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The legal effect of the contracts of these societies is altogether regulated by the terms of them respectively, and each person on entering becomes voluntarily a party to the rules of the society. Speaking generally, a very high feeling of honor and liberality pervades the conduct of these bodies, who, we fear, are far more often 'sinned against than sinning,' in respect to their business. But some curious cases of claims occur in the law books.

The Sun, inserting the terms' civil commotion' as an exception to the cases of fire against which they insured, resisted the claim of Mr. Langdale, in 1780, for a fire occasioned by the riots of that year and the court held them exempt from paying it. Yet there is a case where (2 Wils. 363.) the London Assurance paid a claim for a fire occasioned by a mob; only they use the terms 'military or usurped power.'

In case of loss occuring the insured is bound by most of the proposals of the societies, and ought, in all cases, to give immediate notice of the event, and as particular an account of the value, &c., as the nature of the case will admit. He must also generally produce a certificate of the minister and church-wardens as to his character, their belief of the loss sustained, and the truth of what he advances. If a policy of insurance from fire refer to certain printed proposals, the proposals will be considered as part of the policy.

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Insurance against all the damages which the plaintiffs should suffer by fire, on stock and utensils in their regular built sugar-house,' was held not to extend to damage done to the sugar by the heat of the usual fires employed in refining, being accumulated by the mismanagement of plaintiffs, who inadvertently kept the top of their chimney closed.' Austin v. Drewe.

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In insurances against fire, the loss may be either partial or total, and some of the offices, if not all, expressly undertake to allow all reasonable charges, attending the removal of goods in cases of fire, and to pay the sufferer's loss, whether the goods are destroyed, lost, or damaged, by such removal. Park, 449. In a policy against fire from half year to half year, the assured agreed to pay the premium half yearly, as long as the insurers should agree to accept the same,' within fifteen days after the expiration of the former half year, and it was also stipulated that no insurance should take place till the premium was actually paid; a loss happened within fifteen days after the end of one half year, but before the premium of the next was paid: held that the insurers were not liable though the assured tendered the premium before the end of fifteen days, but after the loss. Stanniforth in Error, E. 36 Geo. 3.

Torleton v.

Want of fairness in the statement of circumtances is very justly held to vitiate this obligation with most others. A plaintiff, Bufe. v. Turner, having one of several warehouses next but one to a boat-builder's shop which took fire; on the same evening, after the fire was apparently extinguished, gave instructions by an extraordinary conveyance for insuring that warehouse, then having others uninsured, but without apprising the insurers of the recent neighbouring fire.

Though the terms of insurance did not expressly require the communication, it was held that the concealment of this fact avoided the policy. 6 W. P. Taunton, 338.

Contrary to what has been determined as to MARINE INSURANCES (see that article), fire policies are not, in their nature, assignable, nor can the interest in them be transferred without the consent of the office. It is provided, however, that, when any person dies, the interest shall remain to his heir, executor, or administrator, respectively, to whom the property insured belongs; provided they procure their right to be endorsed on the policy, or the premium be paid in their name. Park, 549. It is necessary that the party injured should have an interest or property in the house insured, at the time the policy is made out, and at the time the fire happeus.

For some interesting particulars as to the capitals of the principal Insurance Companies, see ENGLAND, vol. viii. p. 307.

INSURMOUNTABLE, adj. Fr. surmonINSURMOUN TABLY, adv. Ster; Lat. in super montem. Insuperable; unconquerable. This difficulty is insurmountable, till I can make simplicity and variety the same. Locke. Hope thinks nothing difficult; despair tells us, that difficulty is insurmountable.


INSURRECTION, n. s. Lat. insurgo. A seditious rising; a rebellious commotion.

This city of old time hath made insurrection against kings, and that rebellion and sedition have been

made therein.
fear the Lord.
There shall be a great insurrection upon those that
2 Esd. xvi. 70.
Between the acting of a dreadful thing,
And the first motion, all the interim is
Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream :
The genius and the mortal instruments
Are then in council; and the state of man,
Like to a little kingdom, suffers then
The nature of an insurrection.

Shakspeare. Julius Casar. Insurrections of base people are commonly more furious in their beginnings. Bacon's Henry VII. The trade of Rome had like to have suffered another great stroke by an insurrection in Egypt.


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Lat. in and tactum.

INTACTIBLE, adj. Not perceptible to the touch. INTAGLIO, n. s. Italian. Any thing that has figures engraved on it.

We meet with the figures which Juvenal describes on antique intaglios and medals. Addison on Italy.

INTAGLIOS are precious stones on which are engraved the heads of great men, inscriptions, and the like. They are often set in rings, seals, &c.

INTAPHERNES, one of the seven Persian lords, who conspired against Smerdis the Magian. See PERSIA. He was afterwards put to death by Darius for conspiring against him, together with his whole family, except two persons, viz. his wife and any other she should name; who

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Something which is invisible, intastable, and intangible, as existing only in the fancy, may produce a pleasure superior to that of sense. Grew.

INTEGER, n. s. > Fr. integral; Lat. INTEGRAL, adj. & n. s. integer. The whole INTEGRITY, 7. S. Sof any thing: uninjured; complete; not defective; not fractional: the whole, as made up of parts. Integrity, honesty; purity of manners; entireness; genuineness of character. Your dishonour

Mangles true judgment, and bereaves the state
Of that integrity which should become it.

-My robe


And my integrity to Heaven is all I dare now call my own. Id. Henry VIII. A local motion keepeth bodies integral, and their parts together. Bacon's Natural History. Language continued long in its purity and integrity.


Physicians, by the help of anatomical dissections, have searched into those various meanders of the veins, arteries, nerves, and integrals of the human body.


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The libertine, instead of attempting to corrupt our integrity, will conceal and disguise his own vices.

Rogers. Whoever has examined both parties cannot go far towards the extremes of either, without violence to his integrity or understanding. Swift.

Take away this transformation, and there is no chasm, nor can it affect the integrity of the action. Broome.

A mathematical whole is better called integral, when the several parts which make up the whole are distinct, and each may subsist apart. Watts.

I promised that when I possessed the power, I would use it with inflexible integrity. Johnson's Rasselas. INTEGRAL, OF INTEGRANT, in philosophy, appellations given to parts of bodies which are of a similar nature with the whole thus filings of iron have the same nature and properties as bars of iron. Bodies may be reduced into their integrant parts by triture or grinding, limation or filing, solution, amalgamation, &c. Chemists distinguish between the integrant and constituent parts of bodies: thus when crude mercury is dissolved in nitric acid, though held imperceptibly in the menstruum; yet when that menstruum is diluted with water, and a copperplate is suspended in it, the menstruum leaves the mercury, to work upon the copper, and the mercury subsides unaltered and in its own natural form; the mercury, therefore, in this operation, was only divided into its integrant parts, or small parcels, by the same nature and pro

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He could no more live without his frize coat than without his skin: it is not indeed so properly his coat, as what the anatomists call one of the integuAddison. ments of the body. Fr. intellect, intellectif, intelligence, intelligible; Lat. intelligo, intellectus, intelligibilis. These words vary in signification thus: Intellect is the faculty of understanding; intellection the act of understanding;


intelligence, information conveyed; intelligibleness, perspicuity of the information conveyed. These are primary senses, froin which the rest are derived. Intellective is having power to understand a subject. Intellectual, relating to the understanding; mental acts; ideal. Proposed as the object not of the senses but intellect: as, Cudworth names his book the Intellectual System of the Universe. Intellectual, the understanding: not used in this sense. Intelligence, commerce of acquaintance; spirit; understanding. Intelligencer, one who conveys information or news; a messenger. Intelligent, knowing; skilful; giving information: it has of before the thing. Intelligential, consisting of unbodied mind. Intelligibility, possibility of being understood. Intelligible, easy to be comprehended; clear; perspicuous. Intelligibly, speaking or writing in a manner so as to be understood; clearly; plainly; without mystery or equivocation.

Right as a man hath sapiences three,
Memorie, engine, and intellect also;
So, in o Being of Divinitee

Three persons mowen ther, righte wel, be.
Chaucer. The Second Nonnes Tale.

I write; as he that none intelligence Of metres hath, ne floures of sentence. Id. The Court of Love. They think to be chief praise of poetry, Heaps of huge words, up hoarded hideously, And thereby wanting due intelligence, Have marred the face of goodly poesie.


It was perceived there had not been in the catholicks so much foresight as to provide that true intelligence might pass between them of what was done.


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He keeps intelligence by thousand spies; Argus to him bequeathed his hundred eyes: So waking, still he sleeps, and sleeping, wakeful lies. Fletcher's Purple Island. Men's hearts and faces are so far asunder That they hold no intelligence.

Beaumont and Fletcher's Philaster. The advertisements of neighbour princes are always to be regarded, for that they receive intelligence from better authors than persons of inferior note.

Hayward. Noah sends out his intelligencers, the raven and the dove; whose wings in that vaporous air might easily desery further than his sight. Bp. Hall. They are the best sort of intelligencers; for they have a way into the inmost closets of princes.


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His eyes, being his diligent intelligencers, could carry unto him no other news but discomfortable.


In a dark vision's intellectual scene, Beneath a bower for sorrow made, The melancholy Cowley lay.


The genuine sense, intelligibly told,
Shews a translator both discreet and bold.

They hoped to get the favour of the houses, and by the favour of the houses they hoped for that of the intelligences, and by their favour, for that of the supreme God. Stilling fleet. Satan appearing like a cherub to Uriel, the intelligence of the sun circumvented him even in his own province. Dryden. Something must be lost in all translations, but the sense will remain, which would otherwise be maimed when it is scarce intelligible. Id.

It is in our ideas, that both the rightness of our knowledge, and the propriety or intelligibleness of our speaking, consists. Locke.

They have news-gatherers and intelligencers, who make them acquainted with the conversation of the whole kingdom. Spectator.

We shall give satisfaction to the mind, to shew it a fair and intelligible account of the deluge.


All those arts, rarities, and inventions, which vulgar minds gaze at, and the ingenious pursue, are but the reliques of an intellect defaced with sin and time. South.

To write of metals and minerals intelligibly, is a task more difficult than to write of animals.

Woodward. They will say 'tis not the bulk or substance of the animal spirit, but its motion and agility, that produces intellection and sense. Bentley's Sermons. Those tales had been sung to lull children asleep, before ever Berosus set up his intelligence office at Coos. Bentley.

A train of phantoms in wild order rose, And joined, this intellectual scene compose

Pope. Intellect, the artificer, works lamely without his proper instrument, sense. Bolingbroke. Logick is to teach us the right use of our reason, or intellectual powers. Watts.

Many natural duties relating to God, ourselves, and our neighbours, would be exceeding difficult for the bulk of mankind to find out by reason: therefore it has pleased God to express them in a plain manner, intelligible to souls of the lowest capacity. Id. When a roast or ragout, And fish, and soup by some side dishes backed Can give us either pain or pleasure, who Would pique himself on intellects, whose use Depends so much upon the gastric juice.

Byron. Don Juan. I'm a plain man, and in a single station, But oh ye lords of ladies intellectual, Inform us truly, have they not hen-pecked you all.


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intemperate, immoderate in appetite; passionate; hasty; ungovernable; excessive; ¦excceding a just mean; and in this sense we say intemperate weather; an intemperate climate: intemperature, excess of some quality.

Use not thy mouth to intemperate swearing; for therein is the word of sin.

You are more intemperate in Than those pampered animals, That rage in savage sensuality.

Ecclus. xxiii. 13. your blood


Id. Macbeth.

Boundless intemperance In nature is a tyranny. Another law of Lycurgus induced to intemperance, and all kinds of incontinency. Hakewill.

More women should die than men, if the number of burials answered in proportion to that of sicknesses; but men, being more intemperate than women, die as much by reason of their vices, as women do by the infirmity of their sex. Graunt.

How grossly do many of us contradict the plain precepts of the Gospel, by living intemperately or unjustly. Tillotson.

Do not too many believe no religion to be pure, but what is intemperately rigid? Whereas no religion is true, that is not peaceable as well as pure.


The Lacedemonians trained up their children to hate drunkenness and intemperance, by bringing a drunken man into their company. Watts.

Free from the wayward bias bigots feel, From fancy's influence and intemperate zeal. Cowper. Progress of Error. INTEN'ABLE, adj. In and tenable. Intenable, indefensible; as, an intenable opinion; an intenable fortress.

I know I love in vain, strive against hope;
Yet in this captious and intenable sieve,
I still pour in the waters of my love.

Shakspeare. INTEND', v. a. Fr. entendement; INTEN'DANT, N. S. Lat. intendo. To stretch INTEND'IMENT, n. s. out; to enforce ; to INTEND'MENT, n. S. strain; to regard, or take care off; to pay attention; to mean or design intendant, an officer of the highest class, who oversees any particular allotment of the public business: intendiment, intendment, old words which signify attention, intention, or design

Thou art a prince yborne by thy discente; And for to rule thy royall dignite,

I shall the given, first intendemente,

Discrecion, prudence, in right jugement,

Whiche in a prince is thing most covenable.

Chaucer's Miscellanies.

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The opinion she had of his wisdom was such as words themselves sounded so, as she could not imamade her esteem greatly of his words: but that the gine what they intended. Sidney.

Their beauty they, and we our loves suspend; Nought can our wishes, save thy health, intend. Waller.

All that worship for fear, profit, or some other by-end, fall more or less within the intendment of L'Estrange.

this emblem. found only in the magnet and in iron. Magnetism may be intended and remitted, and is Newton.

Nearchus, who commanded Alexander's fleet, and Onesicrates, his intendant general of marine, have both left relations of the Indies. Arbuthnot.

Elegant phrase and figure formed to please Are qualities, that seem to comprehend Whatever parents, guardians, schools intend. Cowper. Progress of Error. INTENDMENT OF CRIMES. In cases of treason, intention proved by circumstances is punishable as if it were put in execution. So likewise, if a person forcibly enter a house in the nighttime, with intent to commit burglary, it is felony: and an assault on the highway, with an intent to commit robbery, is felony, and punished with transportation. INTEN'ERATE, v. a. Į Lat. in and tener. INTENERATION, n. s. To make tender, or


In living creatures the noblest use of nourishment is for the prolongation of life, restoration of some degree of youth, and inteneration of the parts.

Autumn vigour gives,
Equal, intenerating, milky grain.




Lat. intensus, in and tendo. Raised to a high

degree; vehement; ardent; kept on the stretch; anxiously attenINTEN'SIVELY, adv.) tive intensely, to an extreme degree: intension, the act of forcing or straining any thing: intensive, increased; intent; unremitted: intensively, by increase of degree.

Sounds will be carried further with the wind than against the wind; and likewise to rise and fall with the intension or remission of the wind.


God and the good angels are more free than we are, that is, intensively in the degree of freedom; but not extensively in the latitude of the object, according to a liberty of exercise, but not of specification. Bramhall against Hobbes. Faith differs from hope in the extension of its ob ject, and in the intension of degree. Taylor

But in disparity

The one intense; the other still remiss,
Cannot well suit with either, but soon prove
Tedious alike.
Milton's Paradise Lost.

As his perfection is infinitely greater than the perfection of a man, so it is infinitely greater than the perfection of an angel; and, were it not infinitely greater than the perfection of an angel, it could not be infinitely greater than the perfection of a man, because the intensive distance between the perfection of an angel and of a man is but finite. Hale.

Sublime or low, unbended or intense, The sound is still a comment to the sense.


To observe the effects of a distillation, prosecuted with so intense and unusual a degree of heat we ventured to come near. Boyle. If an Englishman considers our world, how intensely it is heated, he cannot suppose that it will cool again.


The water of springs and rivers, that sustains a diminution from the heat above, being evaporated more or less, in proportion to the greater or lesser intenseness of heat. Woodward.

Where sits the soul, intense collected cool, Bright as the skies, and as the season keen.

Thomson. Not a sound is heard To break the midnight air, though the raised ear, Intensely list'ning, drinks in every breath.

Barbauld. Evening Meditation. The electric blood with which their arteries run Their body's self turned soul with the intense Feeling of that which is.


Prophecy of Dante. INTENT, adj. & n. s. Fr. intention; Lat. INTENTION, n. s. intentus. Anxiously INTENTIONAL, adj. diligent intent, a deINTENTIONALLY, adv. sign or purpose: to all INTENTIVE, adj. intents, in all senses, INTENTIVELY, adv. whatever be meant. INTENTLY, adv. See INTEND. Inten INTENT'NESS, n. s. tional, designed in will or action: intentive, diligently applied: intently, with close attention or eager desire: intentness, anxious and diligent application.

For his intent within short while

Was to returne unto this yle
That he came fro, and kepe his day;
For nothing would he be away.

Chaucer. Dreame.
Surely, my sonne! then answered he againe,
If happie; then it is in this intent,
That having small yet doe I not complaine
Of want, no wish for more it to augment
But doe myselfe, with that I hove content.

Spenser. Faerie Queene. Although the Scripture of God be stored with in'finite variety of matter in all kinds, although it abound with all sorts of laws, yet the principal intent of Scripture is to deliver the laws of duties зupernatural. Hooker.

Whereas commandment was given to destroy all places where the Canaanites had served the gods, this precept had reference unto a special intent and purpose, which that there should be but one place whereunto the people might bring offerings.


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greedy intention, that the appetite of her eye did seem to scorch me up like a burning-glass. Where the object is fine and accurate, it conduceth much to have the sense intentive and erect. Bacon's Natural History. Distractions in England made most men intent to their own safety. King Charles. If we insist passionately or so intently on the truth of our beliefs, as not to proceed to as vigorous pursuit of all just, sober, and godly living. Hammond.

When we use but those means which God hath laid before us, it is a good sign that we are rather intent upon God's glory than our own conveniency. Taylor. The general himself had been more intent upon his command. Clarendon.

They on their mirth and dance


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The glory of God is the end which every intelligent being is bound to consult, by a direct and Rogers.

intentional service.

Whenever I am wishing to write to you, I shall conclude you are intentionally doing so to me. Atterbury to Pope.

The odd paintings of an Indian screen may please a little; but, when you fix your eye intently upon them, they appear so disproportioned that they give a judicious eye pain. Atterbury.

Most part of chronical distempers proceed from laxity of the fibres; in which case the principal intention is to restore the tone of the solid parts. Arbuthnot on Aliments. The Chian medal seats him with a volume open, and reading intently. Pope.

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