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Dedications. See Epistles Dedicatory.
Delicacy, of taste, 61. 472.
Derision, 169. 179.

Des Cartes, censured, 477, note.
Descent, not painful, 114.
Description, it animates a description to
represent things past as present, 55.
The rules that ought to govern it,
392, &c. A lively description is
agreeable, though the subject describ-
ed be disagreeable, 409. No objects
but those of sight can be well des-
cribed, 480.

Descriptive personifications, 351.
Descriptive tragedy, 217.

Desire, defined, 29. It impels us to ac-
tion, 31. It determines the will, 96.
Desire in a criminal to be punished,
99. Desire tends the most to happi-
ness when moderate, 108.
Dialogue,dialogue writing requires great
genius, 216, &c. In dialogue every
expression ought to be suited to the
character of the speaker, 404. Dia-
logue makes a deeper impression than
narration, 415. Qualified for express-
ing sentiments, 416. Rules for it,
427, &c.

Dignity and grace, chap. xi. Dignity
of human nature, 469.
Diiambus, 324.
Diphthongs, 249.

Disagreeable emotions and passions,
58, &c.

Discordant sounds, defined, 68.
Dispondeus, 324.
Disposition, defined, 483.
Dissimilar emotions, 68. Their effects

when coexistent, 71. 444. 450. 457.
Dissimilar passions, their effects, 76.
Dissocial passions, 33. All of them
painful, 59. and also disagreeable, 60.
Distance, the natural method of com-
puting the distance of objects, 92, &c.
Errors to which this computation is
liable, 455. 459.
Ditrochæus, 324.

Door, its proportion, 452.

Double action, in an epic poem, 430.
Double Dealer, of Congreve censured,

Double plot, in a dramatic composition,

Drama, ancient and modern compared,
432, &c.

Dramatic poetry, ch. xxii.
Drapery, ought to hang loose, 95.
Dress, rules about dress, 167. 443.
Dryden, censured, 375. 427. 431.
Duties, moral duties distinguished into
those which respect ourselves and
those which respect others, 170. Foun-
dation of duties that respect ourselves,

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Efficient cause, of less importance than
the final cause, 175.

Electra, of Sophocles censured, 204.
Elevation, 110, &c. Real and figurative
intimately connected, 114. Figura-
tive elevation distinguished from figu-
rative grandeur, 333, 334.

Emotion, what feelings are termed emo-
tions, 26. Emotions defined, 27, &c.
And their causes assigned, 28. Dis-
tinguished from passions, 30. Emo-
tion generated by relations, 41, &c.
Emotions expanded upon related ob-
jects, 41, &c. 275. 283. 309. 349, 350.
380. Emotions distinguished into pri-
mary and secondary, 43. Raised by
fiction, 50, &c. Raised by painting,
54. Emotions divided into pleasant
and painful, agreeable and disagree-
able, 59, &c. 480. The interrupted ex-
istence of emotions, 63, &c. Their
growth and decay, 64, &c. Their
identity, ib. Coexistent emotions, 67,
&c. Emotions similar and dissimilar,
68. Complex emotions, 69, 70. Ef
fects of similar coexistent emotions,
69. 457. Effects of dissimilar coex-
istent emotions, 71, 444. Influence of
emotions upon our perceptions, opi-
nions, and belief, 82, &c. 92, 93. 144.
146. 347. 359. 361. 365, &c. Emo-
tions resemble their causes, 94, &c.
Emotions of grandeur, 109, &c., of
sublimity, 110. A low emotion, 115.
Emotion of laughter, ch. vii., of ridi-
cule, 138. Emotions when contrasted
should not be too slow nor too quick
in their succession, 149. Emotions
raised by the fine arts ought to be con-
trasted in succession, ib. Emotion of
congruity, 165, &c., of propriety, 167.
Emotions produced by human actions,
172. Ranked according to their dig-
nity, 173. External signs of emo-
tions, ch. xv. Attractive and repul-
sive emotions, 210. What emotions
do best in succession, what in con-
junction, 444. What emotions are
raised by the productions of manu.
factures, 451, note. Man is passive

with regard to his emotions, 475.
We are conscious of emotions as in
the heart, ib.
Emphasis, defined, 309, note. Ought
never to be but upon words of im-
portance, 287. 310.

Eneid, its unity of action. See Virgil.
English plays, generally irregular, 439.
English comedies generally licen-
tious, 36.

English tongue, too rough, 251.


English words the long syllable is put
early, 250, note. English tongue more
grave and sedate in its tone than the
French, 311, note. Peculiarly quali-
fied for personification, 350, note.
Entablature, 461.

Envy, defined, 30. How generated, 65.
Why it is perpetual, 66. It magni-
fies every bad quality in its object, 84.
Epic poem, no improbable fact ought to
be admitted, 57. Machinery in it has
a bad effect, ib. It doth not always
reject ludicrous images, 151. Its com-
mencement ought to be modest and
simple, 392. In what respect it dif
fers from a tragedy, 414. Distin-
guished into pathetic and moral, 415.
Its good effects, 417. Compared with
tragedy as to the subjects proper for
each, 416. How far it may borrow
from history, 419. Rule for dividing
it into parts, 420.
Epic poetry, ch. xxii.

Epicurus, censured, 477, note.
Episode, in an historical poem, 424.
Requisites, 425.

Epistles dedicatory, censured, 165,


Epithets, redundant, 407.
Epitritus, 324.

Essays on man, criticised, 322.
Esteem, love of, 101. 118.

Esther, of Racine censured, 231. 233.
Eunuch, of Terence censured, 242. 439.
Euripides, censured, 242. 438.

Evergreens, cut in the shape of animals,

Effect of experience with respect to taste
in the fine arts, 472, note.
Expression, elevated, low, 115. Ex-
pression that has no distinct meaning,
246. Members of a sentence ex-
pressing a resemblance betwixt two
objects, ought to resemble each other,
261, &c. Force of expression by
suspending the thought till the close,


External objects, their reality, 51.
External senses, distinguished into two
kinds, 11. External sense, 474.
External signs, of emotions and pas-
sions, ch. xv. External signs of pas-

sion, what emotions they raise in a
spectator, 209.

Eye-sight, influenced by passion, 93.
144, 145.

Face, though uniformity prevail in the
human face, yet every face is distin-
guishable from another, 163.
Faculty, by which we know passion
from its external signs, 214.
Fairy Queen, criticised, 373.
False quantity, painful to the ear, 299.
Fame, love of, 101.

Familiarity, its effect, 64. 131. 380., it
wears off by absence, 134.
Fashion, its influence accounted for, 42.
Fashion is in a continual flux, 107.
Fear, explained, 47, &c. Rises often to
its utmost pitch in an instant, 65.
Fear arising from affection or aver
sion, ib. Fear is infectious, 95.
Feeling, its different significations, 476.
Fiction, emotions raised by fiction, 50,


Figure, beauty of, 104. Definition of a
regular figure, 481.

Figures, some passions favourable to
figurative expression, 237. 335.
Figures, ch. xx. Figure of speech, 353.
370. 379, &c. Figures were of old
much strained, 325. 372.

Final cause, defined, 175. Final cause
of our sense of order and connection,
26., of the sympathetic emotion of
virtue, 40., of the instinctive passion
of fear, 48., of the instinctive passion
of anger., 50., of ideal presence, 52,
&c., of the power that fiction has over
the mind, 51., of emotions and pas-
sions, 96, &c., of the communication
of passion to related objects, 101., of
regularity, uniformity, order, and sim-
plicity, 104., of proportion, ib., of
beauty, 108. Why certain objects are
neither pleasant nor painful, 113. 127.,
of the pleasure we have in motion
and force, 130., of curiosity, 131., of
wonder, 136., of surprise, ib., of the
principle that prompts us to perfect
every work, 147., of the pleasure or
pain that results from the different
circumstances of a train of percep-
tions, 157, &c., of congruity and pro-
priety, 170, &c., of dignity and mean-
ness, 175, &c., of habit, 201, &c., of
the external signs of passion and emo-
tion, 211, &c. Why articulate sounds
singly agreeable are always agree-
able in conjunction, 249., of the plea-
sure we have in language, 409., of our
relish for various proportions in quan-
tity, 455. Why delicacy of taste is
withheld from the bulk of mankind,

467., of our conviction of a common
standard in every species of beings,
469., of uniformity of taste in the fine
arts, 469, 470. Why the sense of a
right and a wrong in the fine arts is
less clear than the use of a right and
a wrong in actions, 471. Final cause
of greater importance than the effi-
cient cause, 175.

Fine arts, defined, 12. 16. A subject of
reasoning, 14. Education, promoted
by the fine arts, 14, 15. 451. The
fine arts a great support to morality,
13. 452. 465, &c. Their emotions
ought to be contrasted in succession,
149. Uniformity and variety in the
fine arts, 159. Considered with res-
pect to dignity, 175. How far they
may be regulated by custom, 202.
None of them are imitative but paint-
ing and sculpture, 247. Aberrations
from a true taste in these arts, 470.
Who qualified to be judges in the fine
arts, 472.

Fluid, motion of fluids, 128.
Foot, the effect that syllables collected
into feet have upon the ear, 265.
Musical feet defined, 293, note. A
list of verse-feet, 323, 324.
Force, produces a feeling that resembles
it, 93. Force, ch. v.
Moving force, 128. Force gives a plea-
sure differing from that of motion,
129. It contributes to grandeur, 130.
Foreign, preference given to foreign cu-
riosities, 135.

Fountains, in what form they ought to
be, 448.

French dramatic writers, criticised, 219.
232. 439, note.

French verse, requires rhyme, 322.
French language, more lively to the ear
than the English, 311, note. In French
words the last syllable generally long
and accented, ib. note.
Friendship, considered with respect to
dignity and meanness, 173.

Gallery, why it appears longer than it is

in reality, 446. Is not an agreeable
figure of a room, 457.

Games, public games of the Greeks, 129.
Gardening, a fine garden gives lustre to
the owner, 43, note. Grandeur of
manner in gardening, 122. Its emo-
tions ought to be contrasted in succes-
sion, 149. A small garden should be
confined to a single expression, 150.
442. A garden near a great city
should have an air of solitude, 150.
A garden in a wild country should be
gay and splendid, ib. Gardening,
ch. xxiv. What emotions can be

raised by it, 442. Its emotions com-
pared with those of architecture, ib.
Simplicity ought to be the governing
taste, 443. Wherein the unity of a
garden consists, 444. How far should
regularity be studied in it, 445. Re-
semblance carried too far in it, 445,
note. Grandeur in gardening, ib.
Every unnatural object ought to be
rejected, 446. Distant and faint imi-
tations displease, 447. Winter-gar-
den, 450. The effect of giving play
to the imagination, 451. Garden-
ing inspires benevolence, ib. And
contributes to rectitude of manners,

General idea, there cannot be such thing,
478, note.

General terms, should be avoided in com-
positions for amusement, 122. 404.
General theorems, why agreeable, 107.
Generic habit, defined, 198.
Generosity, why of greater dignity than
justice, 174.

Genus, defined, 485.

Gestures, that accompany the different
passions, 205, &c.
Gierusalemme Liberata, censured, 422,

Globe, a beautiful figure, 160.
Good-nature, why of less dignity than

courage or generosity, 174.
Gothic tower, its beauty, 458. Gothic
form of buildings, 464.
Government, natural foundation of sub-
mission to government, 100.
Grace, ch. xi. Grace of motion, 128.
Grace analyzed, 177, &c.
Grandeur and sublimity, ch. iv. Dis-
tinguished from beauty, 110. Gran-
deur demands not strict regularity,
111. Regularity, order, and propor-
tion, contribute to grandeur, ib. Real
and figurative grandeur intimately
connected, 114. Grandeur of manner,
149. Grandeur may be employed in-
directly to humble the mind, 124.
Suits ill with wit and ridicule, 150
Fixes the attention, 163. Figurati
grandeur distinguished from figura
tive elevation, 333. Grandeur in gar
dening, 445. Irregularity and dispro-
portion increase in appearance the
size of a building, 459.
Gratification, of passion, 32. 35. 80. 86.
348. 359. 361, &c. Obstacles to gra-
tification inflame a passion, 65.
Gratitude, considered with respect to its
gratification, 64. Exerted upon the
children of the benefactor, 84. Pu-
nishment of ingratitude, 171. Grati-
tude considered with respect to dig-
nity and meanness, 175

Greek words, finely composed of long | Hyperbole, 124. 361, &c.
and short syllables, 319.
Hippobachius, 324.
Grief, magnifies its cause, 85. Occa-
sions a false reckoning of time, 92.
Is infectious, 95. When immoderate
is silent, 236.
Gross pleasure, 62.

Group, natural objects readily form
themselves into groups, 160.
Guido, censured, 376.

Habit, ch. xiv. Prevails in old age,
152. Habit of application to busi-
ness, 155, 156, 157. Converts pain
into pleasure, 158. Distinguished
from custom, 193. Puts the rich and
poor upon a level, 201, 202.
Harmony, or concord in objects of
sight, 68, 69. Harmony distinguish-
ed from melody, 290, note.
Hatred, how produced, 65.

more commonly affection than pas-
sion, ib. Its endurance, 67.
Hearing, in hearing we feel no impres-
sion, 476.

Henriade, censured, 395. 422. 424.
Hexameter, Virgil's hexameter's ex-
tremely melodious, those of Horace
seldom so, 290. And the reason why
they are not, 292. Structure of an
hexameter line, 294. Rules for its
structure, 294. 297. Musical pauses
in an hexameter line, 293, note, 296.
Wherein its melody consists, 297.
Hiatus, defined, 250.

Hippolytus, of Euripides censured, 229.

History, why the history of heroes and
conquerors is singularly agreeable,
40. 117. By what means does his-
tory raise our passions, 54. It rejects
poetical images, 392.
History-painting. See Painting.
Homer, defective in order and connec-
tion, 23. His language finely suited
to his subject, 402. His repetitions
defended, 406. His poems in a great
measure dramatic, 415. Censured,

Hope, 65.

Horace, defective in connection, 24.
His hexameters not melodious, 290.
Their defects pointed out, 297.
Horror, objects of horror should be ba-
nished from poetry and painting, 411.
House, a fine house gives lustre to the
owner, 43, note.

Human nature, a complicated machine,


Humanity, the finest temper of mind, 62.
Humor, defined, 180. Humor in wri-
ting distinguished from humor in cha-
racter, ib.

Iambic verse, its modulation faint, 290.
Iambus, 323.

Jane Shore, censured, 222. 228.
Idea, not so easily remembered as a per-
ception is, 91, 92. 152. Succession of
ideas, 152. Pleasure and pain of
ideas in a train, 155, 156. Idea of
memory defined, 476. Cannot be in-
nate, 478, note. There are no general
ideas, ib., note. Idea of an object of
sight more distinct than of any other
object, 479. Ideas distinguished into
three kinds, 480. Ideas of imagina-
tion not so pleasant as ideas of me-
mory, 482.

Ideal presence, 52, &c., raised by thea-
trical representation, 54., raised by
painting, ib.

Ideal system, 477, note.

Identity of a passion or of an emotion,

Jet d'eau, 129. 447, 448.
Jingle of words, 316. 320.
Iliad, criticised, 430.

Images the life of poetry and rhetoric,
53. 122.

Imagination, the great instrument of re-
creation, 137. To give play to it has
a good effect in gardening, 451. Its
power in fabricating images, 480.482.
Agreeableness of ideas of imagina-
tion, 482.

Imitation, we naturally imitate virtu-
ous actions, 95. Not those that are
vicious, ib. Inarticulate sounds imi-
tated in words, 282. None of the fine
arts imitate nature except painting
and sculpture, 247. The agreeable-
ness of imitation overbalances the dis-
agreeableness of the subject, 409.
Distant and faint imitations displease,

Impression, made on the organ of sense,
11.476. Successive impressions, 252.
Impropriety in action raises contempt,
138. Its punishment, 169.
Impulse, a strong impulse succeeding a
weak, makes a double impression: a
weak impulse succeeding a strong,
makes scarce any impression, 252.
Infinite series, becomes disagreeable
when prolonged, 146, note.
Innate idea, there cannot be such a
thing, 478, note.

Instinct, we act sometimes by instinct,
31. 47, &c.

Instrument, the means or instrument
conceived to be the agent, 365.
Intellectual pleasure, 12.
Internal sense, 475.

Intrinsic beauty, 103.
Intuitive conviction, of the veracity of
our senses, 51., of the dignity of hu-
man nature, 174. 469., of a common
nature or standard in every species of
beings, 467., of this standard being in-
variable, 468., and of its being perfect
or right, ib. Intuitive conviction that
the external signs of passion are na-
tural, and also that they are the same
in all men, 211, 212.
Intuitive knowledge of external ob-
jects, 51.

Inversion, and inverted style described,
268, &c. Inversion gives force and
liveliness to the expression by sus-
pending the thought till the close, 277.
Inversion how regulated, 281. Beau-
ties of inversion, ib. Inversion fa-
vourable to pauses, 306. Full scope
for it in blank verse, 317.
Involuntary signs, of passion, 205-208.
Ionicus, 324.

Joy, its cause, 37, 38. Infectious, 95.
Considered with respect to dignity
and meanness, 175.
Iphigenia of Racine, censured, 203.
Iphigenia in Tauris, censured, 242. 438.
Irony, defined, 182.

Italian tongue, too smooth, 251, note.
Italian words finely diversified by long
and short syllables, 250, note.
Judgment, and memory in perfection,
seldom united, 21. Judgment seldom
united with wit, ib.

Julius Cæsar, of Shakspeare censured,
233, 234.

Justice, of less dignity than generosity
or courage, 174.

Kent, his skill in gardening, 444.
Key-note, 287. 292.
Kitchen-garden, 441.

Knowledge, intuitive knowledge of ex-
ternal objects, 51. Its pleasures never
decay, 200.

Labyrinth, in a garden, 447.
Landscape, why so agreeable, 69. 164.
More agreeable when comprehended
under one view, 446. A landscape in
painting ought to be confined to a sin-
gle expression, 150. Contrast ought
to prevail in it, 159.
Language, power of language to raise
emotions, whence derived, 53, 54.
Language of passion, chap. xvii.
Ought to be suited to the sentiments,
216. 236-238., broken and interrupt-
ed, 236., of impetuous passion, 238.,
of languid passion, ib., of calm emo-
tions, ib., of turbulent passions, ib.
Examples of language elevated above

the tone of the sentiment, 243. Of
language too artificial or too figura-
tive, 244., too light or airy, 245. Lan-
guage how far imitative, 247. Its
beauty with respect to signification,
248. 254, &c. Its beauty with respect
to sounds, 248, &c. It ought to cor-
respond to the subject, 257. 400. Its
structure explained, 266, &c. Beauty
of language from a resemblance be-
twixt sound and signification, 266.
248, &c. The character of a lan-
guage depends on the character of the
nation whose language it is, 311, note.
The force of language consists in
raising complete images, 57. 409. Its
power of producing pleasant emo-
tions, 408. Without language man
would scarce be a rational being, 487.
Latin tongue, finely diversified with
long and short syllables, 319.
L'Avare, of Moliere censured, 233.
Laughter, 137.

Laugh, of derision or scorn, 138. 169.
Law, defined, 171.

Laws of human nature, necessary suc-
cession of perceptions, 20. 152. We
never act but through the impulse of
desire, 30. 96. An object loses its
relish by familiarity, 64. Passions
sudden in their growth are equally
sudden in their decay, 66. 196. Every
passion ceases upon obtaining its ul-
timate end, 66. An agreeable cause
produceth always a pleasant emotion,
and a disagreeable cause a painful
emotion, 96.

Laws of motion, agreeable, 107.
Les Freres ennemies of Racine, cen-
sured, 225.

Lewis XIV. of France, censured, 165,

Lex talionis, upon what principle found-
ed, 148.

Line, definition of a regular line, 481.
Littleness, is neither pleasant nor pain-

ful, 113. Is connected with respect
and humility, 206, note.
Livy, censured, 256.

Locke, censured, 477, 478, note.
Logic, cause of its obscurity and intri-
cacy, 211.

Logio, improper in this climate, 454.
I Love, to children accounted for, 43.
The love a man bears to his country
explained, 45. Love produced by
pity, 46. Love gradual, 64. It sig-
nifies more commonly affection than
passion, 65. Love inflamed by the
caprices of a mistress, 66. Its endu-
rance, 67. To a lover absence ap-
pears long, 89. Love assumes the
qualities of its object, 95., when ex-

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