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Dryden. Lat. inflammo. In its literal sense, to kindle or set on fire: to heat the body morbidly: figuratively, kindle any pas


sion; to enrage; provoke; aggravate; to grow hot: an angry inflamer, the thing or person that inflames: inflammable, inflammability, having the quality of catching fire: inflammation, the act of setting on fire; the state of being on fire; fervor of mind: inflammatory, having the power of inflaming. In chirurgery. Inflammation is when the blood is obstructed so as to crowd in a greater quantity into any particular part, and give it a greater color and heat than usual.Quincy.

If that bright spot stay in his place, it is an inflammation of the burning. Lev. xiii. 28. Their lust was inflamed towards her.

Susan viii.

My woful herte is inflamed so huge,
That no sorow to mine is comparable.

Chaucer. Lament of Mary Magdaleine.
For both were wondrous practicke in that play,
And passing well expert in single fight,
And both inflamed with furious despight.

Spenser. Faerie Queene.

Prayer kindleth our desire to behold God by speculation, and the mind, delighted with that contemplative sight of God, taketh every where new inflammations to pray the riches of the mysteries of heavenly wisdom continually stirring up in us correspondent desires towards them. Hooker. The juices of olives, almonds, nuts, and pine-apples, are all inflammable. Bacon's Natural History. Choler is the most inflammable part of the blood; whence, from its inflammability, it is called a sulphur. Harvey.

Licetus thinks it possible to extract an inflammabie

oil from the stone asbestus.


Some urns have had inscriptions on them, expressing that the lamps within them were burning when they were first buried: whereas the inflammation of fat and viscous vapours doth presently vanish.

Id. Dædalus.

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Out of water grow all vegetable and animal substances, which consist as well of sulphureous, fat, and inflammable parts as of earthly and alcalizate Newton's Opticks.


Inflammable spirits are subtile volatile liquors, which come over in distillation, miscible with water, and wholly combustible. Arbuthnot on Aliments. The extremity of pain often creates a coldness in the extremities: such a sensation is very consistent with an inflammatory distemper. Id. on Diet.

If the vesiculæ are opprest, they inflame.

Wiseman. An inflammatory fever hurried him out of this life in three days. Pope to Swift. Assemblies, who act upon publick principles, proceed upon influence from particular leaders and inflamers.

Swift. O'er all the soul his sacred influence breathes, Inflames imagination. Thomson.

However disguised the inflammatory tale,
And covered with a fine-spun specious veil.
Cowper. Progress of Error.
Calls him away from selfish ends and aims,
From what debilitates and what inflames.
Id. Retirement.
Which is still maintained

With the plebeian blood, and treasure wrung
From their hard earnings has inflamed them further.
Byron. Marino Faliero, act 1. sc. 2.
INFLAMMATION, in medicine. See MEDI-

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The same word in the original tongue, by divers inflections and variations, makes divers dialects.


What makes them this one way their race direct, While they a thousand other ways reject? Why do they never once their course inflect?


This inflective quality of the air is a great incumbrance and confusion of astronomical observations. Derham.



Fr. inflexibilité Lat. in and fleribilis. Stiffness; quality of resisting


obstinacy: inflexible, unyielding; immoveable; not to be turned or changed: inflexibly, inexorably; without relaxation or intermission.

Be not unlike all others, not austere As thou art strong, inflexible as steel.

Milton. Samson Agonistes. Such errors as are but acorns in our younger brows, grow oaks in our older heads, and become inflexible to the powerful arm of reason. Browne.

It should be began early, and inflexibly kept to, 'till there appears not the least reluctancy. Locke. The man resolved and steady to his trust, Inflexible to ill, and obstinately just.


The nature of things is inflexible, and their natural relations unalterable: we must bring our understandings to things, and not bend things to our fancies.

Watts. Too great rigidity and elasticity of the fibres make them inferible to the causes, to which they ought to yield. Arbuthnot.

INFLICT', v. a. Fr. infliger; Lat. infligo. INFLICT'ER, N. s. To impose as a punishINFLICTION, n.s. ment: inflicter, he who INFLICTIVE, adj. punishes: infliction, the act used; the punishment itself: inflictive, that imposes a punishment.

Sufficient is this punishment which was inflicted of many.

He sent

2 Cor. ii.

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What the potent victor in his rage Can else inflict. What heart could wish, what hand inflict this dire disgrace? Dryden's Eneid. Sin ends certainly in death; death not only as to South. merit, but also as to actual infliction.

His severest inflictions are in themselves acts of justice and righteousness. Rogers.

Strike! If I dreaded death, a death more fearful
Than any your rash weapons can inflict,
I should not now be here. Byron. Marino Faliero.
I would not shrink

From just infliction of due punishment
On those who seek your life.

Byron. Tragedy of Sardanapalus.

INFLUENCE, n. s. & v. a.~

IN'FLUX, n. S.

Fr. influence; Lat. influo, influxus. Power of the celestial aspects operating upon terrestrial bodies and affairs. Ascendant power; power of directing or modifying. It was anciently followed by into; now, less properly, by upon. To act upon with directive or impulsive power; to modify to any purpose; to guide or lead to any end. Influent, flowing in: influential, exerting power: influx, the act of flowing in; infusion; influence; power: influxious, influential: the force of influence, in its figurative sense, appears to arise from the idea of something flowing in with irresistible force and carrying all before it.

Be helping nowe; and do thy diligence To let the stremes of thine influence Discenden downe, in forthering of the truth.

Chaucer. Complaint of the Blacke Knighte. God hath his influence into the very essence of all things, without which influence of Deity supporting follow. them, their utter annihilation could not chuse but Hooker.

The moon hath an influxious power to make imHowell. pressions upon their humours.

A wise man shall over-rule his stars, and have a greater influence upon his own content than all the constellations and planets of the firmament.

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All the restraint men are under is, by the violation of one law, broken through; and the principle which influenced their obedience has lost its efficacy on them. Rogers. Where it ought to have greatest influence, this obvious indisputable truth is little regarded. Id.

These experiments succeed after the same manner in vacuo as in the open air, and therefore are not influenced by the weight or pressure of the atmosphere. Newton's Opticks.

This standing revelation was attested in the most solemn and credible manner; and is sufficient to in

fluence their faith and practice, if they attend. Atterbury.

The chief intention of chirurgery, as well as medicine, is keeping a just equilibrium between the inArbuthnot. fluent fluids and vascular solids.

The comet's baneful influence is a dream; Yours real and pernicious in the extreme. Cowper. Progress of Error.

'Petticoat Influence' is a great reproach, Which even those who obey would fain be thought To fly from, as from hungry pikes or roach. Byron. Don Juan.

Is there any period of our history in which the rights of election were not as various, and in which the influence of property was not as direct, in which recommendations of candidates were not as efficient, and some boroughs as close as they are now.

Canning's Speeches.

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Wings raise her arms, and wings her feet infold. Pope. INFO'LIATE, v. a. Lat. in and folium. To cover with leaves. Not much used, but elegant. Long may his fruitful vine infoliate and clasp

about him with embracements.

INFORM', v. a. & v. n.
INFORM'ER, n. s.,



Fr. informer; Lat. informo, in and forTo animate; to actuate by vital powers; to instruct; to supply with new knowledge; to acquaint. Before the thing communicated was anciently put with; now generally of; sometimes in. It also signifies to offer an accusation to a magistrate; to give intelligence. Informal, without rule; irregular. Informant, informer, one who gives information or accusation; a teacher. Information, intelligence given; charge or accusation exhibited; the act of informing. Informity, shapelessness. Informous, shapeless. Tertullius informed the governor against Paul.

Acts. When Melibee had herd the grete skilles and resons of Dame Prudence, and hire wise informations and techinges; his hert gan to incline to the will of his wif considering hire true entente.

Chaucer. Tale of Melibeus.

I have this present evening from my sister Been well informed of them, and with cautions. Shakspeare.

These poor informal women are no more But instruments of some more mightier member, That sets them on. Id. Measure for Measure. It is the bloody business which informs Thus to mine eyes. The difficulty arises not from what sense informs us of, but from wrong applying our notions.

Id. Macbeth.


Digby. The long speeches rather confounded than in formed his understanding. All alike informed With radiant light, as glowing iron with fire.


That a bear brings forth her young informous and unshapen, which she fashioneth after by licking them over, is an opinion delivered by ancient writers.

Browne's Vulgar Errours. From this narrow time of gestation may ensue a smallness in the exclusion; but this inferreth no informity. Id.

Though I may not be able to inform men more than they know, yet I may give them the occasion to consider. Temple. Let others better mould the running mass Of metals, and inform the breathing brass; And soften into flesh a marble face.

Dryden's Eneid. He may be ignorant of these truths who will never take the pains to employ his faculties to inform himself of them. Locke.

They gave those complex ideas names, that the things they were continually to give and receive information about, might be the easier and quicker understood.


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He should regard the propriety of his words, and get some information in the subject he intends to handle. Swift. Informers are a detestable race of people, although sometimes necessary.


See from behind her secret stand
The sly informer minutes ev'ry fault
And her dread diary with horror fills.
Young's Night Thoughts.

I must
Inform the Signiory, and learn their pleasure.

Byron. Tragedy. Two Foscari, Act iv. sc. 1. I remember to have heard of a person of great talents for inquiry, who, to inform himself whether the land or the water bore the greater proportion in the globe, contrived to cut out, with extreme nicety from the map, the different portions of earth, and by which it is not now material. Canning. Microcosm. weighing them together, decided it; in favour of

INFORMATION, in law, is nearly the same in the crown office as what in other courts is called a declaration. See PROSECUTION. Informations are of two sorts, first, those which are partly at the suit of the king and partly at that of a subject; and secondly, such as are only in the name of the king. The former are usually brought upon penal statutes, which inflict a penalty upon conviction of the offender, one part to the use of the king, and another to the use of the informer. By the statute 31 Eliz. c. 5, no prosecution upon any penal statute, the suit and benefit whereof are limited in part to the king and in part to the prosecutor, can be brought by any common informer after one year is expired since the commission of the offence; nor on behalf of the crown, after the lapse of two years longer; nor, where the forfeiture is originally given only to the king, can such prosecution be had after the expiration of two years from the commission of the offence. The informations that are exhibited in the name of the king alone are also of two kinds: first, those which are truly and properly his own suits, and filed ex officio by his own immediate officer, the attorney-general; second, those in which, though the king is the nominal prosecutor, yet it is at the relation of some private person or common informer; and they are filed by the king's coroner and attorney in the court of king's bench, usually called the master of the crown office, who is for this purpose the standing officer of the public. The objects of the king's own prosecutions, filed ex officio by his own attorney-general, are properly such enormous misdemeanors as peculiarly tend to disturb or endanger his government, or to molest or affront him in the regular discharge of his royal functions. For offences (says Blackstone) so high and dangerous, in the punishing or preventing of which a moment's delay would be fatal, the law has given to the crown the power of an immediate prosecution, without waiting nal: which power is necessary, not only to the for any previous application to any other tribuease and safety, but even to the very existence, of the executive magistrate. The objects of the other species of informations, filed by the master of the crown office upon the complaint or

relation of a private subject, are any gross and notorious misdemeanors, riots, batteries, libels, and other immoralities of an atrocious kind, not peculiarly tending to disturb the government for those are left to the care of the attorney general), but which, on account of their magnitude or pernicious example, deserve the most public animadversion. And when an information is filed, either thus, or by the attorney-general ex-officio, it must be tried by a petit jury of the county where the offence arises: after which, if the defendant be found guilty, he must resort to the court for his punishment. See a history and vindication of this mode of prosecution in Blackstone's Commentary, vol. IV.

An INFORMER, informator, in law, is a person who informs against, or prosecutes, in any of the king's courts, those that offend against any law or penal statute. See INFORMATION. Informers were very numerous both in Greece and Rome. Wicked princes rewarded and countenanced this mischievous tribe; but Titus set on foot a most diligent search after them, and punished such as he found with death or banishment. Trajan also is praised by Pliny for a similar conduct. See SPY.

INFORʼMIDABLE, adj. Lat. in and formidabilis. Not to be feared; not to be dreaded.

Of strength, of courage haughty, and of limb Heroick built, though of terrestrial mold; Foe not informidable, exempt from wound. Milton. INFORTUNATE, adj. Fr. infortune; Lat. infortunatus. Unhappy. See UNFORTUNATE, which is commonly used.

Alas, that I so full of negligence
Should be founden; bicause I come so late,
All men may saie I am infortunate.

Chaucer. Lamente of M. Magdaleine. Perkin, 'destitute of all hopes, having found all either false, faint, or infortunate, did gladly accept

of the condition.

Bacon's Henry VII.


INFRACT', v. a. Latin infractus, inINFRACTION, n. 3. fringo. To break: the INFRANGIBLE, adj. act of breaking; INFRINGE', v. a. breach or violation of INFRINGEMENT, n. s. treaty. Infrangible, not INFRINGER, n. s. to be broken. Infringe to violate; to destroy; to hinder; to break laws or contracts. Infringement, a breach. Infringer, one who breaks engagements. Homilies, being plain and popular instructions, do not infringe the efficacy, although but read.


Those many had not dared to do that evil, If the first man that did the edict infringe, Had answered for his deed.

Shakspeare. Measure for Measure. The punishing of this infringement is proper to that jurisdiction against which the contempt is. Clarendon.

Must bide the stroke of that long threatened wound,

At least if so we can, and by the head
Broken be not intended all our power

To be infringed, our freedom and our being,
In this fair empire won of Earth and Air.
Milton. Samson Agonistes.
Having infringed the law, I wave my right
As king, and thus submit myself to fight.



By the same gods, the justice of whose wrath Punished the infraction of my former faith. Id Bright as the deathless gods and happy, she From all that may infringe delight is free. of their hostages, fell upon the sheep without their The wolves, pretending an infraction in the abuse dogs. L'Estrange.

A clergyman's habit ought to be without any lace, under a severe penalty to be inflicted on the infrinAyliffe. gers of the provincial constitution.

The primitive atoms are supposed infrangible, extremely compacted and hard, which compactedness and hardness is a demonstration that nothing could be produced by them, since they could never cohere.

Cheyne. Falling fast from gradual slope to slope, With wild infracted course and lessened roar, It gains a safer bed.

Thomson's Summer.

So that no part could be removed without Infringement of the general symmetry.

Byron. Marino Faliero, Act iii. sc. 2. INFREQUENT, adj. › Latin infrequentia. INFREQUENCY, N. s. Uncommon: rarity. The absence of the gods, and the infrequency of objects, made her yield. Broome on the Odyssey. INFRIG'IDATE, v. a. Lat. in and frigidus. To chill; to make cold.

The drops reached little further than the surface of the liquor, whose coldness did not infrigidate those upper parts of the glass. Boyle.

INFULA, in antiquity, was a mitre worn by the Romans and Grecian priests, upon the head, from which on each side hung a riband. The Covering the head with a mitre was rather a Roman than a Grecian custom, introduced into Italy by Æneas, who covered his head and face at the performance of sacrifice, lest any illboding omen should disturb the rites. The infulæ were commonly made of wool, and were not only worn by the priests, but were put upon the horns of the victims, upon the altar and the temple. They were also called vittæ.

INFU'RIATE, adj. Lat. in and fura. Enraged; raging.

At the' other bore, with touch of fire
Dilated and infuriate.


Fired by the torch of noon to tenfold rage, Th' infuriate hill forth shoots the pillared йame.


Idle, therefore, and absurd, to talk of liberty, when you hold your property, perhaps your life, not indeed at the nod of a despot, but at the will of an inflamed, an infuriated populace.

Canning's Speeches. INFUSCATION, n. s. Lat. infuscatus. The act of darkening or blackening. INFUSE', v. a. INFU'SIBLE, adj. INFU'SION, n. s. INFU'SIVE, adj.

Fr. infuser; Lat. infusus. To pour in; to instil; to pour into the mind; to inspire; to steep in any hot fluid without boiling: to saturate with an infusion infusible, that can be infused; that is insoluble; not fusible; that cannot be melted: infusion, the act of pouring; instilling a suggestion or whisper; the act of infusing. Infusive, an old word, having the power of infusion.

We participate Christ, partly by imputation, as when those things which he did and suffered for us are imputed to us for righteousness; partly by habitual and real infusion, as when grace is inwardly be

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And make him, naked, foil a man at arms.
Thou almost mak'st me waver in my faith,
To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
That souls of animals infuse themselves
Into the trunks of men. Id. Merchant of Venice.

Take violets and infuse a good pugil of them in a quart of vinegar. Bacon's Natural History. To have the infusion strong, in those bodies which have finer spirits, repeat the infusion of the body



Drink, infused with flesh, will nourish faster and eas'er than meat and drink together. Id. For when God's hand had written in the hearts Of our first parents all the rules of good,


So that their skill infused surpassed all arts That ever were before or since the flood. From whoin the doctrines being infusible into all, it will be more necessary to forewarn all of the danger of them.


My early mistress, now my ancient muse, That strong Circean liquor ceased t' infuse, Wherewith thou didst intoxicate my youth.


They found it would be matter of great debate and spend much time, during which they did not desire their company, nor to be troubled with their infusions. He infused


Bad influence into the unwary breast.


Vitrification is the last work of fire, and a fusion of the salt and earth, wherein the fusible salt draws the earth and infusible part into one continuum. Browne's Vulgar Errours.. Sublime ideas, and apt words infuse; The muse instruct my voice, and thou inspire the



Our language has received innumerable elegancies and improvements from that infusion of Hebraisms, which are derived to it out of the poetical passages in holy writ.

Meat must be with money bought;
She therefore, upon second thought,
Infused, yet as it were by stealth,



Some small regard for state and wealth. Swift. Here his folly and his wisdom are of his own growth, not the echo or infusion of other men. Why should he desire to have qualities infused into his son, which himself never possessed? Id.

Still let my song a nobler note assume, And sing the infusive force of Spring on man.

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Whoever shall resign their reasons, either from the root of deceit in themselves, or inability to resist such trivial ingannations from others, are within the line of vulgarity. Browne. In and gathering.

INGATHERING, n. s. The act of getting in the harvest. Thou shalt keep the feast of ingathering, when thou hast gathered in thy labours out of the field. Exod. xxiii. 16. INGEM'INATE, v. a. Lat. ingemino. To INGEMINATION, n. 6. double or Repetition or reduplication.


He would often ingeminate the word peace, peace.
INGEN'DERER, n. s. From ingender. He

that generates. See ENGENDer.
INGEN'ERABLE, adj. Lat. ingeneratus.
INGEN ERATE, adj. Not to be produced
or brought
brought into
being; inborn; innate; inbred; unbegotten.
things to serve his ambition, than true qualities in-
Those virtues were rather feigned and affected
generate in his judgment or nature.

Those noble habits are ingenerated in the soul, as religion, gratitude, obedience, and tranquillity. Hale's Origin of Mankind. Yet shall we demonstrate the same, from persons presumed as far from us in condition as time; that is, our first and ingenerated forefathers. Browne.

Divers naturalists esteem the air, as well as other elements, to be ingenerable and incorruptible. Boyle. In divers children their ingenerate and seminal powers lie deep, and are of slow disclosure.

Wotton. Dutch natural philosopher, was born at Breda INGENHOUZ (John), M. D., a celebrated in 1730, and brought up to the study of medicine in his native city. In 1767 he made a voyage to this country, to learn the Suttonian method of inoculation, and became acquainted with Sir John Pringle, president of the Royal Society, through whose recommendation he was employed in 1768 to inoculate the imperial family of Austria. His services on this occasion were rewarded with a pension of 600 florins. He afterwards engaged in medical practice near London, and in various chemical and philosophical researches, accounts of which he inserted in the Philosophical Transactions, and other works of science. He was the author of Experiments on Vegetables, 8vo.; New Experiments and Observations on different Subjects relating to Natural Philosophy, 2 vols. 8vo.; and an Essay on the Food of Plants. Dr. Ingenhouz died September 7th, 1799, at Bowood in Wiltshire, the seat of the marquis of Lansdowne. INGENIOUS, adj. INGENIOUSLY, adv. INGENIOUSNESS, n. s. INGENUITY, n. s. IN'GENITE, adj. INGEN'UOUS, adj. INGEN'UOUSLY, adv.

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