to accom-
pany disagreeable passions cannot be
musical, ib. note. What variety pro-
per, 157. Music betwixt the acts of a
play, the advantages that may be
Order in stating facts,
Narration, it animates a narrative to re-
present things past as present, 55.
Narration and description, ch. xxi.
It animares a narrative to make it
dramatic, 404, 405. 415, 416.
Nation defined, 187.
Organ of sense, 11, 12.
Organic pleasure, 12, &c.
Orlando Furioso, censured, 430.
Ornament, ought to be suited to the sub-
ject, 166, 167. Redundant ornaments
ought to be avoided, 391. Ornaments
distinguished into what are merely
such, and what have relation to use,
403. Allegorical or emblematic orr.a-
Note, a high note and a low note in Ossian, excels in drawing characters,
Novelty soon degenerates into familiari-
ty, 66. Novelty and the unexpected
appearance of oojects, ch. vi. No-
velty a pleasant emotion, 132, &c.,
distinguished from variety, 134., its
different degrees, ib., &c., fixes the
drawn from it, 437. It refines our
Musical instruments, their different ef-
fects upon the mind, 118.
Musical measure, defined, 290.
Number, defined, 455., explained, 479.
Numerus, defined, 290.
Object, of a passion defined, 31., distin-
guished into general ana particular, ib.
An agreeable object produces a plea-
sant emotion, and a disagreeable ob-
ject a painful emotion, 59. Attractive
object, 97. Repulsive object, ib. Ob-
jects of sight the most complex, 103.
Objects that are neither agreeable nor
disagreeable, 113–127. Natural ob-
jects readily form themselves into
groups, 160. An object terminating
an opening in a wood, appears doubly
distant, 446. Object defined, 474.
Objects of external sense in what
place perceived, 474, 475. Objects
of internal sense, 475. All objects of
sight are complex, 479. 485. Objects
simple and complex, 485.
Obstacles, to gratification inflame a pas-
(nd Bachelor, censured, 431.
Opera, censured, 167.
Opinion, influeneed by passion, 87. 361.,
influenced by propensity, 88., influ-
enced by affection, ib. Why differing
from me in opinion is disagreeable,
469. Opinion defined, 483.
Oration, of Cicero pro Archia poeta
Order, 21. 105. 442. Pleasure we have
in order, 22, &c., necessary in all
compositions, 23. Sense of order has
an influence upon our passions, 45.
Order and proportion contribute to
grandeur, 111. When a list of many
particulars is brought into a period,
in what order should they be placed,
Othello, censured, 411.
Ovid, censured, 160.
Pain, cessation of pain extremely plea-
sant, 38. Pain, voluntary and invo-
luntary, 62. Different effects of pain
upon the temper, ib. Social pain less
severe than selfish, ib. Pain of a train
of perceptions in certain circum-
stances, 155. Pain lessens by cus-
tom, 201. 467. Pain of want, 201.
Painful, emotions and passions, 58, &c.
Painting, power of painting to move
our passions, 54. Its power to en-
gage our belief, 57. What degree of
variety is requisite, 159. A picture
ought to be so simple as to be seen at
one view, ib. In grotesque painting
the figures ought to be small, in histo-
rical painting as great as the life, 116.
Grandeur of manner in painting, 122.
A landscape admits not variety of ex-
pression, 159. Painting is an imita-
tion of nature, 247. In history-paint-
ing, the principal figure ought to be in
the best light, 405. A good picture
agreeable, though the subject be dis-
agreeable, 409. Objects that strike
terror have a fine effect in painting,
410. Objects of horror ought not to
be represented, 411. Unity of action
in a picture, 435. What emotions can
be raised by painting, 442.
Panic, cause of it, 95.
Paradise Lost, the richness of its melo-
dy, 317., censured, 420.
Parallelogram, its beauty, 106.
Parody, defined, 182. 219, note.
Particles, 305., not capable of an ac-
Passion, no pleasure of external sense
denominated a passion, except of see-
ing and hearing, 26. Passion distin-
guished from emotion, 29, &c. Ob-
jects of passion, 31, 32. Passions,
distinguished into instinctive and de-
liberative, 32. 47, 48, &c., what are
selfish, what social, 32., what disso-
pauses ought to coincide with those in
the sense, 296, &c.
pauses are essential in English heroic
Rules concerning them,
300-302. Pause that includes a
couplet, 307. Pause and accent have
a mutual influence, 312, 313.
Pedestal, ought to be sparingly orna-
Perceptions, more easily remembered
than ideas, 91, 92. 152. Succession
of perceptions, 19. 152. Unconnect-
ed perceptions find not easy admit-
tance to the mind, 153. 156. Pleasure
and pain of perceptions in a train,
155, &c. Perception defined, 475,
described, 486. Original and second-
ary, 476, 477, &c. Simple and com-
Period, has a fine effect when its mem-
bers proceed in the form of an in-
creasing series, 252. In the periods of
a discourse variety ought to be studied,
253. Different thoughts ought not to
be crowded into one period, 260. The
scene ought not to be changed in a
period, 263. A period so arranged as
to express the sense clearly, seems
more musical than where the sense is
left doubtful, 273. In what part of
the period doth a word make the
greatest figure, 277. A period ought
to be closed with that word which
makes the greatest figure, 278. When
there is occasion to mention many
particulars, in what order ought they
to be placed, 278, &c. A short period
is lively and familiar, a long period
grave and solemn, 279. A discourse
ought not to commence with a long
Personification, 347, &c.
and descriptive, 353, &c.
Perspicuity, a capital requisite in wri-
ting, 255. Perspicuity in arrange-
Phantasm, 478, note.
Pharsalia, censured, 415.
Phedra, of Racine censured, 203. 240.
Picture. See Painting.
Pilaster, less beautiful than a column,
Pindar, defective in order and connec-
cial, 33. Passion communicated to
related objects, 42, &c., 275. 283. 295.
309. 349.380. Generated by a com-
plex object, 45. A passion paves the
way to others of a similar tone, 46,
47. A passion paves the way to
others in the same tone, ib. Passion
raised by painting, 54.
considered as pleasant or painful,
agreeable or disagreeable, 58, &c.
Our passions governed by the moral
sense, 60. Social passions more plea-
sant and less painful than the selfish,
62. Passions are infectious, 60. 95.,
are refined or gross, 61. Their inter-
rupted existence, 63, &c.
growth and decay, 64, &c.
identity of a passion, 64. The bulk
of our passions are the affections of
love or hatred inflamed into a passion,
65. Passions have a tendency to ex-
cess, ib. Passions swell by opposi-
tion, 65, 66. A passion sudden in
growth is sudden in decay, 64. A
passion founded on an original pro-
pensity endures for life, 65., founded
on affection or aversion is subject to
decay, 66. A passion ceases upon
attaining its ultimate end, 66, 67.
Coexistent passions, 67, &c.
sions similar and dissimilar, 68, &c.
Fluctuation of passion, 68. 220, &c.
222. Its influence upon our percep-
tions, opinions and belief, 87, &c.,
147. 348. 359. 361-363, &c. Pas-
sions attractive and repulsive, 97. 213.
Prone to their gratification, 98. Pas-
sions ranked according to their dig-
nity, 174, 175. Social passions_of
greater dignity than selfish, 176. Ex-
ternal signs of passions, chap. xv.
Our passions should be governed by
reason, 223. Language of passion,
chap. xvii. A passion when immo-
derate is silent, 236. Language of
passion broken and interrupted, b.
What passions admit of figurative
expression, 237. 335. 336. Language
proper for impetuous passion, 237.,
for melancholy, 238., for calm emo-
tions, ib., for turbulent passion, ib.
In certain passions the mind is prone
to bestow sensibility upon things in-
animate, 348. 354. 357. With regard
to passion man is passive, 475. We
are conscious of passions as in the
Passionate, personification, 353, &c.
Passive subject, defined, 488.
Pathetic tragedy, 415.
Pause, pauses necessary for three differ-
ent purposes, 291. Musical pauses
in an hexameter line, 294. Musical
Pity, defined, 30., apt to produce love,
47., always painful, yet always agree-
able, 60., resembles its cause, 95.
What are the proper objects for
raising pity, 417, &c.
Place, explained, 486.
Plain, a large plain a beautiful object,
Planetary system, its beauty, 128. 130
Plautus, the liberty he takes as to place
and time, 439.
Play, is a chain of connected facts, each
scene making a link, 431.
Play of words, 189, &c. 245, &c., gone
into disrepute, 190. Comparisons
that resolve into a play of words,
Pleasant emotions and passions, 59,
&c. Social passions more pleasant
than the selfish, 176. Pleasant pain
Pleasure, pleasures of seeing and hear-
ing distinguished from those of the
other senses, 11, &c., pleasure of or-
der, 22, &c., of connection, 22. Plea-
sures of taste, touch, and smell, not
termed emotions or passions, 26.
Pleasure of a reverie, 53. 156. Plea-
sures refined and gross, 62. Pleasure
of a train of perceptions in certain
circumstances, 155, &c. Corporeal
pleasure low, and sometimes mean,
174. Pleasures of the eye and ear
never low or mean, ib. Pleasures of
the understanding are high in point of
dignity, 175. Custom augments mo-
derate pleasures, but diminishes those
that are intense, 201. Some pleasures
felt internally, some externally, 481.
Poet, the chief talent of a poet who
deals in the pathetic, 205.
Poetical flights, in what state of mind
they are most relished, 335.
Poetry, grandeur of manner in poetry,
119, &c. How far variety is proper,
159. Objects that strike terror have a
fine effect in it, 410. Objects of hor-
ror ought to be banished from it, 411.
Poetry has power over all the human
affections, 442. The most successful
in describing objects of sight, 486.
Polite behaviour, 62.
Polygon, regular its beauty, 106.
Polysyllables, how far agreeable to the
ear, 253., seldom have place in the
construction of English verse, 299.
Pompey, of Corneille censured, 225.
Poor, habit puts them on a level with
the rich, 201, 202.
Pope, excels in the variety of his melo-
dy, 307., censured, 338. 344. 400.
His style compared with that of
Posture, constrained posture disagree-
able to the spectator, 95.
Power of abstraction, 485, 486., its use,
the blunders and absurdities of others,
169., a pleasant passion, 169, 170.,
considered with respect to dignity and
meanness, 175. Its external expres-
sions or signs disagreeable, 210.
Primary, and secondary qualities of
matter, 107. Primary and secondary
relations, 165, note.
Prepositions explained, 270.
Pride, how generated, 64., why it is
perpetual, 66. incites us to ridicule,
Principle of order, 22., of morality,
28. 40. 168, &c., of self-preservation,
47., of selfishness, 97., of benevo-
lence, ib., &c., of punishment, 100.
169. Principle that makes us fond of
esteem, 100. 118., of curiosity, 131.
139., of habit, 200, 201. Principle that
makes us wish others to be of our
opinion, 468, 469. Principle de-
fined, 483., sometimes so enlivened as
to become an emotion, 40. See Pro-
Principles of the fine arts, 14.
Prodigies, find ready credit with the
Prologue, of the ancient tragedy, 433.
Pronoun, defined, 274.
Pronunciation, rules for it, 283, &c.,
287., distinguished from singing, 287.
Singing and pronouncing compared,
Propensity, sometimes so enlivened as
to become an emotion, 40. 65., op-
posed to affection, 67. Opinion and
belief influenced by it, 88. Propen-
sity to justify our passions and ac-
tions, 83. Propensity to punish guilt
and reward virtue, 100, &c. Pro-
pensity to carry along the good or bad
properties of one subject to another,
42.95. 103. 247. 275. 283. 295. 309.
366. 380. Propensity to complete
every work that is begun, and to carry
things to perfection, 146. 461. Pro-
pensity to communicate to others every
thing that affects us, 235. Propensity
to place together things mutually con-
nected, 283. Propensity defined, 483.
Properties, transferred from one subject
to another, 42. 95 103. 247. 275. 283.
295. 309. 366. 380.
Property, the affection man bears to his
property, 43. A recondary relation,
Prophecy, those who believe in prophe-
cies wish the accomplishment, 101.
Propriety, ch. x., a secondary relation
165., note., distinguished frem con-
gruity, 166., distinguished from pro-
portion, 170. Propriety in buildings,
Proportion, contributes to grandeur,
111., distinguished from propriety.
Racine, criticised, 240. Censured, 243.
Rape of the Lock, characterized, 179.
Its verse admirable, 292.
Reading, chief talent of a fine reader,
205. Plaintive passions require a
slow pronunciation, 219, note. Rules
for reading, 286, &c., compared with
Reality, of external objects, 51.
Reason, reasons to justify a favourite
opinion are always at hand, and
much relished, 83.
Refined pleasure, 61.
Regularity, not so essential in great ob-
jects as in small, 111., not in a small
work so much as in one that is ex-
tensive, ib. How far to be studied in
architecture, 442. 445. 454. How far
to be studied in a garden, 443, 444.
Regular line defined, 481. Regular
figure defined, 481. Regularity pro-
per and figurative, 482.
Relations, 19. Have an influence in
generating emotions and passions, 42.
&c. Are the foundation of congruity
and propriety, 165. Primary and
secondary relations, ib. note. In what
manner are relations expressed in
words, 266, &c. The effect that even
the slighter relations have on the
Relative beauty, 103. 449.
Remorse, anguish of remorse, 95., its
gratification, 99. Punishment pro-
vided by nature for injustice, 172.,
is not mean, 175.
Representation, its perfection lies in
hiding itself and producing an im-
pression of reality, 435.
Repulsive, object, 97. Repulsive pas-
sions, 97. 213.
Resemblance, and dissimilitude, ch. viii.
Resemblance in a series of objects,
252. The members of a sentence sig-
nifying a resemblance betwixt objects
ought to resemble each other, 261, &c.
Resemblance betwixt sound and sig-
nification, 282-284. No resemblance
betwixt objects of different senses,
283. Resembling causes may pro-
duce effects that have no resemblance,
and causes that have no resemblance
may produce resembling effects, ib.,
&c. The faintest resemblance be-
twixt sound and signification gives
the greatest pleasure, 284, &c. Re-
semblance carried too far in some
gardens, 445, note.
Resentment, explained, 48, &c. Dis-
agreeable in excess, 61. Extended
against relations of the offender, 85.
Its gratification, 99. When immo-
derate is silent, 236.
Rest, neither agreeable nor disagreeable,
127., explained, 243.
Revenge, animates but doth not elevate
the mind, 118. Has no dignity in it,
175. When immoderate is silent,
236., improper, but not mean, 174.
Reverie, cause of the pleasure we have
in it, 53. 156.
Rhyme, for what subjects it is proper,
322, &c. Melody of rhyme, 322.
Rhythmus, defined, 290.
Rich and poor put upon a level by ha-
bit, 201, 202.
Riches, love of, corrupts the taste, 472.
Ridicule, a gross pleasure, 62. Is losing
ground in England, ib. Emotion of
ridicule, 138. Not concordant with
grandeur, 150. Ridicule, 169, ch.
xii. Whether it be a test of truth,
Ridiculous, distinguished from risible,