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With the aid of the foregoing table we may calculate the interest, or amount, of any principal sum for any time, not more than forty years. For an example, take £523 for fifteen years, at five per cent. per annum, compound interest. In the table on the line 15, and column 5 per cent. is the amount of £1 viz.2-07893 This multiplied by the principal
gives the amount or £1087 5s. 74d. £564 5s. 74d.
Therefore the interest is
hazards, a door should be opened to fraud and usury; leaving specific hazards to be provided against by specific insurances, or by loans upon respondentia or bottomry. But, as to the rate of legal interest, it has varied and decreased for 200 years past, according as the quantity of specie in the kingdom has increased by accessions of trade, the introduction of paper credit, and other circumstances. The statute 37 Hen. VIII. c. 9, confined interest to ten per cent. and so did the statute 13 Eliz. c. 8. But as, through the encouragements given in her reign to comThe lawfulness of taking any interest what- merce, the nation grew more wealthy; so, under ever has been sometimes agitated; and the her successor, the statute 21 Jac. I. c. 17 reschool divines have stigmatised it as contrary to duced it to eight per cent.; as did the statute the divine law both natural and revealed. But 12 Car. II. c. 13, to six: and lastly, by the stathe Mosaical precept was clearly a branch of the tute 12 Ann. st. 2, c. 16, it was brought down jurisprudential or political law of the Jews, and to five per cent. yearly, which is now the extrenot a moral precept; for while it prohibited the mity of legal interest that can be taken. But Jews from taking usury of their brethren, it in yet, if a contract which carries interest be made express words (Deut. xxiii. 20), permitted them in a foreign country, our courts will direct the to take it of a stranger, which proves that the payment of interest according to the law of that taking of moderate usury, as a reward for the country in which the contract was made. Thus use, for so the word signifies, is not malum in se; Irish, American, Turkish, and Indian interest, since it was allowed where any but an Israelite have been allowed in our courts to the amount was concerned. As to the reason, deduced from of even twelve per cent. For the moderation the natural barrenness of money, ascribed to or exorbitance of interest depends upon local Aristotle, the same may with equal force he circumstances; and the refusal to enforce such alleged of houses, which never breed houses; contracts would put a stop to all foreign trade. and of various other things, which nobody doubts And, by statute 14 Geo. III. c. 79, all mortit is lawful to let on hire. He who demands an gages and other securities upon estates or other exorbitant price for the accommodation wanted, property in Ireland or the plantations, bearing acts unjustly and immorally in either case; but interest not exceeding six per cent., shall be there is no good cause for blaming him in the legal, though executed in the kingdom of Great one more than in the other. Britain: unless the money lent shall be known at the time to exceed the value of the thing in pledge; in which case also, to prevent usurious contracts at home, under color of such foreign securities, the borrower shall forfeit treble the sum so borrowed.
Upon the two principles of inconvenience and hazard, compared together, different nations have at different times established different rates of interest. The Romans at one time allowed centissimæ, one per cent. monthly, or twelve per cent. per annum, to be taken for common loans; but Justinian reduced it to trientes, or one-third of the as or centissimæ, that is four per cent.; but allowed higher interest to be taken of merchants, because there the hazard is greater. Grotius informs us, that in Holland the rate of interest was then eight per cent. in common loans, but twelve to merchants. Our law establishes one standard for all alike, where the pledge or security itself is not put in jeopardy; lest, under the general pretence of vague and indeterminate
The only case, in which compound interest is allowed, by the laws of Great Britain, is that of annuities.
INTERFERE', v. n. Lat. inter and ferio. To interpose; to intermeddle; to clash; to oppose each other. A horse is said to interfere, when the side of one of his shoes strikes against and hurts one of his fetlocks; or the hitting one leg against another, and striking off the skin.
If each acts by an independent power, their commands may interfere. Smalridge's Sermors.
So cautious were our ancestors in conversation, as never to interfere with party disputes in the state.
I made no wars, I added no new imposts I interfered not with their civic lives.
Byron. Tragedy. Sardanapalus.
So firm is my reliance on the arbitration of chance, that I can assure my readers, many is the good paper for the subject of which they are indebted to her interference. Canning. Microcosm.
INTER'FLUENT, adj. Latin interfluens. Flowing between.
Air may consist of any terrene or aqueous corpuscles, kept swimming in the interfluent celestial matter. Boyle.
INTERFULGENT, adj. Lat. inter and fulgens. Shining between. INTERFUSED', adj. Lat. interfusus. Poured or scattered between.
The ambient air wide interfused, Embracing round this florid earth. INTERJA'CENCY, n. s. Lat. interjaceo. INTERJACENT, adj. The act of lying INTERJECTION, n. s. between; the thing lying between; the state of being interposed: and thus interjection is a part of speech that discovers the mind to be seized or affected with some passion: such as are in Englsh, O! alas! ah!
The sea itself must be very broad, and void of little islands interjacent, else will it yield plentiful argument of quarrel to the kingdoms which it serveth. Raleigh.
Laughing causeth a continual expulsion of the breath, with the loud noise which maketh the interjection of laughing.
Shakespeare. Coriolanus, act. iv. INTERIOR, adj. Lat. interior; Fr, interieur. Internal; inner; not outward; not superficial.
The fool-multitude, that chuse by show, Not learning more than the fond eye doth teach, Which pry not to the interiour. Shakspeare. The grosser parts, thus sunk down, would harden, and constitute the interiour parts of the earth.
Burnet. INTERKNOWL'EDGE, n. s. Inter and knowledge. Mutual knowledge.
All nations have interknowledge one of another, either by voyage into foreign parts, or by strangers that come to them.
INTERLACE', v. a. intermix; to put one thing within another.
Fr. entrelasser. Το
Some are to be interlaced between the divine readings of the law and prophets. Hooker.
The ambassadors interlaced, in their conference, the purpose of their master to match with the daughter of Maximilian. Bacon.
They acknowledge what services he had done for the commonwealth, yet interlacing some errors, wherewith they seemed to reproach him. Hayward.
INTERLAPSE', n. s. Inter and lapse. The flow of time between any two events.
These dregs are calcined into such salts, which, after a short interlapse of time, produce coughs.
The laws of Normandy were the defloration of the English laws, and a transcript of them, though
INTERIM, n. s. Lat. interim. Mean time; mingled and interlarded with many particular laws intervening time.
I a heavy interim shall support,
By his dear absence. Shakspeare. Othello. One bird happened to be foraging for her young
ones, and in this interim comes a torrent that washes away nest, birds, and all.
In this interim my women asked what I thought.
INTERIM, a name given to a formulary, or kind of confession of the articles of faith, obtruded upon the Protestants after Luther's death by the emperor Charles V., when he had defeated their forces; so called hecause it was only to take place in the interim, till a general council should have decided all points in dispute be
tween the Protestants and Romanists. It retained most of the doctrines and ceremonies of the Romanists, excepting that of marriage, which was allowed to the clergy, and communion to the laity under both kinds. Most of the Protestants rejected it. There were two other interims; one of Leipsic, the other of Franconia.
of their own, which altered the features of the original. Hale's Laws of England. Phillips has used this word very harshly, and probably did not understand it.
They interlard their rative drinks with choice Of strongest brandy.
with such frequent blots and interlineations, that they are hardly able to go on without perpetual hesitations. Id. INTERLINK', v.a. Inter and link. To connect chains one to another; to join one in another. The fair mixture in pictures causes us to enter into the subject which it imitates, and imprints it the more deeply into our imagination and our memory: these are two chains which are interlinked, which contain, and are at the same time contained.
Dryden. Lat. inter and loquor. Dialogue; alternate speech; a preparatory proceeding in law, before final decision, is called an interlocution: a person who talks with another, an interlocutor: interlocutory, a mode of speech which consists of dialogue.
INTERLOCUTION, n. s.
The plainest and the most intelligible rehearsal of the psalms they favor not, because it is done by interlocution, and with a mutual return of sentences from side to side. Hooker.
When the minister by exhortation raiseth them up, and the people by protestation of their readiness declare he speaketh not in vain unto them; these interlocutory forms of speech, what are they else but most effectual, partly testifications, and partly inflammations of all piety?
Some morose readers shall find fault with my having made the interlocutors compliment with one another. Boyle.
These things are called accidental, because some new incident in judicature may emerge upon them, on which the judge ought to proceed by interlocution. Ayliffe's Parergon. INTERLOCUTORY DECREE, in English law. In a suit in equity, if any matter of fact be strongly controverted, the fact is usually directed to be tried at the bar of the court of king's bench, or at the assizes, upon a feigned issue. If a question of mere law arises in the course of a cause, it is the practice of the court of chancery to refer it to the opinion of the judges of the court of king's bench, upon a case stated for the purpose. In such cases, interlocutory decrees or orders are made.
INTERLOCUTORY JUDGMENTS are such as are given in the middle of a cause, upon some plea proceeding on default, which is only intermediate, and does not finally determine or complete the suit. But the interlocutory judgments most usually spoken of are those incomplete judgments whereby the right of the plaintiff is established, but the quantum of damages sustained by him is not ascertained, which is the province of a jury. In such a case a writ of enquiry issues to the sheriff, who summons a jury, enquires of the damages, and returns to the court the inquisition so taken, whereupon the plaintiff's attorney taxes costs, and signs final judgment. Interlocutory order is that which decides not the cause, but only settles some intervening matter relating to the cause. As, where an order is made in chancery for the plaintiff to have an injunction, to quit possession till the hearing of the cause; this order, not being final, is called interlocutory.
INTERLOPER, n. s. Į Lat. inter and Dut. Sloopen. To run be
INTERLOPE', v. n.
tween parties and intercept the advantage that one should gain from the other; to traffic without a proper license; to forestall; to anticipate irregularly interloper, one who runs into business where he has no right; an officious intruder.
The swallow was a fly-catcher, and was no more an interloper upon the spider's right, than the spider was upon the swallow's. L'Estrange.
The patron is desired to leave off this interloping trade, or admit the knights of the industry to their share. Tatler.
INTERLU'CENT, adj. Shining between.
INTERLUDE, n. s.
Lat. inter and ludus.
were in mourning assisting at a funeral. He approached the supposed dead body, and, imagining that he perceived signs of life in it, he ordered the bystanders to take away the flambeaux, to extinguish the fire, and to pull down the funeral pile. A murmur on this arose among the company. Some said that they ought to be
The love of God makes a man temperate in the midst of feasts, and is active enough without any intermedial appetites. Taylor. A gardener prepares the ground, and in all the intermedial spaces he is careful to dress it. Evelyn. Do not the most refrangible rays excite the short-lieve the physician, while others turned both him est vibrations for making a sensation of a deep violet, the least refrangible the largest for making a sensation of deep red, and the several intermediate sorts of rays, vibrations of several intermediate bignesses, to make sensations of the several intermediate colors?
Newton's Opticks. Those general natures, which stand between the nearest and most remote, are called intermediate.
Fr. entremêler. To
INTERMELL', v. a. mix; to mingle. Not in use. By occasion hereof many other adventures are intermelled, but rather as accidents than intendments. Spenser.
INTER'MENT, n. s. Fr. interment; and from inter. Burial; sepulchre. See INTER. By the ducal order
To forward the preparatory rites
Byron. Tragedy. Two Foscari.
INTERMENT is the act of burying or depositing a deceased person in the earth. Placing the body in a cave was probably the most ancient method of disposing of the dead; and appears to have been propagated by the Phoenicians throughout the countries to which they sent colonies. When an ancient hero died or was killed in a foreign expedition, as his body was liable to corruption, and for that reason unfit to be transported entire, they fell on the expedient of burning, in order to bring home the ashes, to oblige the manes to follow; that so his country might not be destitute of the benefit of his tutelage. Hence burning seems to have had its origin; and by degrees it became common to all who could bear the expense of it, and took place of the ancient burying: thus catacombs became disused among the Romans, after they had borrowed the manner of burning from the Greeks, and then none but slaves were laid in the ground. See BURIAL, CATACOMBS, and FUNERAL RITES.
History records many traces of the respect which the Indians, Egyptians, and Syrians, paid to the dead. The Romans, in the infancy of their empire, paid little attention to their dead. Acilius Aviola, having fallen into a lethargic fit, was supposed to be dead; he was therefore carried to the funeral pile; the fire was lighted up; and, though he cried out he was still alive, he perished for want of speedy assistance. The Prætor Lamia met with the same fate. Tubero, who had been Prætor, was saved from the funeral pile. Diogenes Laertius tells us, that Empedocles, in the 84th Olympiad, restored to life Ponthia, a women of Agrigentum, when she was about to be interred. Asclepiades, a physician, who lived in the time of Pompey the Great about A. A. C. 120, returning from his country house, observed near the walls of Rome a grand convoy and a crowd of people, who
and his profession into ridicule. The relations, however, yielded to the remonstrances of Asclepiades; they consented to defer the obsequies for a little; and the consequence was the restoration of the supposed dead person to life. These examples, and several others of the like nature, ininduced the Romans to delay funerals longer, and to enact laws to prevent precipitate inter
The Greeks also established laws for the protection of the dead. At Athens the law required that no person should be interred before the third day; and in the greater part of the cities of Greece a funeral did not take place till the sixth or seventh. When a man appeared to have breathed his last, his body was generally washed by his nearest relations, with warm water mixed with wine. They afterwards anointed it with oil; and covered it with a dress made of fine linen. The body was afterwards laid upon a couch in the entry of the house, where it remained till the time of the funeral. At the magnificent obsequies with which Alexander honored Hephastion the body was not burned till the tenth day. At Rome the nearest relations generally closed the eyes of the deceased; and the body was bathed with warm water, either to render it fitter for being anointed with oil, or to reanimate the principle of life, which might remain suspended without manifesting itself. On the second day, after the body had been washed a second time, it was anointed with oil and balm. On the third day the body was clothed according to its dignity and condition. On the fourth, the body was placed on a couch, and exposed in the vestibule of the house, with the face turned towards the entrance, and the feet near the door; in this situation it remained till the end of the week. Near the couch were lighted wax-tapers, a small box in which perfumes were burnt, and a vessel full of water for purification, with which those who approached the body besprinkled themselves. On the eighth day the funeral rites were performed (see FUNERAL); but, to prevent the body from corrupting before that time, salt, wax, the resinous gum of the cedar, myrrh, honey, balm, gypsum, lime, asphaltes, or bitumen of Judea, and several other substances, were employed. The body was carried to the pile with the face uncovered, unless wounds or the nature of the disease had rendered it loathsome and disgusting. In such a case a mask was used, made of a kind of plaster. This method of concealment was employed by Nero, after having caused Germanicus to be poisoned: for the effect of the poison had become very visible, by livid spots and the blackness of the body; but a shower of rain happening to fall, it washed the plaister entirely away, and thus the norrid crime of fratricide was discovered. In the primitive church the dead were washed and then anointed;
the body was wrapped up in linen, or clothed in a dress of more or less value according to circumstances, and it was not interred until after being exposed and kept some days in the house. In Britain bodies generally remain unburied three or four days, often not so long. In many other places, and on many occasions in all places, too much precipitation attends this office; or at least there is a great neglect of due precautions in regard to the body. As soon as the semblance of death appears, the chamber of the sick is generally deserted by friends, relatives, and physicians; and the apparently dead, though frequently living body, is committed to the management of an ignorant and unfeeling nurse, whose care extends no farther than laying the limbs straight, and securing her accustomed perquisites. The bed-clothes are immediately removed, and the body is exposed to the air. This, when cold, must extinguish any spark of life that may remain, and which, by a different treatment, might have been kindled into a flame; or it may only continue to repress it, and the unhappy person afterwards revive amidst the horrors of the tomb.
The difficulty of distinguishing a person apparently dead from one who is really so, has, in all countries where bodies have been interred too precipitately, rendered it necessary for the law to interfere. At Geneva there are people appointed to inspect all dead bodies; to examine whether the person be really dead, and whether one died naturally or by violence. In the north, as well as in Genoa, it is usual not to bury the dead till after three days. In Holland people carry their precautions much farther, and delay the funerals longer.
Not only the ordinary signs of death are very uncertain, but we may say the same of the stiffness of the limbs, which may be convulsive; of the dilation of the pupil of the eye, which may proceed from the same cause. Haller, convinced of the uncertainty of all these signs, proposes a new one, which he considers as infallible. 'If the person,' says he, be still in life, the mouth will immediately shut of itself, because the contraction of the mosoles of the jaw will awaken their irritability.' Life is preserved a long time in the passage of the intestines. The sign pointed out by Dr. Fothergill appears to deserve more attention. If the air blown into the mouth,' says this physician, passes freely through all the alimentary channel, it affords a strong presumption that the irritability of the internal sphincters is destroyed, and consequently that life is at an end.' The Turks wash the bodies of their dead before interment. As their ablutions are complete, and no part of the body escapes their attention, they easily perceive whether one be dead or alive, by examining, among other things, whether the sphincter ani has lost its power of contraction. If this muscle still remains contracted, they warm the body and endeavour to recal it to life.
INTERMIGRATION, n. s. Fr. intermigration; Lat. inter and migro. Act of removing from one place to another, so as that, of two parties removing, each takes the place of the other.
boundary: an intermination is a menace or threat, from Lat. intermino.
Within a thicket I reposed; when round I ruffled up fallen leaves in heaps, and found, Let fall from heaven, a sleep interminate. Chapman's Odyssey. The threats and interminations of the Gospel, those terrors of the Lord, as goads may drive those brutish creatures who will not be attracted. Decay of Piety. As if they would confine the' interminable, And tie him to his own prescript.
Milton. Agonistes. What are ye? what
Is this blue wilderness of interminable Air, where ye roll along, as I have seen The leaves along the limpid streams of Eden? Byron. Cain. INTERMIN'GLE, v. a. Inter and mingle. To mingle; to mix; to put some things amongst others.
with readings out of the New Testament, lessons The church in her liturgies hath intermingled, taken out of the law and prophets.
My lord shall never rest:
I'll intermingle every thing he does With Cassio's suit. Shakspeare. Othello. Here sailing ships delight the wandering eyes; There trees and intermingled temples rise. Pope. INTERMISSION, n. s.~ Fr. intermission; INTERMISSIVE, adj. Lat.inter and mitto. INTERMIT, v. a. Cessation for a INTERMITTENT, adj. venient time; the state of intermission: the space time; pause; interbetween the paroxysms of fever is an intermission: intermit, to come by fits; to deviate rom regularity; thus an intermittent pulse loses a beat at intervals; to grow mild and free from fever when the paroxysm is over; to cease from giving severe pain.
If nature should intermit her course, and leave
altogether, though it were but for a-while, the obser
vation of her own laws.
Came a reeking post, Delivered letters, spight of intermission, Which presently they read.
Shakspeare. King Lear. Run to your houses, fall upon your knees; Pray to the gods to intermit the plague That needs must light on this ingratitude.