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fhould we prove but fo happy as to fet them in a clear and advantageous light. But be that as it will, we have collected additional arguments of another fort, which are obvious to every capacity and fufficient to convince any unprejudiced and well-difpofed mind of this important truth; fo that thofe who cannot avail themfelves of one part of our difcourfe, may reap fome fatisfaction and improvement from the other.
Reafon demonftrates to us, that God is a fpirit; and Sense, that the world is matter. Man, that microcofm, or little world, as he is called, is an epitome of both; of the former, with refpect to his foul; and of the latter in regard to his body; the Creator being pleased, in this his master-piece, to contract, if we may be allowed the expreffion, his own infinite majesty, and this vast machine into a narrow compass. In the body of man we may clearly observe a furprising compound of the four elements :—his veins, like rivers, run to the most extreme parts of every member. The organs of his sense are as various, as there are a variety of fenfible objects to entertain them.-Numberlefs are his nerves, arteries, and ligaments: his head, by special privilege, erected towards heaven, and his hands adapted for the most regular and useful motions. Now was any one to view such a structure as this, even without life, sense, or motion, would he not conclude it was framed for fome excellent purpose? Would he not even then readily agree with those who acknowledge man to be a miracle, infinitely tranfcending these lower elements, and no ways inferior to the heavens themfelves, with all the bright and fplendid luminaries they can boast. But when he had fufficiently examined and admired this inanimate fabrick; fhould he fee it begin to live and move with the utmost vivacity and vigour, would not this latter miracle quite efface the aftonishment he before was filled with, upon the contemplation of the beauty and harmony fo confpicuous in that stupendous machine. Thus, when we furvey a curious inftrument of mufic, we may very justly admire the beauties
of each individual part of it; but that admiration prefently ceafes, when we lead an attentive ear to the harmonious found it utters, when touched by a skilful hand. If then the bare reflection on that power, which gives but motion to the body of man, be a matter of fuch amazement what fhall we fay, when we seriously confider the other properties of the foul; when we recollect with how much ease it makes the most diftant objects prefent to the eye of the mind, recals tranfactions long fince paft, brings to remembrance former converfations, and performs all her feveral motions even when the body is confined within the narrow limits of a clofet?-Shall we not be led to acknowledge, that there is fomething dwelling within us more excellent than any other, though the most finished part of the creation?
Plato obferves, that there is an inward, as well as outward man ; the latter we may discern with our corporeal eyes, which retains its form after death, as an organ does after the musician ceases to touch it: the former is the foul, which though united to the body, makes use of it only as a vehicle. The one is at reft, though the other moves; this ranges, when that stands ftill; this fees when that has its eyes closed, and is often blind, when that enjoys its perfect fight. This labours" when that is inactive ;-and is motionless, when that labours." It can operate without the affistance of the outward man. This we may be convinced of, when we reflect on the activity of the foul, when the body lies in a profound fleep, that just and lively emblem of death. At fuch a time as this, how sprightly is the foul? How readily does it act over again the business, or pleafures of the day? How eafily are the transactions of a week performed in the short space of an hour?-How often do we attempt the most surprising feats, when our bodies are laid in the most profound infenfibility ?-When we recollect how foon difficulties are overcome, and what bold undertakings are presently accomplished.
in our dreams; it would be no unnatural fuggeftion, fhould we fuppose, that the foul, in these nocturnal fallies is trying her strength, struggling for freedom, and rejoicing over her feparation from the body, till fome accident recals, and confines her again to her earthly tabernacle. If therefore conftant experience convinces us, that the foul is freer, when the body is at rest than at other times; that she can perform more arduous and difficult undertakings; that she can refolve, contrive and execute; that he can remember and difpute without the affistance of the body, fhall we not easily entertain an idea of her existence, abstracted from her partner? Shall we not rather readily fuppofe, that she will act with lefs reftraint, when difencumbered from the load that obftructs her flight?-I foresee it may be objected, "that the foul is sometimes inactive as well as "the body, and locked up in a profound fleep without fo much as "the least consciousness of its exiftence; and that death may be for "a continuance, what this is only for a few hours."-But I would appeal to any man's experience, whether, when awake, he has not attempted to communicate fome thought to his companion, which, in the very moment, before he could give it utterance, he has abfoJutely forgot: If fo, I make no doubt, but that the foul always thinks, though perhaps we retain no idea of what she has been employed about during the hours of our fleep. We cannot conceive how this bufy, active principle within us can ceafe to be, can cease to think, and act according to its nature.
But to return to Plato's obfervation. "The inward man, fays he, is an epitome of all the life, motion, and fenfe with which the creatures are endued; and even in his depraved state is a fhadow of the divine nature." Flants have not only a visible body, but also an inward, invifible virtue, which makes them live, grow, flourish, and bring forth fruit; and this is called the vegetative foul, which diftinguishes it from tones and metals, which have it pot. Animals have not only this vegetative foul, which exerts itfelf
felf while they are asleep; but, befides this, have a power of seeing, hearing, tasting, &c. and fome of them of treasuring up what they take in with their fenfes, which faculties plants have not; that is to fay, they have a fenfitive foul; fo called, because it makes use of the fenfes in its operations.-Man has not only a vegetative soul, as appears from his nourishment and growth; and a fenfitive foul, as appears from the vivacity of his fenfes; but he has, moreover, a rational foul, which argues, and ufes visible things as inftruments in the contemplation of fuch as are invifible. It is this that demonftrates him to be, not merely a plant, or animal, but a man, and a shadow, or faint refemblance of the Deity. Still, however, he has but one foul; that is to fay, as the fenfitive foul of an animal includes the vegetative; fo the rational foul of a man comprehends both thefe; it lives, perceives, and reasons, in the fame manner, as his thoughts may be taken up with reflections on his own private affairs, the concerns of his country, and the joys of a better life. To speak more properly, these three degrees of fouls, which gradually excel each other, are degrees of life. The first, which barely exists, and is altogether incapable of moving from the place where it grows, is that of the plant. The second, which is so closely linked to the body that it perishes with it, is that of an animal, which has the power of motion, and various faculties to exert by means of the organs of the body. The third, which has no dependance on the body; but can live and act without it, is that of a man; and this retains, nay, increases its virtue, as we shall shew hereafter, when the ftrength of the body, to which it is united, fails, and the vigour of the fenfes grow faint and languid.
There are three degrees of men, which may, with propriety, be distinguished by the three degrees of fouls mentioned in the foregoing Section. Namely, the VEGETABLE MAN, who, like a plant, VOL. III:
only lives, and is nourished, and whofe fenfes and reafon are fubfer vient to these purposes only; who is a mere blank in the commonwealth; whofe cares extend no farther than just to the preservation of his life; and who hardly feems capable either of pleasure or pain. The ANIMAL MAN, who gives himself wholly up to the contemplation of fenfible objects, who debases his reason, and eagerly purfues his unlawful pleasures, who gratifies his brutal appetites, and thinks nothing a greater fatigue, nothing fo difagreeable as reflection.-Lastly, there is the RATIONAL MAN, who lives principally upon fpiritual entertainments, turns his eyes inwards on his own. actions, in order to regulate them by the rules of prudence and virtue; contemplates the works of nature, and adores his God, with a heart filled with gratitude and love; ufes this life only in order to a better, and his fenfes only as fubfervient to his foul.—Thus, as a man's behaviour is; fo ought his denomination to be; and he either resembles an angel, a brute, or a plant, according as he neglects, or improves thofe faculties which his gracious God has given him.
Now should any one fay, I am convinced that I have such a soul, as you have described, endowed with life, fenfe, and reason, and therefore would gladly be informed what this foul is; I might ingenuously confefs; fince many, more learned than myself, have made the fame conceffion, that I am perfectly at a lofs to refolve the question; yet fuch our ignorance will no ways perplex the cause in hand: fince the effects are plain; the less we understand of its nature, the more exalted it must be: for nothing can fully comprehend what is more excellent than itself; and the foul,. while encumbered with this tenement of clay, may be faid to be inferior to itself; as he, who is fettered. and hand cuffed, and by. that means cannot exert the ftrength which he could were he free,. may with propriety enough be termed under fuch. circumftances: but half a man.