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carrying the designs of Providence so far into effect, that farther and more important objects become indicated, and the means of attaining them discovered. And when men avail themselves of these, they are but the intelligent instruments of Providence; they are his ministers which do his pleasure. But it is of the first importance to be convinced (in opposition to Mr. Sadler's conclusion) that Nature never accomplishes the entire, or even the greater part of the objects of Providence; but, having indicated the objects, and disclosed the means of attaining them, leaves it to the free will of man to profit by or neglect this knowledge. And it is only second in importance to this truth, to observe, (in contradiction to Mr. Croly's interpretation of the Apocalypse,) that Providence will not in our times accomplish its objects by interrupting the course of Nature. Οὔτε φύσει, οὔτε παρὰ φύσιν, neither by the the course, nor against the course, of Nature, is the rule of ordinary Providence. The cessation of war, the adjustment of population, the distribution of justice, and the diffusion of knowledge, in a word, the perfecting of all blessings, are yielded to human efforts, and are yielded to these only,"

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“Human happiness is the temple of God's glory. As knowledge is extended and civilization advances, the general design and the several proportions of this temple become more evident. We observe that its roof cannot be supported by creatures of superstition: its aisles ought not to be dishonored by effigies of cruel persecutors; its sanctuary must not be crowded with ascetic and fanatic idols. As the true proportions of that temple become more evident, it is perceived that the full completion of that 'building not raised by hands' is not yet effected. Shall we say, then, that the rules of this vast and noble architecture must be sought in religion, as exhibited in a sound and scriptural theology; and in reason, as contemplated in demonstrative and practical science? that the materials are the capabilities of moral and physical nature that the workmen are the wisdom and energy of man ? — and that the work is human happiness - the temple of God's glory? Or must we expect some overwhelming

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and wide-spreading evil to rouse us from our lethargy remind us of the period of the world's age, and the infancy of many of its institutions to startle us out of our recklessness into a sense of the true elements of happiness—and to bid us remember that, if our progress in the physical sciences prevent the ravages of individual disease and public pestilence, of barbarous irruptions and wasting famines, there is the more need that we be protected from moral evils." p. 281-284. (Of separate edition, p. 51 - 54.)

"But if the objects of Providence be more and more attained; (if, indeed, the miseries of war can be arrested by civilization becoming watchful over her blessings; if the wretchedness of excess of population can be gradually removed by the adjustment of numbers to "the means of sustentation; "if the grievances of the law's injustice can be made to give way to more perfect institutions; if the gratifications of intellectual cultivation and the fruits of knowledge can be extended, so that the enjoyments of imagination and memory and reason may unrol their page to the poor man's hour of rest ;) — supposing these objects to be not only possible, but looking forward to the time when they actually shall have been attained by human wisdom and energy, there yet remains a duty which it will be not only ungrateful but dangerous to neglect. For, when men shall have at length loved mercy and sought justice, it yet remains that they walk humbly with their God; that they feel that still they have nothing but what they have received; - that it is His kingdom, not their kingdom, which is come; - that it is His will, not

their will, that has been done."- p. 288 - (58.)

It may be said that all this is, after all, only the alphabet of morals, — only a new rendering of the old fable of the waggoner and Jove. It may be so; but have we out-grown the moral; and may not an old truth be extended and newly applied? We refer our readers to the work before us for proof that such teaching is not out of date, and that the learning and the eloquence of a minister of the gospel may 24


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be well employed on the same theme as once exercised the ingenuity of a heathen fabulist. Our author has availed himself of his own and his readers' classical predilections to illustrate, in the appendix, the truths of his treatise in the form of a dialogue of Lucian. There is much use in diversified presentations of the same truth to minds variously prepossessed. By this consideration we are tempted to put the argument under still another aspect, for the sake of those who may have connected the popular scandal of atheism or profaneness with the name of the philosopher of Samosata.



Alas! for the city of our habitation, for sore is the affliction Jehovah hath dealt unto her. The poor crieth for justice, and is scorned. The rich glory in their oppression, and no one gainsayeth them.


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- I marvel that thou shouldst persist to call

on one who regardeth not. merciful Ruler while such

Speakest thou of a just and things come to pass on the

earth? — If there had been such an one, there had been no need of judgment, for there had been no injury: there could have been no glorying in oppression, for into no man's hand would the power of oppressing be given. Where would be the thunder, if no hurtful vapors were gathered together? Or how should the valleys be overflowed, if the streams of the hills were restrained within their channels? There is none to guide, or overlook, or avenge. Let us, therefore, make our hearts merry, knowing that we cannot help that which is, nor foresee that which shall be.

Pharisee. Nay; but it is for the guilt of our people that Jehovah smiteth and if he shall stay our desolation, it will be for the sake of the ten righteous (of whom his

grace hath made me one) whom he hath redeemed from his wrath. Blessed be his name for his wondrous works towards us his chosen ones!

Samaritan. Blessed art thou in the light of his countenance ! Intercede for us that our plagues may pass away; for they are heavier than we can bear.

Pharisee. - Rather let his righteous will be done; for it is such as thou that have drawn down his wrath upon our city. Yet will I intercede, forasmuch as I was once as thou. From what wouldst thou be delivered?

Samaritan. From the iniquity of our rulers, and the disputes of them that contest one with another before the judgment-seat. From the plague of war also we would pray to be freed, but that our fields are small, and the harvest scanty, so that the people are more than can be fed. we escape from one snare, we fall into another; and thus Jehovah willeth the destruction of his people.

- If

Pharisee. - I will entreat him that he stretch forth his hand, and save other than the few whom he hath brought nigh unto his footstool. - But whence is the smile on the lips of the stranger who hath overheard our discourse? These Nazarenes account themselves wise. Let us hear how he regardeth the calamity of our city.

Stranger. Ye two believe that there is a God. Others also have rightly believed this; and, less hardy than thou, O Sadducee, they trembled !

I was nigh thee, O Pharisee, in the synagogue, when a poor man entered whose garments were worn with travel, and soiled with the dust of the way. He bore also no purse, and his scrip was empty. Him thou didst appoint to sit beneath thy feet. - In a while, came one in a purple robe, with a jewelled signet at his breast, and a goodly staff in his hand. Him thou didst rise up to greet, and place in the seat of honor. If thou, who holdest thyself taught of

Jehovah concerning his will, thus showest partiality, marvel not that the judges do likewise. Pray for justice, if thou wilt but see that thine own way is equal, and then shall the ways of Jehovah be seen to be equal also.

For thee, O Samaritan, I have mourned that thy faith is gone from thee.


Gone from me! and even now I besought the prayers of this Pharisee. Yea, five times daily, also, do I pray myself (unworthy as I am!) that our woes may


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Stranger. Thy faith is naught, if it lead thee only to prayer. If thou sittest mourning till destruction carry thee away as a flood, shall such a faith save thee? Your woes come by your works, and shall not your redemption come by your works also? Whence come your wars in the field, and your contests within your borders, but from your own fierce passions and evil desires? and how shall they be assuaged unless ye cleanse your hands and purify your hearts? Samaritan: -But if we make peace, then famine will arise; for our people are more than can be fed. We ask food and receive not.


Stranger. Ye ask and receive not, because ye ask amiss. As well might ye expect the cold and hungry to receive, because ye say, "be ye warmed, and be ye filled," as because ye only pray. Jehovah fed our fathers in the wilderness with manna rained down from heaven: but he hath long given us fields to till, and bid us rejoice in the harvest.

Samaritan. But the harvest is not enough. When all is consumed, our children still cry for bread. He who bade us increase and multiply giveth not food in proportion. to the increase.

Stranger. Nay not to you said he "increase and multiply," but to a little flock when all the earth was before

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