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Rome.-Deposition of Cæsar Otho.-Innocent's Dealings with the Crusading

Spirit.—The Roman See served by the Fourth Crusade and the Establishment of

a Latin Emperor and Patriarch at Constantinople, but far more thoroughly served

by the Crusade against the Albigenses.-The Rise, Character and Extirpation of

those Anti-Papal Believers.-The Reign of Innocent appropriately closed by

the Lateran Council and the dogmatical Declaration of Transubstantiation, the most

glorious Period of the Popedom, though scarcely so of the Church of Christ.-Papal

Supremacy realised by him and maintained by his immediate Successors.-Renewed

Conflict with the Empire and the House of Hohenstaufen.-Cæsar Frederick II.

abhorred and branded by that Papacy whereof he was the Ward and Nurseling.—

Renewed Alliance of the Popes and Republics against the Emperor.-Intensity and

Bitterness of the Hatred with which Pope after Pope pursued him.-Servile Sub-

jection of the Mind and Heart of the Thirteenth Century to the Papal Power.-The

great Men of the Time either awed or wielded thereby.-Isolation, Forlornness and

Heroism of Frederick.-His Death in the midst of the Struggle.-Proscription of his

Race by successive Popes and its Extirpation in his Grandson Conradin beheaded

at Naples by the Papal Champion Charles of Anjou.-Conradin and Lady Jane

Grey compared.-Prostration of the Empire.-Extirpation of the Imperial House.

-Full Triumph and absolute Supremacy of the Popedom.-The Death of Conradin

avenged by the Sicilian Vespers.-The Deliverance of Sicily then like the De-

liverance of Sicily by Garibaldi, achieved in Defiance of Rome.-The Popedom

stricken down in the Hour of its Supremacy and hurled from the Throne of the

World by Philip the Fair.-His bitter Quarrel and deadly Dealings with Boniface

VIII.-Arrest and Death of the Pontiff and full Triumph of the French King.—

The Greatness and Thoroughness of Philip's Work.-The complete Overthrow of

Papal Supremacy.-The permanent Diminution of the Popedom

Prosecution of his Work by Philip the Fair.-The Papal Throne appropriated by his

Policy, bestowed upon his Creature, fixed in France and subservient to his Pas-

sions.-The King of France the Master Spirit of the Age.-Philip the Fair and

Dante.-The Seventy Years' Captivity at Avignon.-The Vassalage of the Papacy

to the French Monarchy.-Insignificance of the Avignon Pontiffs.-Pope John XXII.

and Cæsar Louis of Bavaria.-Peculiarities of their Conflict.-The Emperor sup-

ported by the leading Intellects of the Age.-Spiritual and Intellectual Activity of

the Fourteenth Century. That Activity strongly Anti-Papal, especially in England.—

Edward III. and Wycliffe.-The Popes powerless over the great Events and

not numbered among the great Men of the Age, effaced by Petrarch at Avignon

and by Rienzi at Rome.-Their Degeneracy as Pontiffs, as Princes, as Persecutors

and as Sinners.-Viciousness of the Papal Court.-Avignon the Abode of Peace in

the midst of War.-The Pontiffs mainly meritorious as Peace-makers, yet ever

stirring up War in Italy.-Clinging of the Pontifical Absentees to Avignon in spite

of the Importunity of Christendom for their Return to Rome.-Brief Visit of

Urban V. and Removal of Gregory XI. to Rome.-His Death there in 1378.-The

Avignon Captivity succeeded by the Great Schism.-Election of an Italian and of

a French Pontiff.--Badness of the Two Rivals.-Mean and malignant Character of

their Conflict.-Incompetence of the contemporary Sovereigns.-Impotence and

Anarchy of the Time.- Prolongation of the Schism and Succession of worthless

Popes, to the Indignation of Christendom.-England and Bohemia especially

alienated.-Attempts to make an End of the Schism.-Stubbornness of the contend-

ing Pontiffs.-The Council of Pisa.-Christendom a Three-headed Monster.-The

Emperor Sigismund.—His Character and Career.—The Council of Constance

brought together by him.-The Council the great Event of the Time.-Its Splen-

dour.-Its leading Members, famous Visitors and illustrious Victims.-Its pro-

fessed Zeal for the Reform of the Church.-Its Dealings with Bohemian Reformers

and contending Pontiffs.-Burning of John Huss and Jerome.-Resignation of

Gregory XII.-Deposition of John XXIII. and Benedict XIII.-Amazing Tenacity

of the last, famous as Peter de Luna, the Old Man Obstinate.-Election of Martin

V.-End of the Schism.--End of the Council.-Its Spiritual Insignificance.-Its

Failure as a Reforming Body.-Its Evil Immortality.-Its Place in History and

its Influence on the Fortunes of the Papacy.

Bohemia convulsed by the Crime of the Council of Constance and earnest to avenge

the Death of Huss.-Uprising of the Hussites.-Their Defiance of Pope Martin

and Cæsar Sigismund.-Crusades against them.-Their great Leader Ziska,

their fierce Enthusiasm, terrible Valour and marvellous Victories.-Their Divi-

sions enfeeble them, though Bohemia continues Hussite.-The Council of Basle

convened to reconcile Bohemia and reform the Church.-Its Zeal on Behalf of

Church Reform.-Its long and vehement Strife with Pope Eugenius IV.-Its

Warfare with Papal Abuses.-Quarrel between Pontiff and Council over the

Greeks who are united by Eugenius at the Council of Florence.-Utter Nullity,

constant Repetition and ludicrous Character of such Unions.-The Council of

Basle dissolved by the Pope.-Eugenius deposed by the Fathers of Basle.--Election

of Amadeus of Savoy as Pope Felix V.--The liberal Pontiff no Match for the abso-

lute Pontiff.-The Intellect of the Age mainly with the Council, but not strong

enough to give it the Victory.-Death of Eugenius and Recognition of his Suc-

cessor Nicholas V. by the Council.-Merits of the Council of Basle.-Its Earnest-

ness and Energy in the Cause of Church Reform.-A far nobler Assembly than

the Council of Constance, yet as distinct a Failure.-Its Efforts unavailing.-The

Papacy manifestly unreformable. Seeming Triumph but real Weakness of the

Popedom during the latter Half of the Fifteenth Century.-The Popes enfeebled

and shrunken as Pontiffs; but busy, important, unscrupulous and successful as

Italian Princes.-End of the Dark Ages.-The Time a Period of great Expansion

and immense Changes.-Formation of great Monarchies.-Ottoman Capture of Con-

stantinople, Invention of Printing, Revival of Learning, Discovery of America.—

Friendly Relations between Learning and Christianity. Most of these Events

detrimental to the Papacy, though less so than the Wickedness of the contemporary

Popes.-Progressive Character of that Wickedness and its Culmination in Alex-

ander VI.-Its Effect upon Christendom.-Savonarola.-Its Effect upon Germany.—

The Reformation furthered by these Events, though not born of them.-Its Divine

Origin. A new Birth of Christianity.-A Surprise to the Age.-Worldly Character

of every distinctive Doctrine and Practice of the Roman Church.-Instance of In-

dulgences.-Leo X. and Luther.--Career of Luther, from his Branding of Indul-

gences to his Burning of the Bull.-Boldness, Greatness and Fruitfulness of the

latter Deed. Philip the Fair and Martin Luther the most formidable Foes ever

encountered by the Popedom
PAGE 151

Leo X. absorbed in Italian Politics and comparatively indifferent to the Reforma-
tion.-Diet of Worms and Seclusion of Luther.-Death of Leo in the midst of his
Conquests in Italy.-Curious Contrast between his Fortunes as a Prince and as a
Pontiff.-Adrian VI.-Clement VII.-Rapid Progress of the Reformation favoured
by the Wars of Francis I. and Charles V. for the Possession of Italy. -Impotence
of Clement VII. as an Antagonist of the Reformation and an Italian Patriot.-
Storming of Rome.-Conference of Bologna. -Fall of Florence.-Co-operation of
the Papacy in the Subjection of Italy.-The Reformation assisted by the Turkish
Conquests.-Sultan Solyman, Charles V., Francis I. and Henry VIII., Servants of
Luther. Henry VIII. and Clement VII.-Impotent Ability and timorous Fore-
sight of the latter.-His Terror of a General Council.-A General Council first
suggested by the German Princes, supported by Charles and taken in hand by
Pope Paul III. and after many Hinderances brought together at Trent in 1545.—
Charles V. an unwilling Tolerator and imperfect Persecutor of the Reformation.-
Struggle between the Statesman and the Bigot in him.-His Conflict with German
Protestantism at first victorious but finally unsuccessful.-His Abdication a Vic-
tory of the Reformation.-Paul III. the Repairer of the Inquisition, the Esta-
blisher of the Jesuits and the Convener of the Council of Trent.-A good Pope,
but somewhat spoiled by Paternal Affection.-Julius III., a Man of Pleasure and

Marvellous Merits of Pius V. as a Pontiff and Combatant of the Reformation.—

Scarcely inferior Merits of Gregory XIII.-Various Incidents of the Battle be-

tween Rome and the Reformation.-The Bartholomew Massacre appropriated and

hallowed by Gregory.-The Conflict in France and in the Netherlands.-Duke of

Alva, Prince of Orange and Prince of Parma.-Gebhard Truchses and Agnes von

Mansfeldt.-All-pervading Activity of Gregory.-The Reform of the Calendar a

pleasing Manifestation thereof.-Sixtus V. a Man of Genius and an energetic

Pontiff.-Intense and various Energy of the Roman Church.-Efforts of Philip

II.-Events of the Conflict.-Execution of Mary Stewart.-Invincible Armada.-

The League.-Alliance between Rome and Democracy in France. French Demo-

cracy in 1589 and 1789.-Excesses of French Popery compared with those of

French Jacobinism.-Three Parties in France.-The Three Henries.-Death of

Henry of Guise and Henry of Valois.-Accession of Henry of Navarre.-The

legitimate Monarch rejected by Rome and Paris.-The French Crown almost in the

Gift of the Papacy.-Conversion and Triumph of Henry IV. and his tardy Recog-

nition by Pope Clement VIII.-Wide Extent of the Conflict.-In Sweden a Roman

Catholic King deposed by a Protestant People.-Manifold Ambition of the Pope-

dom.-Clement VIII. and Ferrara.-Paul V. and Venice.-Fra Paolo Sarpi.—

Policy of Henry IV.-His Death a Loss to the Territorial, but a Gain to the

Spiritual Popedom.--Intense Devotion of the House of Austria to the Roman

Church.-Transcendent Devotion of Ferdinand II.-Slackness of the German Pro-

testants.-Baseness and Backwardness of the Stewarts.-Thirty Years' War.—

Conquest of Bohemia.-Massacre in the Valteline.-The Condemnation of Galileo.-

Continuous Triumphs of the House of Austria and the Church of Rome scarcely

enjoyed by Pope Urban VIII.-His singular Hostility to the House of Hapsburg.-

Utter Prostration of German Protestantism.-Its Rescue by Gustavus Adolphus.—

Daring Enterprise, wonderful Victories and Death of the Protestant Hero.-Admi-

ration of Urban for Gustavus.-Peace of Westphalia and End of the Religious

Wars.-Greatness of that Treaty and Abidingness of its Results.-Concluded in

despite of the Papacy

The Age of Louis XIV. a Period of Papal Decline.-The great Men and great Events
of the Age uninfluenced by the Papacy.-The Popes effaced, humbled and out-
raged by Louis.-The Four Articles.-Louis at Enmity with Innocent XI. and
served by Innocent XII. in the matter of the Spanish Succession.-The Popedom
guiltless of his Proscription of the Protestants, but his Accomplice in the Persecu-
tion of the Jansenists.-Dealings of Rome and Louis with Jansenism from its Rise
to the Demolition of Fort Royal.-Pre-eminence and Consistency of Louis as a Per-
secutor. The Bull Unigenitus.- Insignificance of the Popedom during the
Eighteenth Century.-Growth of Protestant and Anti-Papal Powers, Great Britain,
Prussia and Russia.-Decline of Roman Catholic States, Poland, Spain and
Austria.-Degeneracy of the French Monarchy.-Supremacy of the French Mind
and its Hostility towards Rome.-Voltaire, an Anti-papal Potentate, an Enemy of

Christianity mainly because of the Deeds and Doctrines of the Roman Church.-
Giannone an Assailant of the Political Popedom, relentlessly persecuted by succes-
sive Popes.-Ludicrous Prominence of the Papacy.-Benedict XIII. and Gregory
VII. Clement XIII. and Marshal Dauri.-Respectable Character of many of the
Popes of this Age.-Excellence and Popularity of Benedict XIV.-Weakness and
Violence of Clement XII.-His Quarrel with Pombal and impotent Endeavours
to save the Jesuits.-Their Suppression by Clement XIV.-Eminent Worth of that
Pontiff. The Partition of fanatical and persecuting Poland a Blow to the Roman
Church.-Attractive Character of Pius VI.-His not unhappy Relations with the
Age.-His Dealings with Reforming Princes, with Joseph II. and Leopold of
Tuscany.-Position of the Popedom during the Eighteenth Century.—General Ex-
pectation of its gradual Decay and peaceful Dissolution
PAGE 302



The French Revolution awful as an Avenging Power.-A Minister of general Retribu-
tion.-Its especially Retributive Character with regard to the Roman Church.—
Potent and contagious only where Rome predominated.-Powerless to convulse
Protestant Countries as such.-Its Dealings with the French Church and the Papal
Power. Confiscation of Church Property.-Civil Constitution of the Clergy.-
Slaughter of the Priests.-Abolition of Roman Catholic Worship.-Seizure of
Avignon.-Indignation and Denunciations of Pius VI.-Bonaparte in Italy.—
Invasion of the States of the Church.-Humiliation and Spoliation of the Pontiff.-
Occupation of Rome in 1798.-The Pope carried into Captivity.-His Death in
France.-Awfulness and Exactness of the Retribution.-Complication of Events
and Feelings.--Expectation that the End was come.-Election of Pius VII.-His
Re-establishment at Rome by the Coalition.-Concordat with Bonaparte.-Attend-
ance of Pius at his Coronation.-End of the Holy Roman Empire.-Napoleon bent
upon making the Papacy a Satellite and Appendage of his Empire. Quarrel be-
tween him and Pius.-Seizure of Rome and Arrest of the Pope.-Negotiations
between the Emperor and his Prisoner.-Concordat of Fontainebleau cancelled by
the Overthrow of Napoleon.-Restoration of Pius by the victorious Coalition.-
The Popedom still in the Grasp of the French Revolution.-Delivered from Impe-
rial France but assailed by Italian Patriotism.-Misgovernment, Misery, Discon-
tent and Aspirations of Italy.-Unsuccessful Uprising of Italy and Spain.-The
Papacy patronised by the Holy Alliance.-Singular Career of Pius VII.-Aggrava-
tion of Italian Discontent under his Successors.-Roman Catholic Emancipation in
Great Britain.-Anti-sacerdotal Revolution of July in France.-Its Sacerdotal
Offspring in Belgium.-Uprising of his Subjects against Gregory XVI. quelled by
Austrian Intervention.-Gregory and Lamennais. Complicated Relations of the
Roman Church throughout Europe.-Here allied and there in conflict with
Liberalism.-Oppressive Rule of Gregory in Italy.-Pius IX.-His early Reforms.
-Boundless Rapture and Extravagant Expectations of Italy and Europe.-Alarm
and Hostility of Austria.-French Revolution of February, 1848.--Uprising of
Italy against Austria.-Refusal of Pius to take Part therein.-Wrath of Italy with
her Idol.-Constraint laid upon him.-His Flight from Rome.-Establishment of
the Roman Republic and its Destruction by France.-Restoration of Pius.-Papal
Aggression. The Virgin's Immaculate Conception.-Austrian Concordat.-Evil
Plight of Italy.-Glorious Career of Piedmont under the Guidance of Cavour.—
Deliverance of Italy by Napoleon III. in 1859.-Austria stricken down. -Naples
and Sicily won by Garibaldi in 1860.-The Pope stripped of almost all his Terri-
tories.-The Kingdom of Italy proclaimed in 1861.-The Making of Italy the
Marring of the Papacy.-Its Deadly Peril and Gloomy Prospects



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The Popes ever tenacious of their Italian Principality.-Frequently contrasted For-
tunes of the Princedom and the Popedom.-The Princedom ill gotten and ever
abhorred, established on the Ruins of the Freedom and Independence of Italy, up-

England, though not so consistent as France in her Relations with Rome, yet some-

what Anti-papal throughout.-Connection of Saxon England with Rome never

servile and, at last unfriendly.-The Norman Invasion a Papal Invasion.-The

Battle of Hastings a Papal Victory.-The Papal Power greatly enlarged by the

Conquest, yet the Norman Kings not Papal Thralls.-Henry I., Henry II. and John

in Conflict with Rome.-On the Humiliation of John the Struggle continued by the

Nation.-Magna Charta won in Defiance of Rome.-Growth of English Freedom

and Rise of the House of Commons beneath the Curse of Rome.—The English

Parliament true to its Anti-papal Origin.-Series of Anti-papal Statutes from

Edward I. to Henry VIII.-Wycliffe and Edward III.-The most glorious Period of

Medieval England its most Anti-papal Period.-Political Aversion heightened into

Spiritual Abhorrence by the Reformation. Protestantism the Master Passion of

the Heart of England and the chief Source of her Greatness and Glory under

Elizabeth and ever since.-The Stewarts bad Kings and bad Protestants.-Base-

ness of James I.—Intense Protestantism the main Inspiration of the Struggle

against Charles I.-Potent in the Long Parliament.-Cromwell, 'our Chief of

Men,' our Chief of Protestants.-Protestantism under the Restoration.-The

Popish Plot.-The Exclusion Bill.-The Revolution of 1688.-The Act of Settle-

ment.-The Protestant Succession.-The Glory of England under the Protestant

Constitution.-Chatham a true Protestant.-George III. popular as a Protestant

King.-National Shrinking from Catholic Emancipation.-Alliance between Li-

beralism and Romanism.-The Papal Aggression.-England still a Protestant

Land.-England and Italy

The English Language a great Anti-papal Weapon.-The chief Writers of England
an unbroken Protestant Procession.-Pope a nominal Exception.-Early Anti-papal
Songs in Latin and English.-Piers Ploughman.-Chaucer clearly Anti-papal.—
Wycliffe's Translation of the Bible.-Arrest of his Work and Drooping of English
Genius. Sir David Lindsay's Assault on the Papal Monarchy.-Intensely Pro-
testant Genius of Buchanan.-Revival of English Genius at the Reformation.-
The various Translations of the Bible.-Tyndale's consecrated by Martyrdom.-
The Book of Common Prayer.—The Intellectual Glory of the Elizabethan Age a

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