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ERRATA.

Page 133, line 15, for generally carried on, read carried on.

138, line 15, for balance ad, read balance and.

260, line 5, for wood, read iron.
265, line 25, The same error.
268, line 21, The same error.
424, line 6, for Trees from se ed the, read Trees from seed, they.
466, line 2, (from the bottom) for singular, read striking.

Next line, for the iron, read it.
Next line, the same.

Next line, the same.

467, line 2, (from ditto) for with which, read at which.

502, line 14, for thirty or more feet, read thirty feet, or more.

PREFACE

TO THE FIRST EDITION.

It might at first sight appear a needless task to undertake a formal Treatise on an Art, which almost all men practise, and profess to understand, were it not for the fact, that so few practise it with success.

The Removal of Large Trees, for pleasure or use, is an art of great antiquity. As a branch of Arboriculture, it is well known to most modern nations But it has remained still longer than Agriculture, without any principles to regulate it, as Chemistry and Physiology, till of late years, have been confined to the recluse philosopher, and are little studied or understood by the active, and the practical. I trust, however, that the time is not far distant, when Arboriculture, like Husbandry, will engage the attention of some able Physio

b

logist, and be thoroughly illustrated in all its parts.

Meanwhile, it is the purpose of the present Essay to treat chiefly of "Giving Immediate Effect to Wood, by the Removal of Large Trees," and to lay down the principles, and explain the practice, by which that desirable object may be accomplished. In doing this, it is obvious, that the art of GENERAL PLANTING must at the same time be taught, as both, being governed by the same General Laws, should of course be practised on the same known principles. In removing Wood, for the purpose of creating Real Landscape, plants of a large size are necessarily employed ; and, as such materials are far more unwieldy, and more difficult to manage, than those of ordinary Planting, they require far greater dexterity, as well as greater science. If, then, it hold true in Arboriculture, as it does in Logic, that "the Greater necessarily comprises the Less,” it is probable, that the rules of General Planting will in this way be more forcibly impressed on the reader's mind, than if they were studied in any other man

ner.

In order to render the Art of Giving Immediate Effect to Wood as intelligible as possible, I have,

in the following pages, considered it under Three general heads.

First; I have given a History of the Art of Removing Wood, from the earliest times down to the present; from which it appears, that it has always been vague and fortuitous, at variance with what we know of the Laws of Nature, and the Anatomy of Plants, and, for the most part, both unsuccessful and expensive.

Secondly; I have attempted to discover some plain and rational Theory, founded in nature and experience, for the guidance of the Planter, and which may tend to raise it to the rank of a useful Art.

Thirdly; I have endeavoured to deduce from this theory such a Practice, as shall ensure success, by in some sort precluding contingency; and also, to diminish the expense, by the one half at least of the present amount.

In attempting these objects, I trust, that I have treated with due respect the opinions of preceding writers. Where I have, from deliberate conviction, been forced to differ from them, I have done it with regret; being aware of the uncertainty, in which all knowledge, on so obscure a subject as Vegetable Physiology, must ever be held, and in

which, although much has been already brought to light, by the patient industry of the philosopher, much, I am persuaded, still remains to be investigated.

For the deficiencies of the present work I should wish next to say something, by way of apology, as I am conscious to myself how very greatly it stands in need of it. The fact is, it was undertaken at the desire of numerous friends, who approved of my system, which I have ventured to call the PRESERVATIVE, in order to serve as a Manual for their own practice. Accordingly, about eighteen months since, the First Section was written and printed, in order to convince myself, as well as others, that I was in earnest in undertaking the task; but it was soon after interrupted, and in the end thrown aside, for other avocations. Within these few months, the work was more seriously resumed. Each Section was thrown off, as soon as it was composed; and the consequence was, that some omissions, which appeared prominent, were to be supplied in the Notes, while others were found too extensive to be in any way supplied. As Notes are not the most popular medium, through which information can be communicated, perhaps it will appear but a small coun

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