Page images
[blocks in formation]

Rousseau, J. J. Harper's Magazine.
Royal Composer, A...


Rubinstein, Anton, in London..

Rudersdoff, Mme. Erminia..

Ruskin's Notes on the Turner Gallery at
Marlborough House...
..98, 103
Roze-Perkins, Mrs. Marie (afterwards Ma-
.....157, 181

Osgood, Geo. L..



263, 275


Paine, Prof. J. K.: His Overture to "As
you Like it," 7; Symphonic Fantasia on
the 66
Tempest," 128, 134, 148, 150;
Larghetto and Scherzo for piano, violin
and 'cello, 151; Duo Concertante for
Violin and 'Cello
Palestrina: his Mass for the Dead sung by
the Boylston Club...
Pappenheim, Mme. Eugenie, the Austrian
Prima Donna, 6, 12, 14, 47, 118, 126, 199;
in London.
Paratone, The: a New Invention. Ellery
Paris Exhibition of 1878: Report on Music,
91; Do., (Hanslick).. .273, 285, 293, 312
Parker, J. (.D.: His "Redemption Hymn,"
38, 158; his "Hiawatha " Overture...
Patti, Adelina: her Girlhood, (E. Hanslick), 136
Perabo, Ernst: His Conundrums....... 175, 182
Perkins Institution for the Blind, Music at,
147, 156, 353
Petrella, the Composer, Death of..
Phrasing, the Art of." London Musical
Pianoforte Heroes, a "Walkyrie Meet" of.
(London Musical World)..




[blocks in formation]

Telephone Revolution in Music (Cincinnati



Terminology of Music, some Defects in (W.
S. B. Mathews)..
Thalberg, Mlle. Zaré, the Singer..
Thayer, A. W.: his Life of Beethoven: Ger-
man Criticisms, 42, 49; his Notes and
Queries, 103, 111, 260; his Critical Con-
tributions to Beethoven Literature, 121,
.129, 137, 145, 151, 153.
Theatre Music, 197; too much of it..
Thomas, Theodore: his Orchestra (N. Y.
Tribune), 123; Called to Cincinnati Mu-
sical College....
..293, 299, 302
Thursby, Miss Emma C., the Soprano, 7, 30,
54, 128, 158, 207, 222; in London..
Tietjens, Mlle. Teresa: her Last Illness,
her Career, 52; Obituary Notices of, 113,
114; Tribute of Mme. Rudersdorff...
Touch in Piano-playing (Mathews), 132, (A.

Travelling Concert Troupes as Educators.
J. C. Fillmore.

Trenkle, Joseph: Obituary.

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Saint-Saëns, Camille: his "Noël," 29, 31;
Suite for Orchestra, op. 49, 133; his "La
Jeunesse d'Hercule," 134; S. in Leip-
zig: his "Danse Macabre," fourth Con-
certo, &c.....
...146, 191
Salzburg and Mozart..
.53, 81
Sand, Mme. George: her First Meeting with
Chopin. (Karasowski.)....
Sarasate, Pablo de, the Violinist...
Schiller, Mme. Madeline: Piano Recitals,
151; with Orchestra, 183; Farewell Re-
Scharfenberg, William: in a Memorable


Scharwenka, Xaver: his Piano Concerto in
B-flat minor, 183; his Life....
Schumann, Robert: his Position in Art His-
tory, 9; Sketch of his Life and Genius,
by Fanny Raymond Ritter, 25, 33; his
Notice of Gade, 49; on Mendelssohn's
Piano Preludes and Fugues, 73; on
"the Huguenots," 118; his Scenes from
Goethe's Faust" (Hanslick), 265; S.
and Thibaut (L. Nohl)...
Schumann, Mme. Clara, 340; her 50th An-
niversary as Artist..

[ocr errors]

Poets and Composers. Geo. T. Bulling.... 233 Schubert, Franz: his

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

66 Reiter-Marsch
transcribed by Liszt, 134; his great Sym-
phony in C, 142; Overture to "Rosa-
munde," 198, 214; Night Song in the
Seiler, Mme. Emma: her School of Vocal
Art in Philadelphia........78, 192, 279, 324
Sgambati, the Roman Pianist.
Shakespeare in Opera. Alfreton Hervey.. 89
Shebeck, Dr. Edmund: his historical sketch
of the Violin Manufacture in Italy, &c.
Lond. Mus. Standard..
3, 10, 35
Sherwood, Wm. H., 143, 166, 191, 215, 230,
.295, 342
Singing and Singers. Miss Fannie C. Howe. 356
Singing Clubs, Good Advice for..
Songs, National. Carl Engel..281, 289, 314, 322
Smart, Henry: his "Bride of Dunkerron," 167
Spitta, Philipp: his Monumental Work on


Verdi, Giuseppe: his Manzoni Requiem,
141; an Italian View of it, 226; Do., in
Boston,227,231, 238, 240, 350; in London, 340
Violin Manufacture in Italy: its German
Origin (Dr. E. Schebek), 3, 10, 35; Vio-
lin School (J. Eichberg's) in Boston....
Virtuosity versus Art. Lond. Mus. Standard. 329
Vocal Art: Mme. Seiler's School in Phila-
.78, 192, 279, 324
Voice, an Artificial, 192; Weak Middle
Tones in the.
Voice Culture, Female. E. E. Hale.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small]

"Wagner Lexicon," A, by W. Tappert...
Wagner, Richard: his "Lohengrin," 6, 126;
"Tannhäuser," 6; "Flying Dutch-
mau," 6; "Die Walküre," 12, 13, 14,
260, his new opera, "Parsifal" (E.
Hanslick), 210; Do. (Figaro), 216; Com-
pared with Verdi, 95; his Ideas, 9; his
Stage-Festival-Play criticized by H. M.
Schletterer, 57, 65; his Leitmotive
(Do), 62; his Complaint in Bayreuther
Blätter, 321; his Toilet at Home: Let-
ters to a Dressmaker (Berlin Echo), 75, 82, 90
Weak Middle Tones in the Voice (Annie M.

[blocks in formation]


The Child Musician..

The Heart: "Two Chambers," etc....


[blocks in formation]


Prout, Ebenezer: his Symphony in G minor

Sumner, G. W., the Pianist.


(Graphic), 166; his history of the Con-

Symphony Concerts in Boston.

.310, 334


Swabian Poets, The (Th. Rode.)....


Punch's, Mr., Select Committees, 75; His
Berlin Concert....

Swedish Ladies' Quartet.....



Wilhelmj, August: Sketch of his Life, from
the German, 86; in New York, 318; in
Boston, 327, 333, 335; in Philadelphia,
325, 344, 352; in Baltimore, 326; his


[blocks in formation]

Winslow, Miss S. S., the Pianist..
Wilt, Mme. Marie, the Prima Donna..
or Wippern, Mme. Harriers: Obituary..





N. Y.


Taste, Musical, in Boston. Atlantic Month-
Technics (L. F. B.)


120 Zerrahn, Carl, in California....


WHOLE NO. 939.

Joachim at Cambridge.

(From the London "Times.")



sides admitted; and if anything were needed to establish the fact, the admirable execution of Brahms' Schicksalslied (Song of Destiny,") which, in honor of the great modern German of Mus. Doc." in company with his close composer, who was expected to take the degree friend in art, Herr Joachim, and whose absence has caused marked disappointment, is awarded a conspicuous place in the programme of the evening. This remarkable setting of one among the most notable of Holderlin's poems was made known to English amateurs by Mr. August Manns, exactly two years since, at one of the Crystal Palace Saturday performances, to which we are indebted for so many things that, while deserving all publicity, might still for a long time have remained unknown to us.

Tantis igitur gloriatur praeceptoribus ars illa, quae in solitudine consolatur, in turba delectat vitaeque communis societatem iucundiorem reddit; quae fesCambridge, March 8. sos recreat, aegrotantibus, si non ipsam dare salutem The Senate House presented an animated ap- tamen aliquatenus ferre hodie conatur: quac ipsum (sicut olim insanienti Hebraeorum regi), auxilium pearance this afternoon, in consequence of the Dei cultum adiuvat, et intimos animi affectus expriannouncement that the honorary degree of mit, ipsa intima numerorum cantuumque mixa sciDoctor of Music, granted by Grace of the Sen- entia. Quid autem si ars tanta Musarum nomine ate last May to Herr Joachim, would be convere digna, in hac etiam Musarum domo quasi in ferred on that renowned artist. The floor of ordinem redacta atque via qua lam et ratione alumthe building was occupied by members of the nis nostris tradita, inter severiora nostra studia Senate and a large number of ladies. The gal- sedem suam aliquando vindicabit? Quid si inter leries were, as usual assigned to the under- tot tripodas, praemia fortium,' novam quandam graduates. Two o'clock was the hour fixed for laureolam Apollini Musagetae dedicare volueritis? the Congregation, and, with the punctuality Interim huic Apollinis ministro quem ipsum prope usually observed in University proceedings, appelluerim Arcitenentem, huic interpreti certe the Vice-Chancellor, accompanied by the Es-divinorum in arte sua virorum Sebastiani Bach et quire Bedells, entered, his appearance being Ludovici Beethoven; qui magnus ipse vates magThe orchestra engaged for this eminently norum vatum memoriam non sinit interire; hanc greeted with applause. But the observed of lauream nostram Apollinarem, bune titulum Doc musical celebration, numbering between fifty all observers was Herr Joachim, who, arrayed toris in Musica, donare licet; qui honos nunquam and sixty executants, the majority from Lonin the scarlet robes of a doctor, was quickly antehac ab ulla Academia Britannica habitus est don, is one of irreproachable quality. It comrecognized. A slight interval occurred in con- alienigenae, uno illo excepto, qui nascentis mundi prises ten first violins, headed by Mr. A. Bursequence of some formal Graces having to be primordia immortali cantu consociavit, Iosepho nett, a thoroughly experienced chef d'attaque; approved and some supplicants for degrees Haydn. eight second violins, six violas, four violoncelpassed by the Senate, and the impatience of “At enim ailerov in' svtvysì pohnă Peißos laxyei, 10s, four double basses, three trombones, four the undergraduates was more than once mani-Tuv zakligboyyov zibagav tharrow Thixo xovaly horns, two trumpets, a contrafagotto (or doubfested by inane observations addressed to the Gravamur hodie abesse popularem huius viri, altele bassoon)—an instrument employed by Beetofficials. The routine business completed, the rum Musarum Teutonicarum deens, virum in diffi- hoven in his fifth (C minor) symphony-and, Public Orator, Mr. J. E. Sandys, of St. John's cillimo musicae genere facillimum. Iohannem not forgetting drums, the usual complement of College, preceded by the Deputy Esquire Be- Brahms. Quamquam autem ipse fato iniquo procul "wood." The force, numerically, is quite dell, Mr. E. A. Beck, of Trinity Hall, was forretentus est, carmen illius egregium quod fatorum' sufficient for the hall, the sonority and acousmally introduced to Herr Joachim, and, ad- nuncupatur vesperi audietis; audietis etiam novum tic properties of which will be more satisfactovancing about midway up the Senate House, opus, quo non modo ceteros omnes sed se ipsum rily tested to-night, when, notwithstanding the Herr Joachim standing on his right hand, he superasse dicitur. Post tot triumphos nemo nega- high prices of admission (a guinea and half a bit tanto viro consentaneam esse requiem. Ceterum introduced that gentleman to the Senate in an quo maiore aními ægritudine illum absentem desid-guinea), an audience is expected that will comeloquent Latin speech. At the commencement of the oration, which was delivered throughout Iosephum Ioachim." eramus, eo elatiore gaudio praesentem salutamus pletely fill it. in a most effective manner, there were indications on the part of the undergraduates that it would be utterly inaudible except to a favored few, for a running commentary of senseless observations commenced, and some bronze coins were insultingly thrown before the Public Orator. But the good sense of the majority of The rehearsal held to-day at the Guildhall the undergraduates prevailed over the boister-provided a fair opportunity of estimating in ous conduct of a few, and, after the opening some degree the new music prepared for the sentences, the speeech was uninterrupted. The commemorative concert in the evening. It allusions which elicited applause were those may be said at once that the entire programme relating to Amalie (Weiss) Joachim, the noted is worthy the occasion, and creditable to those contralto referred to as Eurydice, to Haydn, who direct the proceedings of the Cambridge Walmisley, Sir W. S. Bennett, Professor Mac- University Musical Society. This society, now farren, and Herr Brahms. By special request in its thirty-third year, is one of the mainstays the speech of the Orator has been printed and of art in a town, perhaps, not altogether prone circulated, and we append it:to bestow over-serious attention upon music in the abstract. Eor twelve years and more the programmes were in a large measure orchestral-symphonies, overtures, concertos, etc., forming the staple attraction, though glees, madrigals, and part-songs were also included. Mendelssolin's Antigone, however, produced in 1856, created a taste for choral music of a high order. This was followed the year after by the dipus in Colonos of the same master; and thenceforth choral music, as represented by the recognized great composers, became an indispensable feature. It was not, however, until 1872, when the late Sir Sterndale Bennett occupied the Chair of Music in the University, that ladies were allowed to join the undergraduates as "performing associates" of the society; and this important innovation was celebrated a year later by a performance of that distinguished musician's May Queen, and as necessary sequel by J. S. Bach's cantata, My spirit was in heaviness, Bennett's Woman of Samaria, the German Requiem" of Brahms, Handel's Acis and Galatea, Mendelssohn's "Lauda Sion," Schumann's Paradise and the Peri, etc. That the reform in this particular direction has acted largely for good is on all

"Dignissime domine, domine Procancellarie, et

tota Academia:

"Quae triginta abhinc annis in hac ipsa curia, coram Alberto Principe Cancellario nostro admodum deflendo, coram ipsa Regina nemini nostrum non dilecta, hunc, vixdum e pueris egressum, eximios cantus fidibus modulantem audivit; eadem Academia virum, per omnem Europam inter principes totius artis musicae iam diu numeratum, hodie reducem salvere iubet. Hodio nobis redditus est Orpheus utinam ipsa etiam adesset Eurydice; nunc iterum, ut poetae verbis utar quem Cremonae vicina genuit Mantua, Academi in silvis Orpheus

obloquitur numeris septem discrimina rocum, iamque eadem digitis, iam pectine pulsat eburno.' Quid dicam de illis qui inter fautores tanti ingenii olim exstiterunt, de viris sem, iternae memoriae

Mendelssohnio et Schumanno? Nobis autem tan-
quam triplici vinculo hospitii coniunctus est Regiae
Academiae Artium apud Berolinenses Professor,
trium deinceps Professorum Cantabrigiensium ami-
cus, primum Thomae Attwood Walmisley, deinde
Wilelmi Sterndale Bennett, denique illius qui
nuper horum sacrorum antistes a vobis est creatus,
* τὸν περὶ Μοῦσ ̓ ἐφίλησε, δίδου δ' ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τα,
ὀφθαλμῶν μὲν ἄμεσα δίδου δ' ἐδεῖαν ἀοιδήν.

Amid deafening plaudits, Herr Joachim was
was led to the Vice-Chancellor's chair by the
Dr. Atkinson rose, and in the
Public Orator.
usual Latin formulary admitted him to the title
of Doctor in Music.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

The pieces to be heard for the first time this Brahms, and an overture in G minor, by Herr evening are a symphony in C minor, by Herr Joachim, the newly elected "Doctor in Music." The symphony has already been played at Vienna, where it is criticized in diverse manners, but, on the whole, warmly eulogized. The overture, written expressly for the occasion, may stand for Herr Joachim's credentials, just as the "Oxford Symphony," once familiarly known as "Letter Q" (as not belonging to the "Saloman" set), stood for Haydn's. Of course, such tried masters would not be asked to prove their claim to the distinction conferred upon them through the medium of a probationary exercise; but all honor is due to Herr Joachim for the feeling which prompted him to write an exceptional work in the circumstances. That his overture is a composition of which any modern composer would be proud, may safely be affirmed even at the present moment. It is an elegiac "in memoriam" of Heinrich von Kleist, the patriotic and dramatic poet, whose career was as ill-starred as his aspirations were pure and noble, and whose unhappy end is, in his own country, to this day a theme capable of evoking the strongest sympathy. deeply Herr Joachim has entered into his subject, and how strikingly, in a musical sense, he has treated it, there will be time enough to show. Doubtless, Herr Johannes Brahms, had he not altered his resolution, at the eleventh hour, of coming to receive the highest honor musical England is able to confer upon an eminent foreigner, would equally have contributed something new, in acknowledgment of the mark of esteem offered him. At the same time, it is no small thing for the Cambridge University Musical Society to boast that, as they were the first to produce in this country the Faust music and pianoforte concerto of Schumann, so are they again the first to make us acquainted with such a grand and elaborate work as the C minor symphony of Brahms, to


which, as to the elegiac overture of Herr Joachim, further reference will have to be made. The other pieces contained in the programme of this evening are Beethoven's violin concerto (played by Herr Joachim), two excerpts from J. S. Bach's sonatas in C (also by Herr Joachim); and last, not least, the overture entitled The Wood Nymph, by Sterndale Bennett, about which, after its performance at the Leipsic Gewandhaus Concerts, Schumann wrote in such glowing terms. As Sterndale Bennett at one time occupied the Chair of Music in the University now filled by Professor G. A. Macfarren, it was only just that on such an occasion some important work from his pen should be introduced; and the programme would have been still more complete and satisfactory had the name of his worthy successor been also represented.


11 P.M. The concert to-night in the Guildhall was a bril liant success. The audience was not less enthusiastic than numerous. Dr. Joseph Joachim, as might have been expected, was the hero of the evening. On appearing in the orchestra he was greeted with uproarious applause. This was renewed with increased warmth after his magnificent performance of Beethoven's concerto, which he never, even in his happiest moments, played better. Herr Joachim's new overture in commemoration of Heinrich von Kleist was also a success as complete as it was well deserved. This he conducted himself, as he also did the new symphony in C minor by Herr Brahms, which was so finely played from beginning to end that it is a pity the composer himself had not been there to hear it. Two movements from one of the solo sonatas of John Sebastian Bach were also given by Herr Joachim, the last of which being clamorously asked for again, the great virtuoso good-naturedly returned to the platform, but, instead of repeating the movement or substituting another, as was hoped, he showed his open watch to the audience, and retired amid mingled laughter and applause.

Mr. C. V. Stanford, organist of Trinity College, conducted all the pieces except the two new works directed by Herr Joachim, and the spirited performance of Sterndale Bennett's overture, The Wood Nymph, was creditable alike to him and the orchestra. The "Song of Destiny" was also well execut ed, the chorus having evidently studied their separate parts with earnestness.

The concert was altogether a success, and among the audience were many well-known connoisseurs and professors from London and elsewhere-a compliment evidently intended for Herr Joachim, upon whom the degree of Musical Doctor had been conferred-an honor never granted to a worthier recipient.

Joseph Joachim.

(From the "Graphic."

This admitted chief of living violinists is Hungarian by birth. His native place was Kitsee, a small village near Presburg, whence his family removed to Pesth, where, in early childhood, he showed so strong a disposition for music that he was placed under Szervacsinsky, orchestral director at the theatre, who first gave him instructions on the instrument his perfect command of which has earned him such renown. Here young Joseph, after two years application, first appeared in public. From Pesth he went to Vienna, where he was so fortunate as to obtain lessons and friendly advice from the esteemed professor Böhm, to whom many eminent violinists, Ernst and Mayseder among the number, were indebted for similar advantages. After four years' residence in the Austrian capital, Joachim went to Leipsic, with the hope of earning further experience through the counsels of Ferdinand David, who, however, finding he had nothing to teach him, was too ready to make him a companion in his own especial studies. At Leipsic the young musician not only practised harmony and composition with the well-known contrapuntist, Moritz Hauptmann, under whom he made remarkable progress, but was soon on terms of intimacy with Mendelssohn, which continued

to the end of that illustrious composer's life.
He was the constant companion of Mendels-
sohn, who spoke of him in the highest and
most affectionate terms, instigating his first
visit to London, and furnishing him with let-
ters of recommendation to Sterndale Bennett
and other men of influence. Joachim arrived
in London during the spring of 1844; and the
attention of amateurs and professors was soon
drawn to the extraordinary talent of the boy-
violinist, who (born in 1831) was at this period
in his thirteenth year. He had already made a
great impression by his performance of Spohr's
Scena Cantante at the "Società Armonica
(conducted by Mr. Forbes), before his friend
and patron, Mendelssohn, came to London, to
conduct the Philharmonic Concerts.
At one
of these, under Mendelssohn's direction, he
played Beethoven's violin concerto, introduc-
ing cadenzas of his own, with such success, and
such enthusiastic applause, that from that mo-
ment he shared with Mendelssohn himself the
honors of the musical season.

[ocr errors]

limits of what is intended for a brief memoir; but the "Concerto in the Hungarian style may be fairly cited as his chef d'œuvre, combining, as it does, the impressions of his early days with the complete mastery he has obtained, both as executant and producer, over all the secrets of his art. This concerto, in its way, is unique, and has, not without good reason, been placed in juxtaposition with the violin concertos of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. The degree of "Doctor in Music" at Cambridge University was conferred upon Herr Professor Joachim on Thursday, for which ceremonial he wrote an elegiac overture, in memoriam of Heinrich von Kleist, the patriotic but unhappy dramatist.

London Popular Concerts.

While wisely adhering to his practice of introducing from time to time new works by living composers, the conductor of the Popular Concerts no less wisely tempers his spirit of research in this direction by continued reference About Joseph Joachim's subsequent career in to the older masters; and not among the least England it would be superfluous to say much. pleasant remembrances of the series now apHe returned to us, successsively, in 1847, 1849, proaching its termination it will be connected 1852, 1858, and 1859, on each occasion bring with several quartets of Haydn which had not ing with him something that raised him as a previously been made known to the audiences composer higher and higher in the opinion of of St. James's Hall. Between forty and fifty connoisseurs. From 1859, when he joined the Monday Popular Concerts, instituted in that part of Mr. Arthur Chappell's extended reperof these vigorous and healthy works now form year by Mr. Arthur Chappell, a season has tory; but there still remain others of equal rarely passed without the coming of the great value, which will doubtless be added as expeThere can be no danger violinist and musician being looked forward to diency may admit. as an event of high importance. How much in opening the door to the most independent, his splendid playing, his extended repertory, and even not always immediately intelligible and his invariable adherence to the pure stand of modern writers, while Haydn and Mozart ard of art, which from a mere youth he raised are at hand to watch as sentinels over the inup for himself, has served to promote the materests of the past. The art would, indeed, be terial interests of these concerts, and to win for badly off were such pioneers as they ever to be them the honorable position they now occupy, ignored. With the coming of Herr Joseph is generally known. Had Joachim done noth- Joachim we always look forward to something ing more than familiarize our intelligent musi- new from the untiring pen of his gifted friend with many things of Bach which had previous- 67), introduced but recently, has added not a cal public with the later quartets of Beethoven, Johannes Brahms; and the B flat quartet (Op. ly met with scant recognition, and with the little to the increasing repute of that learned Works of the now reigning star of Germany, musician. It is his last quartet, and in many Johannes Brahms, he would have entitled him-respects his best. Another welcome contribuself to the consideration of all those who look tion from the same quarter has been the Liebesupon art as a serious thing. It must not be lieder Walzer (to words from the Polydora of supposed, however, because Bach and Beetho- Daumer) for two performers on the pianoforte, ven are his authors of predilection, that Herr and a quartet of voices (soprano, contralto, Joachim's wonderful power of " "reproducing tenor, and bass) ad libitum. Whether the ad-a term applied by Herr Wagner, Abbé Liszt, dition of voices was an afterthought, which, as and their satellites in a manifestly wrong sense the pianoforte part is complete in itself, is most -is limited to these masters. The contrary probable, or whether the contrary, the effect is has been proved by his admirable readings of both original and charming. The quartet, reothers-not only of his new favorite, Brahms, ceived with such favor at a Monday evening but of Handel, Mozart, Cherubini, Schubert, concert, was repeated on the following SaturMendelssohn, Spohr, etc., his sympathy for day afternoon; and so much were the Liebeslie whom is equally unquestionable. der Walzer ("Love-song Waltzes ") admired and applauded, that they have been given on no fewer than four different occasions, each time affording increased satisfaction. hardly be rendered more effectively than they were on Saturday by Mdlles. Sophie Löwe and Helène Arnim, Messrs. Shakespeare and Pyatt, with Mdlle. Marie Krebs and Miss Agnes Zimmermann (who have been highly distinguishing themselves of late) at the pianoforte. The programme was otherwise more than ordinarily interesting. Malle. Krebs played Schumann's trying and difficult Toccata in C (Op. 7), and Miss Zimmermann introduced, for the first time at St. James's Hall, an early prelude and fugue by Mendelssohn, in E minor, belonging to his Midsummer Night's Dream period-a very showy piece, besides giving strong evidence as to how the young musician was just then busy with his contrapuntal studies. More such would be welcome. Mozart's last stringed quartet (in F), which might with pleasure be heard a little oftener, was played-how, need not be saidby MM. Joachim, Ries, Straus, and Piatti, at the beginning of the concert, which came to an end with what was an unexpected novelty, in the shape of a trio for pianoforte, violin, and violoncello, in A major, by the late popular operatic composer, M. W. Balfe. Few amateurs were aware that Balfe had at any time

With the honors accorded to Herr Joachim in his adopted country, Germany, we have no space to deal. Enough that he enjoys a consideration there such as few executive artists have enjoyed before him. He has been at various periods Concertmeister and teacher, with David, at the Leipsic Conservatory (1848); Concertmeister, with Liszt, to the Duke of Weimar (1849); and Concertmeister and solo-player, with the exclusive direction of the King's orchestra, at Hanover (1851). He is now in a position to do more for music than he was ever enabled to do previously, being director of the "Hochschule für Musik "-executive department at the Berlin Royal Academy of Arts, where he is also permanent member of the Senate. Here his example and precept are of incalculable value, inasmuch as the appointment of professors in his department is left entirely to his suggestion-submitted, of course, to the approval of the Minister for Education, an approval which has on no occasion been with held. The combined purposes of the "Hochschule are thorough musical education and model performances of works by the great

[ocr errors]


As a composer, Joachim has chiefly directed his attention to instrumental music. To give a list of his various works would exceed the

They could

occupied himself with the composition of instrumental music for the chamber, and few could have been otherwise than agreeably surprised by so fluent, melodious, and able an illustration of his talent in that way. No one requires to be informed that Balfe had always melody at command, and that there would be abundance of melody in his trio might have been anticipated. Without any apparent effort at elaboration, each of the four movements has a distinct character of its own, and each is symmetrically constructed. The second theme of the opening allegro is graceful, flowing, and essentially vocal. But, though this is the most brilliant, we are inclined to award the preference to its companion movements, and may point to the leading theme of the andante, the whole of the scherzo, a charming bagatelle, the only fault of which is its brevity, and also to the finale, built upon a pastoral subject, as natural and unaffected as it is tuneful. The entire work was admirably executed by Mdlle. Krebs, Herr Joachim, and Signor Piatti, who did all in their power to make it acceptable, and succeeded. It was warmly applauded throughout, the scherzo being encored and repeated.

of performance, should prove, with regard to rich-
ness and power of tone, to be the best which can be
invented, notwithstanding the numerous endeavors
which have been made, accompanied in part by the
most rigorous and ingenious scientific enquiry.
Even the preparation of the Italian lac-upon
which such store is set by amateurs and collectors,
and which, for color, fire, and transparency, has
never been equalled-must be regarded as a secret.
It seems, however, erroneous to ascribe to any pe-
culiarity of manipulation in the manufacture, the
superiority of tone which characterizes the Cremo-
nese instruments, seeing that the rules adhered to
in their construction have been made quite clear to
observant and thoughtful masters of the craft by
means of disjointed specimens; and experience
teaches us that modern instruments constructed on
similar principles, would, in the course of time,
equal them in tone, and facile tone production. The
chief difficulty with which the modern violin man-
ufacture has to contend, is one which, unfortunate-
ly, it has to some extent itself engendered, and
which arises from the fact that it cannot raise it-
s If to any real importance, nor, consequently, to a
lasting and vigorous productiveness.


Such was the intended object of the show of Cremonese instruments which, at my incitation, was to have formed part of the plan of the Vienna Exhibition. Assisted by a material such as is otherwise unattainable, the idea was to lay before the most celebrated instrument-makers and musicians, and such physicists as had sifted and led to the solution of debateable questions in this province, the instruments thus collected, illustrating the development of the classical violin manufacture as a whole, and in its various schools and masters; and, at the same time, as far as might be possible, to clear up the still so obscure history of this branch of art, and its rep. resentatives. This special collection did not take place, though not, fortunately, because of any difficulties which existed in the nature of the undertak ing; therefore, one need not relinquish the hope of seeing, sooner or later, under more favorable circumstances, the realization of the idea.

Although based upon no great selection of instruments, a reference to the progress, and to the part which individual masters, or whole schools, have taken in it, is attended with considerable uncertainty. Being unable to comprehend the general coherency, people are not in a position to judge corDuring the hundred years which have elapsed rectly of cause and effect. Hereby is not be oversince the decline of the classical violin manufacture looked the fact, that instruments which proceeded in Italy, new instruments have continuously been from one and the same workshop were not always produced; but can they be considered to fill the gap equally good or well finished; even masters of minSince her first appearance, which was duly which the Italians have left? This may reasonably or repute have turned out magnificent specimens ; recorded, Mad. Schumann has been playing, if be doubted. It is not to be denied, that, amongst while on the other hand, the Coryphæi have somepossible, more nobly than ever. Seldom, inthese results, there is much that is excellent; but, times fallen behind their usual excellence in some deed, has she been in finer form. As a remarkon the whole, the period has been one of experi- point or other. If we make the peculiarities which ble instance may be singled out, from among A leading principle has been wanting, like we observe in any one instrument which happens to the well preserved tradition which the old Italian be at hand a matter for generalization, errors become other achievements of hardly inferior merit, the masters adhered to, the whole time. Many thought naturally unavoidable, and representations made wonderful performance, at a recent Monday to make them better, and deviated from the right after this manner by pretended authorities who wish concert, of her husband's extraordinary series path; and, moreover, a method was discovered of to appear more learned than they really are, find a of variations, bearing the title of Etudes Sym-imitating the great Italian masters, and instruments ready circulation, and, after a time, become difficult phoniques, and inscribed to Sterndale Bennett. were prepared which, unlike those that had once to eradicate. Lastly, a general terminology is necAfter this she was twice unanimously called left their hands, had the appearance of Italian vio- essary, in order that the same ideas may always be back to the platform. Herr Joachim has add- lins of a hundred years old and more, in a worn-out expressed in the same language. In all these reed the second and third of Beethoven's Rasou- and even damaged condition. In order to make spects it appears hardly possible to dispense with mouski Quartets to the No. 1, led previously to these new productions similar to the old ones in special exhibitions of Cremonese instruments. Difhis coming by Herr Ludwig Straus-thus comdelicacy of tone and easy intonation, it was the cus ferent is it with the superficial history of the violin pleting the series, which ought to be included tom to reduce the thickness of back and belly, to manufacture, inasmuch as this is reflected in the every year. At the first concert, after his remacerate, or artificially dry the wood, whereby the lives of its representatives, and in the results of an instrument was robbed of its power to sustain for active trade. Here, at least, the material for a fut turn from Cambridge, as Musical Doctor, Herr any length of time the violent shaking to which, as ure erection may be collected. The following reJoachim was greeted in such a manner by the a resonating body, it was subjected by the vibra-marks concerning the province to be explored may crowded audience as might reasonably make tions; in consequence of which, the tone of such in- serve as a guide. him proud. On Monday he once more led struments gradually deteriorated. In this manner, The original form from which the violin and othHerr Brahms' sextet in B flat, for stringed in- the new instruments fell into disrepute, not except- er instruments of the same family; viola, violoncello, struments, which has won new favor at each ing those that were well and scientifically made, and contra-bass-are derived, is very simple, and is successive performance since its introduction and the demand for well-preserved instruments from found at the present day under the name of Omerti ten years ago (February 1867). This might in- the inheritance of the Italians became consequently and Ravanastrom in India, and of Rehab or Rebec duce the director to try another sextet by the greater and more exclusive. But how much longer in Java and Arabia. In all probability these insame author (in G), also a composition of exwill this continue? Even bow instruments, how-struments-if, according to our present ideas, they ceptional merit. The vocal music, almost uniever great their durability when carefully used, merit the name-were introduced into Europe unformly well chosen during the present series of must eventually yield in time, and accident and ig-der the many modifications of the original form norance hasten their destruction. It now appears entertainments, has brought more or less conwhich they had acquired amongst various tribes at to be high time to make a further effort. Here it the time of the migration of the Indo-Germanic racspicuously forward certain vocalists from whom may be remarked, in order to avoid misunderstand- es. Even now we find varieties of them in use; a great deal may be expected-among them ing, that no reference is intended to the instruments for instance, the Gusle of the Servians and the Rusbeing Mdlle. Redeker, Herr Henschel, and Mr. in ordinary demand, the provision in this respect sian Goudok. To two, apparently, of these original Barton McGuckin, the promising young Eng already sufficing, but rather to perfected instru- types does it seem possible to trace back the origin lish tenor. Two Mondays, one Saturday, and ments, such as one required for higher solo perform of the violin, viz., to the Crwth of the ancient Britan extra Wednesday, for Beethoven's so-called ance and chamber music. Concerning the method ons and the Rebec, which, without doubt, passed "Posthumous" quartets (the first and fifth of which is to be followed in their construction, no through Spain into France. Centuries elapsed, which, in E flat and F, are included in the doubt need exist, after the many fruitless experi- however, and a vast number of sometimes very exprogramme of to-morrow afternoon), will bring ments and enquiries. There is but one way of at-traordinary transformations were necessary before the 19th season to a close, with the 593rd per- taining to the desired end, which is, to follow in the violin acquired its existing form. Of these anformance since the Popular Concerts were set the footsteps of those of the old masters who have cient varieties we are in possession of a compendion foot.-Times, March 20. left us the best examples with regard to the choice ous pattern-list derived from carvings in old churchof wood, form, construction, and finish, whereby it es and sketches in ancient manuscripts. The viola is not prohibited-nay, it is desirable-to make in was the instrument of transition, which in its turn the minor details such alterations as the develop- passed through many metamorphoses before it acment of violin virtuosity and the higher pitch of quired a settled form. One can without difficulty the present day have rendered necessary. The un- picture to one's self this form of the viola; for, by avoidable self-denial which will be required of the reason of the flat back, the, towards the neck more makers must be met by the confidence of the pur-pointed than rounded body, and the broad sides, it chasers, for supply and demand stand in the most greatly resembled our contra-bass, or the viola intimate relations to one another; where the one d'amour, which, by the way, threatens to become a relaxes, the other must also fail. rarity. Sometimes the sides were only curved, like those of the guitar, in intimate association with voices to accompany which, they came more and more into use. Violas were divided into four kinds, viz., treble, alto, tenor, and bass violas, which were held during performance either at the shoulder or

The Violin Manufacture in Italy, and
its German Origin.

An Historical Sketch; by Dr. EDMUND SCHEBEK.
Translated from the German by WALTER E.

(From the London Musical Standard.)


Although the Italian violin manufacture is universally known, from its chief seat, Cremona, yet it is by no means free from obscurity; and to this fact may doubtless be attributed much of the importance which has attached to it. Instead of seeking for natural explanations, recourse has been had to mystery, around which tradition and legend have woven a veil.

Certainly it is extraordinary that through the Praxis alone a violin model could be created, which, while offering beauty of form, and an easy manner

For these reasons, the propagation of correct views concerning the violin manufacture, and its development, has also a practical side; indeed, it is the inevitable condition supposed in raising it again to that elevation which, strangely enough, it occupied at a time when the demand for perfect instruments was neither so extensive nor intensive by far as it is at the present day.*

In order to avoid an accusation of plagiarism I may here be allowed to remark, that, in my report concerning the orchestral instruments in the Paris Exhibition of 1855 (the twenty-seventh book of the official reports of Austria). I have already given to the world, in a more extended form, my views upon violin manufacture. This

report has been most freely quoted from by Hiacinthe Abele, in his work, Die Violine, without the acknowledgment which he accords in other instances. Whole pages are cited verbally from my pamphlet, and have in part been reproduced in other works bearing his name. Under these circumstances, it is by no means impossible that the authorship might be falsely attributed, seeing, moreover, that my report, as part of a large and but little circulated collection, has not become well known in musical circles.

[ocr errors]


between the knees-hence the term “shoulder vio-lowed at first in the footsteps of his master; but
lin" (Viola di Spalte, Viola di Braccio, the origin soon struck out into new paths, in his endeavors to
of the German word, Bratsche), and "knee violin " attain to perfection; and these endeavors occupied
(Viola da Gamba). The bass viola alone, which him more than half of his long life-he was born in
still exists in a but slightly modified form, as the 1644, and died in 1737-until, at the turn of the
contrabass, was played, like this instrument, in a century, he attained to his ideal-sweetness and
free position.
grandeur of tone combined with perfection of form.
It is generally imagined that Straduarius created
something entirely new; but, in my humble opin-
ion, all the properties which distinguished his in
struments from those of earlier periods, were al-
ready in existence, but were greatly scattered; and
to him is due the merit of having, with great pene-
tration, selected everywhere that which was the
best, and united it into one harmonious whole. He
had a large number of pupils, and a still greater
number of imitators; and some of them produced
such excellent specimens, that, doubtless, at the
present day, many instruments are falsely ascribed
to him. He did not, however, occupy the position
of master of the period in the same degree as did
Amati, before him.

The manufacture of viols of the old sort continued for a considerable time after the new model for violins, violas, and violoncellos, had been introduced, a proof that the flat whizzing tone, which necessarily resulted from its onter form and inner structure, in which often the indispensable bass-bar was wanting, continued to be admired for a long time, before the clear, brilliant, powerful and sonorous tone of the new instruments usurped the monarchy.

of old, man, thou must perish," possesses immense power. It is written in canon form, and its deep, surging emotion is interrupted by a chorus of the soprani, “Yea, come, my Jesus, come," of which the perfect peace and content forms a charming contrast to the solemnity of the first theme; these two motives alternate, and finally the movement closes with the touching strain for the soprani,gradually decreasing in strength of tone. No. 6 is "n air for the alto full of pathos and resignation: "To thee, O, Father." No. 7, an air for bass: "This day shalt thou be with me in Paradise;" this is a florid passage, which accompanies a choral of beautiful effect for the alti: "With peace and joy shall I depart;" the solemn strains of the chorus mingling with the melody until this ceases, and the choral also gradually dies away, bringing out into full relief the joyous burst of the hymn of praise, for the full chorus: "All glory, laud and praise," which ends in a magnificent fugue, forming the close of this poetical and stirring composition. Miss Drasdil sang her beautiful solo with deep feeling. Mr. Henry Brandeis was less successful in his tenor air, while Mr. Stoddart, upon whom devolved the greater part of the solos acquitted himself remarkably well.

Although Galileo, in his "Dialogues," says "The violin, and the bass or violoncello, were invented by the Italians—perhaps by the Neapolitans (?),” still the statement is open to doubt. In ancient times England displayed great activity in the production His most distinguished disciple, Joseph Guarneof instruments played with the bow; at the same rins (born 1683, died about 1745), called del Gesu, time seeking out, and renumerating freely, perform- after the trade-sign which he adopted to distinguish ers upon the violin and viola. Is it not possible him from a cousin of the same name-adhered, in that the metamorphosis from the original Low in the main, to his master's precepts, but differed from grand Scena for solo and chorus, in which the comThe first selection from Gluck's Orpheus was the struments to the violin took place in that country? him so greatly in some particulars that their instru- bined efforts of Miss Drasdil, the really good chorus Further, it is by no means improbable that the vio-ments cannot well be confounded. Unlike his maslin was introduced into Italy from Germany; for ter, who consistently strove to attain to his ideal, effect. This was followed by the "Dance of Happy and the fine orchestra produced a highly successful there were masters whose names hint at a German and on doing so, faithfully adhered to it—his ideas Spirits," a graceful picture of peace and tranquilliextraction by whom the manufacture of the violin were irregular, and so, consequently, were his pro- ty, and the famous "Air of Orpheus"-"I have lost proper was Arst cultivated in Italy. The history of ductions. Sometimes he turned out instruments ancient con merce is in both countries 100 obscure which were equal to the most perfect creations of my Eurydice," sung by Miss Drasdil, to whose mel to admit of positive proof of this. It is nevertheless Straduarius-nay, are considered by many to be low, sympathetic voice it seemed to be so well a certain, that the oldest known violins were made in better. Paganini's favorite violin was a Guarneri- exceedingly simple, though noble and elevated style dapted. The Requiem, by Brahms, begins in an Italy. us. Sometimes his productions were so inferior, as regards choice of wood and finish, that one is tempting," for full chorus, and is set off by many beautiwith the words "Blessed are they that go mourn ed to deny their genuineness. Guarnerius found ful passages, which arise from the use of pleasing imitators here and there, but he does not appear to have educated any pupils. According to a tradiharmonic changes and the introduction of old hymns. tion, he ended his life in a prison. With the words "Seed in sorrow," the composer At the time that Andrea Amati founded the new though it is rather too long drawn out. This derises to stirring and even picturesque tone-painting, era, the manufacture of violins was carried on in scriptive form is continued in the 2d chorus, beginseveral other towns besides Brescia and Cremona.ning with “Behold, all flesh is grass," but grows But it was owing to the impulse which the works of weak in the course of a rather too minute contemNicholas Amati and Straduarius gave to it that it plation of the text. began to spread. Like a tree that grows in good made at the words, "until he receives the rains of A very pleasant impression is soil, and to which Heaven sends showers and sunshine, so it sent forth its shoots and branches in all gladness" is very characteristically described. The the morning and evening showers," and "eternal directions. In most of the large towns of Northern third movement, "Lord, make me to know," is introItaly it had a seat; and, next to Cremona, it at- duced by an effective, though at times sentimental tained to the greatest importance in Venice and Mi- baritone solo, to which the chorus responds, sentence lan. From Northern Italy, it passed through Flor- for sentence, until we are led into a colossal fugue, ence and Rome, to Naples and Palermo. Altogeth- wonderful as an ingenions masterpiece in counter independent makers numbered about two hundred. point. One of the most lovely parts in the whole work is the following movement: "How lovely is thy dwelling place," for chorus, in which the sentiments of longing and rejoicing expressed in the text find a fitting and harmonious expression in the music. No. 5, "Ye now are sorrowful," for soprano solo, with chorus, holds us spell-bound with its cipally where it is taken up in an idealized and comcharming development of the touching theme, printhe grandest of all the movements, and in its triumph interwoven and very effective. No. 6 is decidedly work. Of great effect is the repetition of the words, In the victory over death forms the climax to the Grave, where is thy sting?" rising in tone at each brings the part to a close. repetition, until the Fugue "Lord, thou art worthy,”

It has been customary, hitherto, to regard Bres. cia as the cradle of the Italian violin manufacture; but, while this opinion was based upon Gaspar da Salo (circa 1560-1610), it was incorrect. Later enquiries, to which a violin bearing the name "Joan. Kerlino, 1449," gave rise, proved that a maker of that name had lived in Brescia; whereby the above opinion received a justification. On the other hand, Bologna must be accredited with the honor of having been the cradle of a branch of human art industry which, in its productiveness and constantly progressive development, was no less wonderful, for from this town a master, known hitherto by the name of Gasparo Duiffoprugear, sent forth from the year 1511, upwards-a series of violins no less remarkable for their technical excellence than for their external beauty.

Simultaneously with Bologna, both Mantua, Verona, and Venice furnished bow instruments; but, from specimens which have been preserved in mu seums, these appear to have principally consisted of violas of the old species.


er, as far as I have been able to ascertain, the

[To be Continued.]

New York Oratorio Society.

Towards the middle of the 16th century, the vio-
lin manufacture in Brescia, under Gaspar da Salo,
came again to the fore; and it also took firm root
in Cremona, through Andrea Amati, who was the
progenitor of a highly celebrated family of violin
makers which flourished throughout four genera-York, which took place at Steinway Hall on Thurs-forting form by the tenors. The solo is beautifully


Brescia adheres, in the principles of construction and external elaboration, to the line laid down by Duiffoprugear; but Cremona, although starting from the same point, strikes out an independent path: so, at least, under Antonius and Hieronymus, sons of Andrea, and Nicholas (born 1596, died 1684.) son of Hieronymus. The forms become ennobled, and sometimes considerably smaller, the breasts are more arched; and, at the same time, the purely external ornamentation is dispensed with, while particular attention is given to the choice of wood and varnish. The tone is distinguished more by sweetness than grandeur. The reform brought about by Amati was adopted more or less by the rest of the violin makers. Cremona was, from this time, the chief seat, and the high school of the violin manu


The third concert of the Oratorio Society of New


formance of a very serious and impressive style of
day evening, March 15th, gave us an excellent per-
music in the form of a Cantata,
by Bach; selections from Gluck's Orpheus, and "Ein
Actus Tragicus,"
Deutsches Requiem," by Joh. Brahms. The Cantata
principally of choruses interspersed and, at times,
and Requiem are similar in form, both consisting
interwoven with solos, and founded upon scriptural
texts. It is not uninteresting to compare the work
there is visible in the music the same fidelity to the
written in 1710 with the modern Requiem. In both
sentiments expressed in the texts; but while in the
ive tones of violas, violoncellos and basses, with two-Mus. Trade Rev.
one the voices are accompanied only by the plaint-
flutes, to which Robert Franz added two clarionets
and two bassoons, the other has an accompaniment
of a full modern in the one we have a

The last chorus, No. 7, "Blessed are the faithful," must be regarded as an anti-climax; still the happy sidered inconsistent with the state of mind inspired peaceful sentiment pervading its tone cannot be conby the hearing of a work at once so elevating and sympathetic.

H. D.

facture. Even Brescia relinquished by degrees its natural ingenuity, combined with that easy, Rowing Musical Correspondence.

peculiarities; and the last maker who honorably
represented this town, Johann Bapt. Ruger, of
Bologna, was educated in the school of the


But the ideal of the violin was not yet attained to. That was reserved for Antonius Straduarius, who, like Amati, sprang from an illustrious Cremonese family. A pupil of Nicholas Amati, he fol

The names of the various masters mentioned in this sketch, are, for the most part, Latinized; this change having, usually, been undertaken by the masters themselves. Therefore, for Antonius may be read Antonio; Hieronymus-Geronimo; Guarnerius-Guarneri, Guarnerio; Straduarius-Straduari, or Straduario, etc., etc.-W. E. L.


simplicity of style so characteristic of the great
master Bach; in the other, a strong individuality,
united with an immense elaboration of detail; in
of expression, notwithstanding the apparently som-
both we find much deep feeling and a great variety
bre subject. The Cantata opens with a "Sonatina"
for the modified orchestra, which is extremely sweet
and tender, and of subdued tone. The first chorus,
in canon form, "God's time is the best and surest,"
breathes a spirit of perfect trust and cheerful confi-
dence. It is followed by a pathetic tenor air, “O,
Lord, so teach us to remember," which leads to a
Vivace for bass, "Come, order thy house." The
next chorus for alto, tenor and bass, "It is the law

CHICAGO, MARCH 28. It was not my intention, in periority, although I have heard this done by exmy last letter, to claim for Miss Rivé absolute sucellent musicians. Here, as you know, I give my own opinions and impressions, which in the present perhaps superior, although not so much so as any case were: that, in point of refinement, Essipoff is one would suppose who had not heard them on the same pianos; while in point of breadth and vigor of conception, Miss Rivé is decidedly superior. As to

« PreviousContinue »