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place both from Europe and the Brazilian provinces, and the city had become greatly enlarged; the old streets were greatly im proved in cleanliness, and the houses in neatness; the roads in various directions were cleared and widened; and villas and gardens began to adorn its vicinity.

An increase of domestic comfort had arisen from the establishment of a market for cattle without the city, and of several markets for vegetables and fruits within it; from a more abundant and regular supply of fish, and the more free use of mutton; from greater care with respect to the quality of meat, and the cleanliness of the places where it was slaughtered and exposed to sale. Craftsmen of different descriptions had made their appearance; among them so many smiths, that it was no longer difficult to get a horse shod. Mills for grinding corn had been much improved, and bread was come more into use. Charcoal was manufactured, and for cooking introduced into the houses. Nuisances were more readily removed, and even Scavengers were now and then seen in the streets.' p. 254.

At court, there was now to be seen some resemblance to European magnificence; and the affability of the Prince Regent, who had on different occasions presented himself with confidence in the midst of his people, had rendered him deservedly popular. There is much truth in the remark, that

'few persons are disposed to be disloyal, who are allowed to witness' the ceremonies of a court, who know that they also may present them selves to the Sovereign, complying only with established forms, on appointed evenings of the week, and find the road to honours equally open to merit wherever it appears.'

A highly pleasing portrait is given of this prince, his present Portuguese majesty.

"The Prince Regent has often been accused of apathy: to me he appeared to possess more feeling and energy of character than friends, as well as accusers, usually attributed to him. He was placed in new and singularly trying circumstances, and submitted to them with patience; when roused, he acted with vigour and promptness. Perhaps he was too often guided by the timid and insincere; he was certainly surrounded by such as are always dangerous to rulers, by cowardly sycophants and hypocritical priests: and it is no less certain that they possessed great influence over his mind. Yet the firmness with which he refused to stop at Bahia, in opposition to the wishes of some of his followers, ought not to be forgotten. Without pleading that he dis played any great degree of heroism and devotedness to his country, without denying that he congratulated himself on what has been called his escape, we are surely not obliged to coincide with those who charge him with insensibility and baseness; and it is well remem bered, with respect to some who thus charged him, how lively and open their rejoicings were, that they also had placed the Atlantic be tween themselves and their invaders... He was truly kind and attenti

to all, and warm in his gratitude to the British nation. His tenderness towards his companions in banishment was unaffected and paternal.' P. 94.

When, in 1817, the tidings reached Rio, of an insurrection in Pernambuco,

the first exclamation of the king was so impassioned, uttered so openly, and flowed so directly from the heart, as fully to manifest the feeling of a benevolent man and a righteous ruler. "How is it," he said, "that my subjects revolt;-I have always tried to do them good;-I do not know that I have injured any one-what do they wish for?" Such feelings, however, before the next morning, gave way to vigour; the disaster was met with great firmness, and gave rise to unusual exertion in every department of the State. The King himself forgot his usual character and habits, ordered an expedition to be prepared when there was little hope of fitting out any thing formidable; visited, in his own person, accompanied by the Heir apparent, the Treasury, the Arsenal, and other offices of the State; examined the Stores, the Storekeepers, and their books; saw what was at hand, and what must be procured. By a well timed severity to a few negligent officers, and replacing them by humbler but better men, he created among the people a confidence, an alertness, a devotion which had never been witnessed in Brazil, and perhaps will never be exceeded. The palace soon became crowded with bodies of people, who went to offer either personal services or money for the occasion. The city of Rio alone produced full seven thousand volunteers, and 200,000,000 reis, or 60, 000 sterling. The performances at the Theatre were not merely interrupted, but absolutely suspended, by repeated and general bursts of loyalty and patriotism, and by singing in chorus a national hymn, hastily composed for the occasion. I confess that though a foreigner, and interested only in general with domestic politics, this burst of national sentiment thrilled to my very soul. I saw a whole people at once forget the execrable mode in which the administration of the country had been conducted, and the oppression under which almost every man had laboured. I saw them bury it all beneath the love of a Sovereign whom they knew to be benevolent, though inactive; deceived, but not personally cruel.' p. 557.

Mr. Luccock has only to cross the Channel at this moment, in order to witness a similar explosion of national feeling. In this all-absorbing and all forgiving loyalty, our Hibernian fellowsubjects are determined not to be out-done by any other people. And really, so deeply rooted is an instinctive attachment to the persons of their rulers in the minds of the lower classes at all periods of civilization, so easily are their affections conciliated by a little affability set off with a little shew, and accompanied with some decent external homage to virtue, that it is their own fault if Sovereigns are not popular. Some powerful cause of counteraction must exist where the tide of national sentiment sets in an opposite direction. Easily excited and cheaply satisfied, how

ever, as is this mob loyalty, those must be very foolish or very wicked advisers who would recommend their Master either to treat it with contempt on the one hand, or, on the other hand, to trust to it as an unfailing resource. Those statesmen who begin" with despising the people, generally end with fearing them.

The account given in the eighth chapter, of other improvements consequent on the arrival of the royal emigrants, might seem to be tinctured with irony, if the Author was not in general very grave and straight forward in his statements. The beneficial effects of the new ecclesiastical arrangements in promoting the love of dress and shew, in reviving and multiplying ceremonies and festivals in which mixtures of religion and pleasure take place, 'not unlike our village wakes at their earlier periods,' and in replenishing the churches with images and banners, will appear to our readers somewhat doubtful; and they will be at a loss whether to deem the writer a partial or an incompetent judge of the moral effects of what he is pleased to denominate the mate "rials of religion.' The ear, as well as the eye and the sense ' of smelling,' he says, was gratified' by the liberal supply of these toys of Rome; and Brazilians hardly knew which to 'admire most, the vestments of the altar, the modulation of the 'orchestra, or the odours of the censer.' What is, however, rather more remarkable, on the re-establishment of religious brotherhoods, even negroes, it is stated, 'were allowed to put on the habit of an order, to carry a silver wand, and to appear in processions 'with princes and priests, the nobility of earth and of heaven"!! -Among the minor circumstances influencing public manners, the Author mentions

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'a song which obtained a large circulation, satirizing one of the prevailing vices, and into the chorus of which was happily introduced the name of an individual foremost in the ranks of the infamous. It was set to a simple air, which was daily played through the streets as the military marched from the barracks to the palace. The music accorded with the public taste, the negroes and boys were perpetually singing it in merry ridicule, and the song became familiar to all. In consequence the man particularly pointed at, either left the city, or hid himself in it, or was hidden in the grave; for he was seen no more, and his abettors were glad to pass unnoticed. In no other instance did I ever see ridicule so well, so immediately and effectually applied."

p. 249.

In 1818, the number of Portuguese and Brazilian inhabitants had still further increased, and the population both of the capital and the interior, was swelled by emigrants from the Spanish provinces, from the United States of the North, and from France, England, Sweden, and Germany. Conveniences now fell more within the reach of the common people; the markets were better supplied than formerly; white servants were more generally.

seen, and slaves for domestic occupations, though less numerous, were more carefully selected, furnished with better clothing and food, looked more cleanly and healthy, and ap'peared more cheerful and happy.' A still more decided indication of improvement presented itself in the multiplication of schools for all classes.

In the Gazette of Rio, of July 9th, 1814, is a long advertisement to this effect: Whoever may wish to send their daughters, female servants, and slaves, to learn to read, write, and account, &c. may speak with a person resident in the Rua do Lavradia.' p. 567

The abrogation of the colonial laws, which took place soon after the arrival of the Regent, the introduction of the vine, and the encouragement given to improvements in horticulture, the adoption of vaccination, the better regulation of places of public interment, and some slight melioration of the courts of judicature, are among the important benefits for which the Brazilians are indebted to the residence of their present Sovereign.

So early as 1814, a judicial decision which had been obtained by a priest in a distant province, against a common soldier, was set aside by the Regent, who thus shewed to the people that the Church should not always prevail in litigation. In criminal cases he brought offenders more speedily to trial, and punished by degradation, public exposure, and transportation; but could not bring himself to sign a sentence of death even for murder. In such cases, his humanity as a man prevailed over his judgement as a sovereign, and prompted him frequently to say, "Surely because the man has killed one person, I am not compelled to kill another." Much, therefore, in this part of jurisprudence remains to be amended, and will do so until the Sovereign, amiable as such a spirit is in a private person, shall surmount his superstitious scruples, and cease to be afraid of sending a soul unprepared into eternity. p. 567.

Does Mr. Luccock mean to intimate that only superstition can originate such honourable scruples?* If such be, indeed, the sentiment of the Sovereign of Brazil, it bespeaks him to be possessed of something better than superstitious weakness or a humane temper. For our own parts, although not prepared to go the length of objecting to capital punishments in the case of murder, we can scarcely wish for any such amendment in the administration of Brazilian jurisprudence, as our Author deems desirable. Where a people have been so long accustomed to a low estimate of human life, and familiarized to assassination, the infliction of death as a punishment is the less likely to make any salutary impression, or to subserve the legitimate purposes of

The known repugnance of our present Sovereign to signing warrants for the execution of criminals, is generally looked upon as the most honourable trait in his private character.

penal justice. In this case, therefore, it becomes a useless expenditure of life, since inferior punishments would be regarded with much more terror. Besides, were it only for the singularity of the phenomenon, one would be glad to have this instance of royal quakerism, this noble parsimony of the life of his subjects, so rare in European sovereigns.

The most signal benefit, however, which has been conferred upon these transatlantic dependencies of the Portuguese Crown, is, in our Author's view, their incorporation with the mother country as a united kingdom.

"The stimulus most prompt and efficacious in promoting the internal improvement of which we are speaking, and particularly in forming a national character and feeling, of which Brazil was almost destitute, and for want of which the country had nearly fallen, like the Colonies of Spain, into a number of disjointed states, arose out of the measure which gave to this important part of the Portuguese dominions privileges and honours similar to those enjoyed by the mother country. The period for assuming this new distinction under the title of the United kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarva, was judiciously fixed for the anniversary of the Queen's birth-day in Dec. 1815. In order fully to understand the extent and importance of this change, it will be necessary to recollect, that, in old times, the Provinces were almost wholly unconnected with each other, that they had scarcely any stronger common bond than the similarity of language, the circumstance of receiving their respective triennial governors from the same court, and the commercial one, which led their views and their interests to the same European city;-that, between some of those provinces there existed an opposition of interests, and between others open and avowed jealousies.* Hence it was that

when the Court arrived in Rio, the Colonies were found to consist of portions so disjointed as to be ready, on the slightest agitation, to fall in pieces, and render the situation of the Royal emigrants very precarious. There were required all the address of government, and all the powerful support which it received from Britain, to preserve the administration from positive disrespect,-to keep the whole of Brazil within one common bond,—to turn the people's attention from

This statement is in flat opposition to an assertion of Mr. Southey's, whose opportunities of information were likely to guard him against error. He says: When the seat of Government was removed thither from Lisbon, the manners and condition of its inhabitants differed widely, according to the latitude and altitude of the different provinces and other local circumstances: but the people were every where Portuguese in language and feeling; and there • existed no provincial animosities.' Hist. of Brazil. Vol. III. p. 696. Mr. S. does not, however, cite any authority for this representation, and we must therefore give the preference to information collected on the spot, and strengthened by the fact of the disunion of the Spanish provinces.

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