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Page xvi, Heaven-built Troy.] Lycophron says (v. 620.) that Diomede had, after his death, a statue erected to him in Italy, on a column formed of stones, brought as ballast in his ship, which had formed part of the walls of Troy.
Page xvi. Beautiful Helen.] Euripides supposes that Helen never was at Troy, and ascribes the substitution of a phantom in her room, to Juno. Lycophron attributes it to Proteus, but he says that Paris was not deprived of his prize, for he enjoyed the love of Helen at Salamis. They both agree that the Trojan prince only brought a cloud, a visionary resemblance of the beautiful Spartan, to Troy.
Δίδωσι δ ̓ οὐκ ἐμ' ἀλλ ̓ ὁμοίωσας Ἐμοὶ
Ειδωλον ἔμπνουν Ουρανου ξυνθεῖς ὑπο. v. Helen, 33. The anonymous author of the 'Αποσμ: Επους περι Elevns, also mentions this opinion, which the Scholiast thinks, refers to what Lycophron had said, v. ed. Morell. Paris, 1595, 12mo.
Ου δ' Ελένην φάσκουσι μετὰ Τρώεσσι παρειναι. And Lycophron, says the Scholiast, took his opinion from Stesichorus, who wrote
Τρωεσσ ̓ ὅι τοτ ̓ ἴσαν Ελένης ἔιδωλον ἔχοντες.
Const. Manasses (ed. Meurs. p. 390.) makes Proteus, when Paris landed in Egypt, take Helen away from him; and he returned to Troy empty-handed, or as the text has it, having touched Helen only with the tip of his finger.
Ο δέ κενᾶις ὑπέστρεφε χέρσι πρὸς τὴν πάτριδα
So also the Antehom. of Tzetzes, v. 148, p. 23, ed. Jacobs.
Τῆς πενταλέκτρου θυάδος πλευρονίας.
Pausanias (lib. iii. c. 16.) says, that in the temple of Hilaira and Phoebe, an egg was suspended from the roof, bound with fillets, which was, they say, the egg that Leda brought forth. The lamentation of Hermione for the loss of her mother Helen, is the only poetical passage in the poem of Coluthus, which is little else than a cento of scraps from Homer, Q. Smyrnæus, and Musæus, v. 333, et seq. Gray, in the concluding lines of his Agrippina, says,
so Helen look'd,
So her white neck reclined, so was she borne
This is expressed with his usual knowledge and precision of
Δειρὴ μακρὰ, κατάλευκος, ὅθεν ἐμυθουργηθη,
and Antehom. of Tzetzes, ed. Jacobs. 115. For an ac-
Page xvii. Her damask'd.] Malala, in his Chronicle, lib. v. p. 114. describes Helen as čvoroλos, handsomely drest. Beautiful as she was, Philostratus says, that Hiera, the wife of Telephus, king of Mysia, was reckoned handsomer; To σᾶυτον ἅυτην φήσι πλεονεκτεῖν τῆς Ελένης ὅσονκἀκεινη Tuv Tooàdwv. v. ed. Olearii, p. 691. and the author of Twv Tootkov, joins in this assertion, p. 679. J. Tzetzes, in his Antehom. follows them, v. 285.
Ἡ γὰρ και Ελενὴν ἀπεκάινυτο καλλει πόλλον.
Arintheus was the greatest male beauty whom history has recorded; he is celebrated even by St. Basil, who supposes that God had created him as an inimitable model of the human species. The painters and sculptors could not express his figure. The historians appeared fabulous when they related his exploits, v. Am. Marcell. Hist. xxvi. and the note of Valesius.
Page xvii. Then o'er the deep.] When Mr. Anson, Lord Anson's brother, was on his travels in the East, he hired a vessel to visit the isle of Tenedos; his pilot, an old Greek, as they were sailing along, said, with some satisfactionThere 'twas our fleet lay.-Mr. Anson demanded, What fleet? What fleet? replied the old man, a little piqued with the question, why our Grecian fleet to be sure, at the siege of Troy. See Harris's Philol. Enq. p. 320.
Page xvii. Breathing revenge.] After the death of
Εἰς τὸν Δαβὶδ τὸν ἄνακτα, τὴς Ιουδαίας πέμπει
but David had battles of his own to fight. So Priam sent to
Tantares, or Pantares, king of the East Indies, who sent his General Memnon, and some wild beasts to help him. An anecdote is told of Priam, by Lydgate, which perhaps is not mentioned in older histories. See Life and Death of Hector, c. vii. p. 104.
No favor, nor no love made him decline,
Mr. Bryant in his Observ. on the Brit. Critic, p. 86, compares the extent of Priam's empire to Glamorganshire. See also Wood on Homer, p. 268, and Blackwell's Life of Homer, p. 286.
Page xvi. The battle bled.] Pausanias (lib. x. c. 25, &c.) gives a minute analysis of a very interesting picture by Polygnotus, representing the destruction of Troy, and the Greeks just preparing to sail to their native land. He observes that it differs considerably from the account of Homer. Among the figures, Hector is seen with both hands on his left knee, looking like a man weighed down with sorrow. Next to him, Memnon is sitting on a stone; and close to him, Sarpedon, leaning with his face on both his hands, but one of Memnon's hands is placed on the shoulder of Sarpedon. Penthesilea, with a bow in her hand, and a leopard's skin on her shoulder, is looking on Paris, and by her countenance seems to despise him. Menelaus is represented on board his ship preparing to depart from Troy; in the ship, boys and men are seen standing together; and the pilot Phrontes is distributing the oars. Nestor is painted with a hat on his head, and a spear in his hand; a horse rolling on the sand is seen near him. Palamedes and Thersites are
represented playing at dice; the Oilean Ajax is looking at the play; his colour is that of a seafaring man, and his body is wet with the foam of the sea. In the second Excurs. to the Æn. iii. p. 426. Heyné has a Dissertation on the year or month in which Troy was taken. See also Dodwell de Cyclis, p. 803. 4to.
Page xx. Gentle companions.] Bees were called by the Greeks, το ποίμνιον ἀποιμαντον, the fock without a shepherd. Pausan. Ant. lib. 1. c. xxxii. says, that the Halyonian bees were so gentle that they would go out foraging along with the men in the fields.
Page xxvi. Brutus' colours.] In the beginning of the last century the learned Camden was obliged to undermine
with respectful scepticism the Romance of Brutus, the Trojan; who is now buried in silent oblivion with Scota, the daughter of Pharaoh, and her numerous progeny, v. Gibbon's Rom. Hist. ii. p. 526. In Henry VIII.'s famous Manifesto against James IV. he insisted at great length on the superiority of the kings of England over the kingdom of Scotland, which he derived from his illustrious predecessor, Brute, the Trojan, v. Henry's Hist. of Eng. xi. p. 526. As Henry claimed kindred, he should have added his ancestor's name to his own. Henry the Brute would have well preserved the recollection of the illustrious lineage.
Poem, p. xxviii, Tables.] Sir William Forrest, chaplain to Queen Catherine, speaking of her when young, says,
With stoole and needle she was not to seeke,
And other practyseinges for ladyes meete
See Andrews' Hist. of Gt. Brit. i. 419.
ADDITIONAL NOTES TO THE LIFE OF PARNELL.
Life, p. 5, Mistress.] Elizabeth bestowed the primacy upon Dr. Mathew Parker, though she liked not his marriage, as she contrived once humorously to tell his consort. The queen had been hospitably entertained at his house; she had thanked him and now," she said, turning to the lady, "what shall I say to you? Madam I may not call you, and Mistress I am ashamed to call you, so I know not what to call you, but yet I do thank you."
'It must be observed, that though Mrs. Saunderson was very young when married to Betterton, she retained the appellation of Mistress. Mademoiselle or Miss, though introduced among people of fashion in England, about the latter end of Charles the Second's reign, was not familiar to the middle class of people till a much later time, nor in use among the players till toward the latter end of King William's reign. Miss Cross was the first of the stage Misses. She is particularly noticed in Joe Haines's Epilogue
to Farquhar's Love and a Bottle.- Miss was formerly understood to mean a woman of pleasure. So Dryden in his Epilogue to the Pilgrim, written in 1700.
'Misses there were, but modestly concealed.'
Davies's Dram. Misc. iii. p. 412.
Life, p. 54, Anacreontic.]
Gay Bacchus liking Estcourt's wine,' &c.
Dick Estcourt, the celebrated Comedian, about a year before his death, opened the Bumper Tavern in Covent-Garden. He was the companion of Addison, Steele, Parnell, and all the learned and choice spirits of the age, and was celebrated for ready wit, gay pleasantry, and a wonderful talent in mimickry. He acted Falstaff, Bayes, Serjeant Kite, in the Recruiting Officer, Pounce in the Tender Husband, the Spanish Friar. Downes called him 'Histrio natus.' Sir R. Steele has drawn an amiable picture of him in the Spectator, vol. vi. No. 468. Estcourt was a favourite of the great Duke of Marlborough, and providore of the Beef-steak Club. Secretary Craggs went with Estcourt to Sir G. Kneller, and told him that a gentleman in company would give such a representation of some great men his friends, as would surprise him. Estcourt mimicked Lord Somers, Lord Halifax, Godolphin and others, so very exactly, that Sir Godfrey was highly delighted, and laughed heartily at the joke. Craggs gave the wink, and Estcourt mimicked Kneller himself, who cried out immediately.-Nay! there you are out, man! by God, that is not me!
Life, p. 60, Hymn to Contentment.] My learned and excellent friend, Mr. Barker of Thetford, has kindly pointed out to me the following passage relating to Parnell's Hymn to Contentment:
"On the pursuit, and attainment of this heavenly tranquillity, the classical and pious reader will perhaps not be displeased to meet a beautiful Ode from the "Divina Psalmodia of Cardinal Bona," on which Parnell manifestly formed his exquisite Hymn to Contentment. The insertion will be more readily pardoned, as this imitation has escaped the notice of Dr. Johnson, and it is believed of all other critics and commentators."
"O Sincera parens beatitatis,
Coeli delicium, Deique proles,
Pax, terræ columen, decusque morum,