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cumstances, as at Bayreuth, and why there, as here, | “infinite" or "endless melody." or "melos."-
-was
it was precisely the most musical, the most appreci- | fatal to the enjoyment of that audience. And “cnl-
ative, who were the least interested and the nost ture." musical knowledge, special study, did not help
offended.-And here, en passant, we may point out the matter. With few exceptions, the most bored
the fallacy of the cheap and common argument: were the most musical. For such chanting of long
"Oh, Beethoven was not appreciated in his own speeches, painfully fitting each word to its tone,
day." Beethoven was appreciated by the most ap- committing neither thought nor character nor situ-
preciative, by those with poetry and music in their ation to any winning vital form of melody or music,
souls, and notably by other great musicians and but requiring for its understanding the fastening of
men of the finest culture, with a few casual excep- the eye on the libretto and the stage,-save as you
tions like Spohr; it took time of course for him to may have learned how to interpret certain interpre
reach the masses. Moreover Beethoven was in notative hints from the "mystic" orchestra below,—
sense a revolutionist in Art; his genius had its own all this we sar is not only dry, devoid of charm, and
intense and glorious individuality; he was an orig- insufferably tedious and langweilig ; but in the nat
inator, but an originator within the forms (essen-ure of the case it all consumes time fearfully; for
tially) and in the same direction, following out the though the words are not repented in the music, yet
same development with his long line of predeces- the words are very many, and it costs time for each
He put forth no theories, nor even thought of wordy speaker to utter himself singly one after
any; he never hinted even, when he brought voices another. When Wotan and Fricka (Jupiter and
into the Ninth Symphony, that Music as such had Juno) hold their long dispute on the free love ques
uttered its last word.-that Music thenceforth re-
tion, or the two lovers their sentimental dialogue
quired to be co-ordinated with, or subordinated to by moonlight, you cannot help thinking how much
speech, poetry and other arts in order to be music
sooner they might get throngh, and how much more
worth the while much longer; he never quarrelled interesting to the hearer, if only both could be al
with the family relationship of keys, never re-lowed to sing at once in a duet. We have always
nounced the syren Melody, never tried to break thought it one of the glories, one of the essential ad-
the bonds of the law which maketh free: never
vantages of Opera over spoken drama, that in it
spurned the pursuit of Beauty in itself as one thing two, three, six or more characters could sing togeth
indispensable to all Art: never.-he the most rest-
er, in a concerted piece, each keeping its individn-
less of men, and urged by aspirations uncontainable, ality distinct, each by the magic power of music
violated that principle of repose, which critics cele-made transparent to us, all revealed to us both in
brate in all the perfect models of all Arts, but themselves, their present moods and feeling, and in
toward which Wagner is the Macbeth that murders their mutual relation. You have only to hear the
sleep. Beethoven was content to do as others do. quartet, the masked trio, or the sextet in Don Juan
but do it in his own way and do it better. Real to become aware of that. There are brevity, charm,
creative genius does not need to quarrel with the insight into character and feeling all secured at once
past, to break the forms, to shift the arena, in order by the old Art, with the genius to use it; and all
to show itself original.—
these are sacrificed in this wilful, though gigantic,
effort to substitute another Art on theory.

nothing: promises that disappoint. In what is sung,
the words dictate all. In the orchestra, where we
are told to look chiefly for ideas, it is after all a
string of glittering fragments.

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1. Now the first thing we have to name as shutting out the Wagner drama from our sympathies (and 4. The pancity and poverty of musical ideas, here we follow his own order, giving the word, the too, must strike any one in an analysis of the score. text, the poetry the precedence) is the mythologi- Not every new and striking phrase or passage is a cal character of his plot and subject. Why should musical idea. A musical idea is a germ which dethe Scandinavian gods and monsters, giants and mands development. But here we have always Walkyries, Wotan and Fricka, Thor and Loke, Sieg-phrases, phrases,-which for the most part lead to mund and Sieglinde and their incestuous amours, interest us upor, the stage? One can read the Nebe unglied, that grand old "German Iliad," with interest; and had Wagner drawn his plot entirely from that, which is in fact a Christian poem and 5. And here a new trouble, dazzling it may be, never mentions one of the Norse gods. he would but confusing. Those everlasting leading mo have had a theme of human interest, and yet as leg; tives" (Leit-motiven), of which so much is said; the endary, as echt-Dentach, heroic, national as he could unexpected, musically irrelevant, little phrases wish. Instead of that, he draws chiefly from the heard in the instruments at each allusion to a car. strange old ballads of the Icelandic Edda, and peo-acter or incident in the drama. Most hearers of ples his stage with huge shadowy forms, only arriv ing at the properly human, after the awakening Brunnhilde, in the beginning of the last play, the "Twilight of the Gods," and mingling it with phan toms even there. How infinitely better, in a dramatic point of view, would have been such a truly poetic condensation of all the real human tragedy of the Niebelungenlied, as that noble play by Geibel, in which Mme. Janauschek has lately given us her magnificent impersonation of a Brunhild purely

human!

2. The subordination of Music to Poetry. And very artificial poetry at that, Long-winded dialogue, full of conceits, alliterations, even puns, at all events a tedious play on words. Not without passages of true poetic beauty and dramatic strength; but for the most part affectations, and a laborious, anxious building onward of the lofty (?) rhyme, to endless length, that music, counter-tunnelling from the mountain's other side, may meet it; these two blind factors groping for each other! Now say what you will about not judging this as Music, but As a Music drama, the human fact is, and ever will be, that when people go for anything that is musi cal, as distinct from spoken drama, they look for music chiefly, and enjoy the work according as it satisfies the musical desire in man. But here Music is robbed of her own independent being, and made to do drudgery in the word-mills of theory. This is what, borrowing a famous title from an old theological controversy in these parts, we have called the latest form of infidelity" in music.-If a man does not believe in music, music pure, can he expect to win us in the long run by mere side uses of an art he deems so insufficient in itself. He may get up an interesting occasion, a success sui generis for the time being, as at Bavreuth; but what after all has Music as such gained by it, or what we as music-lovers, seeing that every time that we go back to older masters we find something so much better? 3. The long spun recitative, and for the singers nothing else—or what Wagner chooses to call his

externalities, one can scarcely rid himself of some mis-
giving about the strength and soundness of the artistic
heart and kernel of the matter.'
." Goethe was disturbed
when he saw a gifted playwright" waiting for a theatre
to come." He wrote: "At any village fair, on planks
laid over barrels. I will trust myself to give delight to
the whole mass of cultivated and uncultivated people
with the plays of Calderon."-Is not Fidelio a case in
point? The scene a prison court, a prison cell, and then
before the gate. But there is music, there is genins, in-
spiration in its every note; and even in a very coarse per-
formance you cannot help feeling it. So it was here last
week. Mr. Fryer did a service to the good old cause_in
bringing us the "Walküre" followed by "Fidelio." The
Art of Music, after all. is safe !

Now if we have given all our space to but one topic, to the omission of concerts, correspondence and an. nouncements, set it down to Richard, the Great Claimant, whose claims do so preoccupy the world.

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The Trio by Hummel, a genial and charming work in itself, was capitally well playel. Miss BILLINGS has a fine, crisp, clear touch, and very smooth and finent execution. The young girl who played the violin part (Miss SHATTUCK) did it admirably,-rich and sympathetic tone, good phrasing, and a firm clear, expressive style. Mr. WULF FRIES could not complain of his associates. Miss Billings distinguished herself by very brilliant playing in the Ballade by Reinecke, the piece by Buelow, and the Tarantelle. Miss DORIA was in her sweetest voice, and we need not say that all her songs were admirable, while the selections had the charm of novelty to nearly all the audience. Mr. Orro DRESEL played her accompaniments.

NEW YORK, APRIL 23. The sixth and last Symphony
concert of the season took place at Steinway Hall on
Saturday evening, April 7, when Mr. Thomas presented:
.Beethoven
Symphony, No. 2. in D.......
Largo, (adapted by J. Holmesherger).
For Violins Violas, Harn Organ, and Solo
Violin by Mr. 8. E. Jacobsohn.
Eine Faust Symphonie.....

Handel

Liszt The season has been a brilliant and a prosperous one.

course heard them unsuspectingly. We happened
to know enough of the preceding play, the "Rhein-
gold." to recognize the Wotan or Walhalla motive,
the Sword motive, etc., etc. They cross and inter
rupt the natural flow of the music almost every in-
stant; listening musically, you cannot feel that they
have any right there; for they do not develop, they Nearly every available place was taken, while the audi-
are only skilfully forced in. Instead of musical
ideas, they are simply labels, tags and badges. Ex-
asperating bores, the pack of them!

6. We but allnde again to the want of repose, resulting from the restless, formless continnity with which the listening sense is dragged on by sheer tyranny of verba

text.

7. And now for the orchestral effects. Strange, wild, bril. liant, fascinating very often; sometimes tenderly poetic; but how often hard, discordant, crushing, colorless and empty, ugly! The Wagner orchestra is room and spaceAlling to be sure; it is remarkably voluminous and rich and overpowering; its sound is never lost. Much of the older and better music may sound thin compared with it. It has some very grandiose and swelling pieces in the Lohengrin; but those have not yet parted with all form. His orchestra tells for all that there is in it; but in ilea, in real contents, in genial inspiration, how often it is poor and empty!

8. Cacoph ny in general. A lack of real beauty. We have the beauty only, as we said before, of phrases, passages, effects of color, contrast and of climax. It seems to us a bric-a-brac kind of beauty: such beauty as a child finds in a rare and costly heterogeneous collection of bright things,-the whole together less important than a single masterwork of painting. We have suspected that it is in this way that this instrumentation so arrests and charms the ear and fancy of those who do not listen deeply, do not seek for musical ideas and their develop ment. After long stretches of dull murky, empty, ugly groping in the depths of tone, or of stunning loudness, the momentary flowing tog ther of soft reeds and flutes and horns in a pretty phrase of a few bars, repeated in sequences, of course sounds delightfully. It reminds us of the church chanting all in unison, and very dull, until the final calence in full harmony; and you exclaim: How wonderful those closing chords! what chords can they be?-only to find that they are just the dominant and tonic chords of the most commonplace of cadences; the long monotony before has made them magical!

9. Finally, what can be the intrinsic genius or worth immense scenic outlay for its effect? Hanslick says: of the Opera or Drama either, which depends upon an "Where all the emphasis is laid upon hitherto unheard of

ence represented the highest intelligence and culture of our city.

The second symphony of Beethoven is ever welcome. and its interpretation was another addition to the long and glorious list of orchestral triumphs, which has been increased during the season by equally fine performances of three other symphonies of Beethoven, namely, the fourth, sixth and eighth.

The Largo from Handel is a theme of marked simplicity, but a fine effect is attained by the treatment, which gives the motif to a solo violin, accompanied by a harp, and afterwards masses all the violins, violas, 'cellos and full organ upon the same theme. The violin solo was artistically performed by Mr. Jacobsohn, and Mr. Thomas repeated the second part of the work in response to an enthusiastic encore.

The Faust Symphony of Liszt was accompanied by the usual printed analysis, and the work certainly needs explanation. It is only after repeated hearing that we are able to discern any meaning in that which at first a pears to be "a perfect maze without a plan." The synphony contains three distinct movements: 1. "Faust" (Allegro): 2. "Gretchen," (Andlante); 3. "Mephistopheles," (Scherzo and Finale.) Liszt has composed two endings to this symphony: one, which is usually employed, for orchestra alone, and one for Tenor solo and chorus. At the rehearsal on Thursday preceding the concert the orchestral ending was given, and at the con cert the symphony was performed with the second end. ing or " Chorus Mysticns," which was sung by the New York Liederkranz society with solo by Mr. H. A. Bischoff, who sang with excellent effect. The orchestral rendering was superb. In the presence of such clear interpretation and brilliant execution it was easy to forget the immense diffculty of the music.

At the close of the tenth season of Symphony Concerts the question arises: What will New York to for the man who has worked so long and so successfully in the cause of musical culture and who by his own persistent and almost unaided effort has made this city one of the

musical capitals of the world? Six concerts in a year will not maintain an orchestra, nor does it pay to travel from place to place with such a number of performers in this country of magnificent distances. In a word, if this orchestra is to be preserved, it must have an abiding place. An effort is now to be made to supply this need, and it is best explained by the following circular "To the Public:"

Negotiations are pending, by an organization to be known as "The Thomas Garden Concert Company," for securing a proner site, and erecting buildings thereon, suitable for a Hall with Gardens, in which Mr. Thomas and his orchestra may be permanently lodged.

Many of those who have regularly attended the Symphony Concerts have expressed the desire to permanentÍv and securely locate Mr. Thomas and his orchestra in New York. It is believed that they will be desirous of evincing that interest in the most substantial mannerby subscribing in aid of the project-as soon as the undertaking has sufficiently progressed to justify the submission to them.

Among those present at this concert there are doubtless many who will be glad to be made acquainted with the plans under consideration as soon as they shall be definitely determined upon. If they will forward their addresses to the prospectors, a full prospectus, with details of the enterprise, will be sent them as soon as they are prepared, which, it is expected, will be in a short time.

It is hoped that the responses will be numerous enough to indicate a willingness, on the part of the public. to at least become informed of the opportunity that will be afforded them of recognizing Mr. Thomas' labors and of establishing him, upon an assured, permanent basis, in this city, where so much of his life has been spent, and so much of his work has been done.

New York, April 7th, 1877

(For full partion'ars address, The Thomas Garden Concert Co., Care of Messrs. Steinway and Sons, New York.) A. A. C.

[Conclusion next time.]

The Telephone Revolution in Music. [From the Cincinnati Gazette.]

The prediction made by that eminent manager of exotic Italian opera, Mr. Max Strakosch, that by means of the telephone houses will be su»plied with music as they are now with gas and water, opens up ́a great vista of im provement in domestic comfort and alike of musical abundance and economy. If from a central source wires can be laid to carry the music to each house, sc that it can be turned on at will, as we turn on gas and water, or as we open a register of a hot-air pipe to heat an apartment, it is obvious that the superiority, cheapness and convenience of this supply will cause families to abandon the making of the'r own music, just as gas has extinguished tallow dips and oil lamps, and as public water works have done away with wells and rain cisterns.

The relief that this will give to society from pianos alone is so vast a subject that the mind staggers at the conception. What is home without a piano! Taking the population of the United States as 40,000 000, and estimating but one piano to forty persons, makes a million pianos, whose thrumming roll is as continuous as England's morning drum beat, and the sound of whose torment-to use a Scripture figure-goeth up forever and ever. There are people who have indulged a strange fancy in the idea of lifting the cover off that place which for euphony we call the bottomless pit, and of hearing the sounds which would issue. Equally dreadful is the figure of going above and lifting off the cover and letting out the sound of the torment of a million pianos, played upon by the average American girl. But such fancies are too fearful for safe indulgence. No one is justified in trying dangerous experiments upon his reason.

At the low estimate of one girl at a time to a piano, there are a million American girls undergoing lessons and practice on the piano. Of course neither the numbers nor the girls are round, but we choose round numbers for convenience of figuring. To become a fine executioner, a girl must begin at not more than six years old, and keep on always; but although they all begin vigorously, they drop out after a while, like the pupils in our public schools, of whom only about one and a half per cent. pass through the high school. The rest are scattered all along the wayside, in all the years of the school course. We shall, therefore, estimate the aver age years of practice at only four. When we try to think of a million of girls in perpetual succession, practicing four years, at say two hours a day, on a million pianos, the results become too fearful for the human mind to conceive.

Of this million of American girls, subjected to this practice, and subjecting their families and friends to it, not more than one in a hundred ever gets to such a proficiency as to play to the edification of any but a very infatuated mother, who knows the whole of the painful process by which her little stock of tunes has been learned, and who thinks that they may be less worn to

others. Probably not one in a hundred ever gets so far
as to play that show piece, 'The Battle of Prague," which
has been the masterpiece of so many generations of
girls. When we think of all the cost and waste of this,
and, what is immeasurably more, of all the suffering it
imposes on the girls, and, what is infinitely more, of all
the suffering it inflicts on the American household and
on visitors, we can see that the sum is too vast for utter-

ance.

The history of the American girl's efforts to become a
singer is even more melancholy, and the fruit still rarer.
And, whether vocal or instrumental, this labored accom-
plishment is apt to be dropped when the young woman
marries, or as soon as marriage has introduced another
kind of music into the family, which, by a queerly mixed
poetical metaphor, is called a well-spring of noise. With
telephone wires laid to each house, connecting with a
central factory where the instrumental and vocal music
shall be made by wholesale, from which each household
can turn on at will by simply opening a valve or con-
necting wire, the supply of music from the general source
will be so superior to any that private individual effort,
even though proficient, can furnish, that the domestic
piano and household voice would be as shamed as the
tallow candle by gaslight, or the old flint and steel by
the lucifer match.

Of course this will raise the alarming question, What
will become of piano makers and sellers, teachers, tuners,
music sellers. etc.? A similar question has met every
labor-saving invention; but experience has shown that
the invention itself increased the demand for labor.
This invention will create a large demand for musicians
in the factory, and a large industry in the making and
laying of telephone pipe, wires, meters, and so on. We
mention meters, because it is obvious that no family will
want music turned on all the while, and that there will
be great variations in the demands of different families,
and there must be means by which each shall be charged
for only as much music as it consumes. This promises a
multiplication of that blessing which every household
has found in the gas meter. And there is no reason why
a meter should not register as satisfactorily the amount
of music delivered.

Every great step in the march of progress arouses fear
in timid conservatism. The then inhabitants did not
want chaos disturbed by creation just as the inhabitants
of the present want creation, to go no further. Objec-
tions will be raised. but they are easily answered. Al-
though the telephone will naturally be an elevator of
musical taste, yet it is not proposed to make it a pro-
crus ean bed-a new figure, caveat filed-to require all
tastes to be stretched up to the most classical-whatever
that may be-compositions. Different factories and dif-
ferent sets of telephonic wires will e required to suit
the variety of tastes. Each house can be supplied with
all kinds. or can have that one which suits its taste.
Thus the greate-t establishment will be for the distribu-
tion of the popular American music, nego minstrelsy,
while the small class of the cultured can take their
choice all the way from the jiggling Sebastian Bach to
the intellectual Beethoven.

The objection will be raised that this distribution of music to our dwellings will disconneet it from the balmy and balsamy air of the concert hall, which has become so associated in our minds with musical performances that music must seem strange without it; also that in our own dwellings we shall not have the charming accompaniment of the voice of the young man behind ns. who has brought his girl for a rare treat, and who thinks he must make it interesting for her by keeping up the conversation; nor of the two women who discuss the dresses of the singers; nor of the musical enthusiast who shows his fine musical sensibility by beating time with his foot against our chair, in all the strongly mea ured passage, nor of the two gentlemen connoissen's of Ger. man extraction who as the piece goes along discuss it in society young people who keep up their chatting and the soft German tongue; nor of the group of American giggling as unconscious of any musical sensations as so many puppies; nor of the American man beside us who spits a pond of tobacco juice on our side of the premises; nor of the son of Israel who feeds his girl with strong peppermint candy, diffusing the odor all around; nor of many other concert and theatre luxuries which are so associated with these performances that to separate music from them seems a hazardous experiment.

Association of ideas is a mental force which cannot be disregarded; but it is likely that substitutes, available in private houses, will be found for these and the other inridentals of the concert room. By means of our heating furnaces our rooms can be overheated, and it is likely that chemical science can furnish odorizers which shall resemble the concert air. Manners will show out under all circumstances, and, under the influence of our free and equal principles, even a small circle will contain the usual features. That social reputation for musical culture which is gained so painfully by many, by attending high art performances, can be more easily gained by the wealthy, by supplying their dwellings with the telephone. This will establish their musical taste as effectually as the purchase of a well bound library does their literary culture. The telephone in churches will enable them to abolish choirs, which are apt to be irreverent and disorderly bodies, and whose presence, facing the congregation, as is usual in our Protestant churches, is distracting to worship.

This is on the supposition that churches will still be continued: but it may be that the speaking telephone will bring the preaching, musical and other service of enjoy it on its own premises in such postures of luxury worship from a central factory, so that each family can and ease as it may have facilities for. As has been said of blue glass, the wonders of the telephone have only just begun to expand.

Special Notices.

DESCRIPTIVE LIST OF THE MUSIC, Published by Oliver Ditson & Co.

LATEST

Vocal, with Piano Accompaniment.
The Old Church Door. Solo or Qt. G. 8.
d to E.
Richter. 30

"Where Ivy clings to the mould'ring stone
And the huge bell hangs in the tower alone."
An impressive ballad, in good style, fitted for
either one or for four voices, as you please to
use it.

When the World all is young. C. 3. g to D.
Waldeck. 35

"And ev'ry goose a swan, lad,
And ev'ry lass a queen."

It is Charles Kingsley's vigorous poetry, and it is a good, hearty, rousing song.

Do not slam the Gate. Solo and Chorus.
Bb. 2. d to C.

Shelley. 30

"Bessie listens ev'ry night, And so does teasing Kate." Yes, one should be careful. Neat song. Duetts, Baritone and Bass, by Franz Abt. ea. 40 No. 2. Brother Heart, be not cast down. F. 4. C to f. Bass staff.

"Give to us thy hand.

Jolly every one."

A duet for "good fellows" to sing when they are having a nierry musical time.

A Dream. (Spinning Song). A. 4. E to a.
Vincent. 10

"I took the threads of my spinning,
All of blue summer air."

A sweet poem by Adelaide Proctor, fitted to a clear, bright melody, and quite a varied accompaniment.

Instrumental.

Ballade. (From Flying Dutchman). Bb. 4.

Spindler. 50 Rather differing from most of Spindler's refined and delicate pieces. This is graceful, while it has a character of wildness.

Les Bergers Watteau. Air de Danse. Style

Gregh. 40

of Louis XV. A. 3. Being an old air, it has a character of quaintness which is nothing against. "Quaintly beautiful"

is perhaps its best description.

Paquita Waltzes. 3.

Raboch. 40

A very pretty and varied set.
Concert Fantasia for the Organ. In the
Free Style for Organ Exhibitions. C. 5.

W. II. Clarke. 80

It is well known to many, Mr. Clarke has an almost unequaled talent for "showing off" an organ, and for making it, what it is almost impossible to make it, a bight, entertaining Concert instrument. Here is one of his compoositions carefully marked for changes of stops, &c. Pedal part is easy, and the whole very entertaining.

March from 'Petite Mariée."

G. 3. Knight. 30

Mr. K. has chosen a bright little air, which
loses nothing by his arrangement.
Commander Cazeneuve's Favorite Polka.
With Portrait. D. 4.

Dulcker. 40

It is hoped that this spirited composition will go like "magic," and so endorse the illustrious Commandeur's favor.

Lula Galop. F. 2.

Lula cannot complain, this is a bright dance Newton. 30 named for her.

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WHOLE NO. 941.

BOSTON, SATURDAY, MAY 12, 1877.

Music in Leipsic.-A Gewandhaus Concert.
-The Ninth Symphony.-Operas
and Concerts.

[We are permitted to print the following extracts from a private letter, dated Leipzig, March 11, 1877.]

Thursday evening I heard the grandest musical composition in the world, performed by the finest orchestra in the world-the Ninth Symphony at the Gewandhaus. It was the only Gewandhaus Concert I have attended, and will be the only one of the regular winter series I shall be able to hear, as I shall be at

The Ninth Symphony was the second part of Thursday's programme. The first part consisted of a new concert piece, called Zion, for chorus, baritone solo and orchestra, by Gade its first performance-and an air from Mozart, sung by Frau Pescha-Leutner, which was new to me. Gade's work has many extremely fine parts, it was evidently received with great interest by the musical people, was much applauded, and is sure to find its way to AmeriMadame Leutner's tones are as strong and pure and her vocalization as wonderful as when she visited us.

ca.

I had heard the Ninth Symphony twice before-once given by the Harvard orchestra and the last time by Theo. Thomas. I feel unwilling to make any comparison of Thomas with the Gewandhaus, because my musical knowl edge is so unscientific, and especially because I see that the real reasons for the great difference in the effect of Symphony on me, in my differ ent hearings of it, are almost entirely subjective. Only upon hearing the different orchestras on successive evenings or at times near together could I make a comparison worth anything to myself or worth following out for

you.

Dresden next Thursday, when the last is to be
given. It is quite unnecessary for me to tell
you much about the Gewandhaus Concerts, for
everybody who knows anything of the history
of music knows all about them, how Mendels-
sohn was long the manager of them, how al-
most every one of the great German composers
has been in some way connected with them,
how they have always been identified with
what is highest in musical composition and
execution. The Gewandhaus Concerts are
strictly independent of the Conservatory,
though it is almost always the case that the di-
This said, it is right for me to say that
rector of the Concerts (now Reinecke) is one
I have never heard music rendered in a manner
of the Conservatory professors and that most that seemed to me so absolutely perfect as on
of the Gewandhaus performers are connected Thursday evening—so delicate in shadings, so
with the Conservatory. The Concerts are sup- just in proportions, so precise in intelligence,
ported by the state, the receipts for tickets go- so immediately the expression of the compo-
ing but a little way towards meeting the expenser's thought. I shall not attempt to discuss
ses of the great orchestra, almost any member
of which would be a concert master outside
Leipzig, and many of whom have been such.
The Gewandhaus saloon is small and with the
adjoining room not able to hold more than a
thousand people. Nearly all the seats in the
large saloon are held by regular subscribers
the F. F. L's-who are as sure to be at the

-

VOL. XXXVII. No. 3.

call it divine inspiration, if you like-that led Beethoven to choose this song of Schiller's for this place? * And who but Beethoven was worthy to use the song for music ?†

The lady who was with me at the Gewandhaus remarked that the symphony filled her with sadness, and that this was true not only of this particular symphony, but of almost all great music, whatever its character. This I quite understand, and the feeling isone which to a great extent I share. I was even myself oppressed by a subtle sadness amidst the grandest bursts of gladness in the symphony. But why is this so? It is through nothing objec tively real in the music. To the Greek this feeling could never have come from the Ninth Symphony. He could have been moved by it only to joy, could have responded only to the symphony's objective truth. The feeling is rooted in that great undercurrent of subjectivity which has come into the world chiefly through Christianity, which has turned the heart of man into a theatre for spiritual tragedies, made life a consciousness of great antitheses, filled the soul with an oppressive sense of imperfection and of infinite possibilities unrealized and hardly apprehended. This part of life, the real life of all of us who feel and think, is stirred by everything, almost alike by blackest sin and highest beauty. All excellence in art intensifies spiritual longings. As great as the poem is, the picture, the statue, the symphony, so steep is the slope to satisfaction. We leave the Laocoon in sadness unutterable,

we rise from Faust in a trance, we tarn from

And nat

detail, though I was tempted to speak specially of the marvellous execution of the second part. The truth is though of course the truth is the Transfiguration in tears, and our hearts are more of Beethoven than of orchestra-that per- still when Beethoven sings of God. fection seemed ever to be growing more perfecture, too, moves us in the same way. The stillfrom first to last, becoming most oppressiveness of morning, the robin on the elm, the just as the first premonitions of the chorus ap- brook in the woods, the air of summer noon, pear in the instrumentation. Surely in all mu- the forests of autumn, the falling snow, the concerts regularly as at dinner. I meet peo- sic there is nothing so great as this fourth part Atlantic and Niagara, the mountains in the ple who have not missed a Gewandhaus Con- of the Ninth Symphony. The theme has been west, the glow of sunset, the procession of the cert for fifteen years. The only seats sold to perfectly worked out, completely exhausted,- stars, all are charged with melancholy, all the public are at the end of the large saloon yet the great soul is still surcharged with feel-speak of our sins and our sorrows, all tell of and in a small saloon which opens by folding ing, and only innovation upon ordinary sym- what we are not and know not Yet do they doors into the large hall. But every seat is phonic form can give expression lofty enough. this first and chiefly? And is this all-absorbperfectly good; the acoustic properties of the The orchestra is almost still under the new ing subjectivity the ground of highest manplace are as phenomenal as the poor ventilation, demands. The great thought struggles for hood? It is more than first, it is second, but and the concert is as if in your parlor. The life, and yet is all complete. It is soft calm-it is not third. There is surely “a more excelconcerts are given on successive Thursday evness, it is deep trembling, it is soaring-we lent way." enings, twenty each winter, ending at Easter. know not in which the highest joy consists. The rehearsals take place on Wednesday mornThe melody takes perfect form, it rises to full ings, and as they are almost as good as the strength, and now the strings all tremble, alconcerts themselves and the expense of attendmost shriek, in the height of inspiration and ing them is but half as great, they are always the glory of vision. And yet more, wood and full. It is not easy to get tickets for the con- iron, trumpet and viol, there are not enough. certs when the programme is specially attrac-Man must speak immediately, and above the tive. I got my own for Thursday only through the good offices of an acquaintance who lives with the Secretary of the Conservatory, an American, by the by, who has passed the highest examination in a class of seventy, in the Conservatory.*

*It is worth noting that quite half the Conservatory students are Americans or English.

orchestra the full chorus pours, to end-as
such could only end-in love and God:-

44

'Seid umschlungen, Millionen! Diesen Kuss der ganzen Welt! Brüder, über'm Sternenzelt

Muss ein lieber Vater wohnen."

Was it not a stroke of the highest genius

While speaking of music, I must not forget to tell you that I have heard the "Magic Flute" twice within ten days. This has been a great treat. I do not remember that the opera was given at all in Boston during my years there,

Fifty-one years ago this month, the Ninth Symphony was performed at the Gewandhaus for the first time. The Leipzig newspaper anid, the next morning, that the

work was worthless, though the author was unquestionably a great composer. It allowed merit in the 2d part, but said it was completely neutralized by the length of the part. The 4th part was at best only the mockery of devils over human joy!

+ Last week I visited the house at Gohlis, just beyond the Rosenthal, where Schiller lived and where he wrote the Ode to Joy,

and my only acquaintance with it was through concert pieces. It is a charming work, full of sweet and graceful melodies. It is admirably rendered here, and it and Gluck's. "Armida," have been the events of the season at the opera. Every Saturday we hear the famous Thomas Choir, at the Thomas Kirche. This is a large choir of boys and young men, known to every musical student as having once been under Bach's management and as being superior, far, to all organizations of similar character. It devotes itself to the highest class of sacred music. On Saturdays it gives two pieces (generally without even organ accompaniment), and on Sundays it sings alternately at the Thomas Kirche and the Nicolai. The Saturday concerts are one of the Leipzig notions, and the church is always full.

On Tuesday evening the "Elijah" is to be given here, the Gewandhaus orchestra doing the instrumental work. The amount of good music one hears here can hardly be told, and the cheapness of it takes a Bostonian's breath away. The student's seats at the opera-corresponding to the English pit or the last ten rows of seats in our parquet-cost twenty cents, and an oratorio or a Bach concert, with the Gewandhaus orchestra, costs only a mark-say

25 cents. The Thomas Choir concerts are free. The Gewandhaus Concerts are all that are at all expensive, and these cost but three and four marks—the rehearsals but half that sum. What would not all this be to a dozen musical students whom I know at home? And my own appreciation of my privileges is surely very real and my gratitude great.

For Dwight's Journal of Music.

Travelling Concert Troupes as Educators.

BY JOHN C. FILLMORE.

However discouraging to Eastern music-lovers may be the fact that artists are not well supported even in New York and Boston, we who live in the West ought to be able to feel that we may greatly

composers, parents at home gradually acquire a failure, comparatively, and I felt this more keenly love for good music, and soon find, to their own than anybody else, since it was on the strength of surprise, that trash does not please them as it once my representations that the Club had ventured to did. The travelling artist, therefore, has it in his play a much better programme than usual. I had power to render a great service to Art; to supple. found, to my surprise, that the strictly classical ment the work of the laborious, conscientious teach compositions, which the club had played in their er, to reinforce his teaching by example, and to first concert, had made the best impression on the kindle enthusiasm for the best music. Nothing can public, and I was satisfied that a programme more be of more importance to musical culture in Ameri-largely made up of these elements would be suc ca at this juncture, than that travelling violinists,

pianists and vocalists shall be real artists and art-
lovers, shall have an earnest purpose to educate
their audiences and be helpful to them, and shall be
above the vulgar temptation of stooping to clap.
trap. Of course it must be admitted at the outset
that the path of virtue, in musical matters as else-
where, is a difficult one. The travelling musician
plays to miscellaneous audiences, composed largely
of uncultivated people, totally ignorant of good
music, and, what is worse, totally void of any desire
to know it, or to improve themselves in any way,-
people who go to a concert-room simply to be
amused, and to whom any other conception of a
concert than that of an "entertainment" would be
utterly strange. In playing to such people, the
really earnest musician labors under a two-fold em-

|

cessful. Further observation and reflection, and an increased knowledge of the public, has only confirmed me in the opinion I then held. I do not believe that any great part of the apparent ill suc cess of the second concert was due to the classical

character of the programme, but mainly to two facts;-first, that there were too few solos, and second, that Miss Kellogg, who sang some Schumann songs, and who had before made an excellent impression, was in very bad voice, had to give up entirely the next day, in fact,-and so disappointed the public. At any rate my conversation with average people, of no musical training, has forced me to believe that they enjoyed the best music most, (though they did not applaud noisily, because they did not feel like it;) that the Club is thoroughly respected and believed in here, and that they would barrassment, and has a double temptation to give be well received and supported here now. The what will benefit them most; he has taken to travthem only what they will like best, regardless of only thing which prevented their engagement this season was a previous engagement with the Boston elling because he was not well supported at home, Philharmonic Club, the date of whose concert would and must please his audiences in order to make a have conflicted with theirs. On the other hand, re-engagement probable, and he finds it terribly up- this last-named club played a programme, a large hill work to play good music to an unsympathetic part of which was sheer trash, and hardly any of audience. He remembers an excellent and author-which was of any musical significance. For exam|itative saying about casting pearls before swine, ple, Mr. Weiner's flute solo was a medley, containand since, whenever he plays the best music, he is ing "Home, sweet home," "Yankee Doodle," and not applauded, or the applause is, at best, but faint,"O Susannah." I was curious to know how this he concludes, in disgust, that the public are swine would impress the thoughtful part of the public, after all, and must have nothing but swill. Far be some of whom had complained that artists would it from me to underrate the difficulties which such not play simple things which they could understand. musicians have to meet, or to fail to put myself in I believe I speak the exact truth when I say that their place, or to condemn their shortcomings too the feeling with which all the better portion of the severely. But I firmly believe that, in many cases, audience regarded this performance was one of the discouragements are, after all, more apparent mingled disgust and contempt. They had become than real: that artists only need to respect them. familiar with the notion that artists were above selves and their art to make others respect both; that sort of thing; no artist had done it here beand that noisy applause, or the lack of it, is no in- fore, and the incongruity of it was keenly felt. I dex to the pleasure of the audience or the perma- took pains to ask men who had grumbled at classical programmes whether they liked this concert as well as those of the Mendelssohn Quintette Club, and I invariably got a negative answer. It is not too much to say that people felt that the playing of such a programme by artists involved degradation of themselves and contempt of their audience. Moreover, they find it hard to believe that a man who is willing to play "O Susannah" in a concert is not a quack rather than an artist, -one who prefers playing claptrap for the sake of the applause of the small boys in the gallery to playing good music for the edification of intelligent people.

musicians here, and have watched the effect of their
concerts. I think my experience warrants me in
holding some positive opinions on this subject; and
I have thought that a statement of the results of
that experience might be useful. The most import
ant concerts given here within the past three years
have been two by the Mendelssohn Quintette Club,
one by Mme. Urso, one by Miss Julia Rive, and one,
a few weeks ago, by the Boston Philharmonic Club.
Let me briefly state the character of their pro-
grammes, and their effect upon the public.

profit by the necessity of travelling which seems to
nent effect produced. I have been for nearly nine
be laid on the members of the Mendelssohn Quin-
years a music teacher in a western town, one so
tette Club, and similar organizations. At least,
those of us who love music, who believe in the pow its concert-goers.
small that I know personally a large proportion of
I have carefully studied this
er of the best music to make its way among the peo-public; have been instrumental in getting outside
ple, wherever it is properly presented, and who are
laboring with all our strength to bring whomsoever
we can to a real love and appreciation of the best
composers, would like to feel that, whenever a com-
pany of Eastern artists comes among us, they will
give us really artistic renderings of the best music,
to our real edification. We certainly do feel that
we have a right to expect this. There are teachers
scattered all through the West, who do their best
to lead their pupils to Beethoven, Schumann, and
all that noble company, and who really succeed in
doing so, in a multitude of cases. They give their
pupils the best music to study; they cultivate a
taste for it; they seek to develop an intelligent, dis
criminating love for it. The greatest lack they feel
is the almost total want of opportunity to hear
great compositions interpreted by artists who make
it their business to interpret them. The teachers
are generally overworked, and in no condition to
do justice to anything beyond a very small reper-
toire; the performance of their pupils is, of course,
for the most part inadequate. They look therefore
to the travelling artist to meet their needs, and that
of their pupils, and, it must be added, of the music-
loving public; for, wherever pupils study great

The Mendelssohn Quintette Club played, on both occasions, good programmes; the second being much better than the first. The first was played to an overflowing house, (owing largely to accidental circumstances), and was in all respects, apparently, a most encouraging success. The second was played to a very moderate-sized audience, and was, to all appearance, much less warmly received. I think the Club were much discouraged by their second reception; that they regarded it as decisively against their superior programme, and felt that they could not safely repeat the experiment. The public too, I think, regarded this second concert as a

Mme. Urso played last year a respectable, but not a classical programme. It was well received. Miss Rive played two whole Sonatas of Beethoven, the Appassionata, and the one in Eb, Op. 27; three pieces by Chopin; the Marche Funebre, the Scherzo in Bb minor, Op. 31, and the Rondeau in Eb; three by Liszt: Spinning Song, Tannhäuser March, and 2nd Hungarian Rhapsody, and Tausig's arrangement of "Man lives but once." This is as good a programme as she would have played in Boston, and it was thoroughly enjoyed. People said to me afterwards, "I never got much out of Beethoven before, but I thoroughly enjoyed the Sonata Appas. sionats." Moreover it was felt to be a compliment to her audience that she would assume that they desired to hear such things, and people like to be complimented. I am sure the public here entertain

toward Miss Rive feelings of strong respect and admiration. I for my part feel so strongly impressed with the good service she has rendered to Art that I feel like agreeing with the strongest expressions my friend Mr. Mathews has ever used about her in his correspondence with Dwight's Journal. She thoroughly respects herself, her art, and her audi ence, and she makes her audiences respect her. Let other artists mark, learn and inwardly digest these facts, and follow her praiseworthy example. In the long run, honesty, straightforward following of earnest convictions pays best, in art no less than elsewhere, in the matter of bread and butter, and from the lowest point of view from which a real artist can possibly look at his work. The sooner travelling artists become thoroughly convinced of this, the better will it it be for musical progress in America.

-Ripon, Wis., April 29, 1877.

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Cinq Mars."

THE FIRST REPRESENTATION OF GOUNOD'S
NEW OPERA.

[Correspondence of Daily Advertiser.]

Paris, April 15, 1877.

On the 5th of April Gounod's new opera, "Cinq Mars," came out (an odd coincidence of date and name), and, as may well be imagined, there was a general rush to hear it. The first representations were criticized so differently by persons equally capable of judging the merits of Gounod's last work that your correspondent was naturally impatient to see and hear for himself; but to get a Lox or a stall was a difficulty hardly to be surmounted; and had it not been for an accident (happily without gravity) which befell one of his friends (an ill wind always blows somebody good) he could not have hoped to be able to appreciate the opera for many a day to

come.

-Alfred de Vigny has written a romantic history of Henri d'Effiat, Marquis de Cinq Mars, which, if not altogether to be relied upon in an historical point of view, has, nevertheless, the advantage of being intensely interesting; and Gounod has adroitly seized the dramatic points of this work for his new opera,—an opera, by the by, conceived and executed in the space of a few weeks, which fact justly entitles it to being called an "improvisation." Cinq Mars being really an historical character, we have but to recall the position he occupied in the court of Louis XIII., when he was made, and unmade by son eminence grise, in order to understand and follow this four-act opera. The short overture Is grave and solemn, and the funeral march, which is introduced twice in the course of the work, is of touching sadness. The curtain goes up, and we find ourselves chez la Maréchale. Her son, Cinq Mars, is about to leave for court, and the chorus of gentlemen surrounding him sing, to charming mu. sic:

us agreeably of that in "Romeo," but this first act
ends with a painfully long recitative, instead of
closing brilliantly with a love song, and the effect
is not good.

The second act is divided in two parts. First,
the chateau de St. Germain, in Louis XIII's apart
ments, where we are charmed by a little song of
plumes, ni de moustaches," admirably sung by M
lovely archaism, " On ne verra plus à Paris tant de
Barre, and later the superb trio which follows
Father Joseph's announcement that Cinq Mars must
give up all idea of Marie de Gonzague. Scenic ef
fect, as well as music, is here complete, and, to our
mind, the strongest motive of Gounod's new opera.
After this serious scene we find ourselves in Paris.
ohez Marion and Ninon, in the midst of a ball.

Gounod is inimitable in this sort of episode where
acting and voice are completed by symphonic or-

chestra music. The madrigal sung by Marion

(Mlle. Levy)," Bergers, voulez vous connaître le pays
done l'amour est le maître?" is charmingly original,
The ballet is, as far as a ballet can be, new and in-
teresting, and the scene altogether pleasing. Lit-
tle by little the guests retire, and the conspirators,
resolved to overthrow the despotic Cardinal, alone
remain, Fontraille at their head, and Cinq Mars one
of them, for disappointed love has filled his heart
with vengeance. De Thou is, of course, with his
friend. The chorus is menacing, and the thrilling
burst in ut majeur most effective. An amusing an-
ecdote is told of how the manager of the Opera
Comique overcame the opposition of his republican
singers, when they were called upon to put more
enthusiasm into the chorus, Sauvons le Roi, sauvons
"You go
le noblesse, delivrons le trône, et l'autel ! "

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to sleep over it!" exclaimed M. Carvalho impa-
tiently.

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How can you expect anything else?" replied one man; "it can hardly be agreeable for real re publicans like ourselves to give utterance to such sentiments."

"Just imagine you are singing the Marseillaise !" said the clever director; and this is the way he got the better of his republican chorus!

But to return to the Cinq Mars:—

M. Stephanne, a poor tenor voice, which has obliged the transposition of some of the best passages. Father Joseph is fairly sustained by Giraudet (bass). and Mlle. Levy has been lucky in having the shepherd song (which has made her reputation) fall to the share of her agreeable though weak voice. Altogether "Cinq Mars' is a disappointment, but contains much which lovers of music must consider as great consolation.

London Operas-Mr. Gye's Prospectus.

(From the "Times.")

The prospectus issued by Mr. Gye to his subscribers and the public, for the 31st season of the Royal Italian Opera, is likely to afford almost un

qualified satisfaction. Before referring to general
arringements, it is as well to glance at what yields
in importance to no other "item" in a document of
the kind-viz., the novelties, or quasi-novelties,
intended to enlarge the established repertory,
immediate disposal of the management.
which now comprises no fewer than fifty works at
In the

list of projected adderda we find the names of five operas new to the Covent Garden stage, two of which, moreover, are altogether new to this coun. logne, was composed by Verdi, then in the meridian try. The Vepres Siciliennes, which heads the cataof his career, for the Paris Opera, during the tine of the International Exhibition (1855), when it was produced with Sophie Cruvelli in the chief charac ter (Hélène). Four years later, an Italian version was given at Drury Lane Theatre, under the management of Mr. E. T. Smith, Mdlle. Tietjens taking the part of Hélène (now Elena), and the late Signor Mongini that of the principal tenor (Henri.) Awaiting some fresh work from the pen of the composer of Aïda, who just now seems inclining rather towards sacred and instrumental than towards purely dramatic music, Mr. Gye could hardly have hit upon a wiser expedient than the revival of the Vepres Siciliennes, to which the fact of Mad. Adelina Patti's assuming the character of the heroine will impart exceptional interest. Next on the list we find another revival, in the shape of an Italian adaptation of Otto Nicolai's comic opera, D'e Lustigen Weiber von Windsor, which, it may be remembered, was presented in 1864, at Her Majesty's Theatre in the Haymarket, under the direction of Mr. Mapleson (Signor Arditi being conductor), with Mdlles. Tietjens and Bettelheim, Signor Ginglini, M. Gassier, and M. Junca in the cast. The title then selected for it was Falstaff, under which Balfe, many years previously, had brought out an opera on the same subject, at Her Majesty's Theatre, when Mr. Lumley was director and Mr. (now Sir Michael) Costa, conductor-the personage of the amorous knight being appropriately represented by "the great Lablache." The Falstaff of Nicolai was received with such marked favor that it is difficult to understand why it should not have remained a permanent feature in the repertory. Mr. Gye's pros. pectus does not mention the distribution of the dramatis persona; but it might easily be guessed from a glance at his company of artists. In any case this other revival-now re-christened Le Vispe Comari di Windsor-will be looked forward to with as much pleasure as the one just cited. Il Vascillo Fantasma, next on the list, will at once be recog nized as another Italian version of Der Fliegende Holländer, first produced in Italian at Drury Lane, in 1870, during the brief directorate of Mr. George The court scene is cleverly given, with animated Wood, with the sensational title of L'Olandese Dandiscussion between the courtiers, who hold some for nalo, and but recently, it is almost needless to add, the King, some for the Cardinal, and the orchestration is, as indeed throughout the entire opera, adunder the more familiar one of the Flying Dutchman, by Mr. Carl Rosa at the Lyceum-the English mirable. Cinq Mars and his friend De Thou remain alone on the stage, and the former avows the version, from the pen of Mr. J. P. Jackson. Mr. Gye having already presented Lohengrin and Tanncause of his sadness; he loves the Princess Marie de Gonzague. "Yes," he cries, "I love her madly. häuser to his patrons, it was doubtless hard to resist but I shall leave without hope, bearing with me a In conclusion, we must remark the just criticisms completing the triad by the addition of Wagner's other more practicable work. Further than this, sterile torment," "You but do your duty," replies which are made against Cinq Mars." It is too De Thou. Charming music, whilst the two friends uniformly sombre. In spite of the fine mise en scene the unanimous praise accorded, both by Wagnerites there is a certaiu dnlness about it which does not alto- and non-Wagnerites, to the Elsa and Elizabeth_of seek to learn their destiny in the page of an open book. There they find the history of two martyrs, gether please our bright, joyous Parisian audiences, Mdlle. Albani, made it almost a sine qua non that and it must be admitted that, after waiting ten the gentle, fate-struck Senta should swell the catastruck by the same sword, buried in the same tomb; after a moment's hesitation they sing gai-ed to do better than ever before, and his admirers trayals. The first of the two operas, unknown to years for a new opera from Gounod, he was expect-logue of that accomplished lady's Wagnerian porly:the English public, is Santa Chiara, composed, many years since, by the Duke of Saxe Coburg. Gotha, whose earliest work, Casilda, was produced at Her Majesty's Theatre as far back as 1852, with Mesdames Charton and De la Grange, Signor Calzolari and De Bassini, in the cast-all famous singers of their day. Santa Chiara was first heard at Coburg, in 1854, and, the year following, was performed at the Opéra Impériale, in Paris, under the

A la cour vous allez paraître;
Quand vous y serez, croyez moi,

Mon cher Marquis, n'ayez qu'un maître Le Cardi
nal!

Vivre, ou mourir, qu'importe !

Hereupon Father Joseph comes in search of Cinq Mars, whom the powerful Cardinal has decided to place near the melancholy King; at the same time he tells the Princesse de Gonzague that she is to marry the King of Poland, and the quatuor, "Reine, elle sera reine," is of pleasing composition. Left alone with Cinq Mars, the inevitable duo reminds |

The third act takes us into the forest of St. Germain, where we hear the echo of distant hunters' horns, fanfares en mi bémol, with a curious modulation on ré bémol, not quite new in Gounod's music, as the ballad of Queen Mab in 'Romeo and Juliette" contains the same successful eccentricity. Marie de Gonzague and Cinq Mars are to be married in the forest chapel, and his motive, “ Marie, venez, que devant l'autel un serment d'amour immortel nous lie!" is finely developed, and when taken up by the three voices produced a great effect. Whilst the marriage is going on in the chapel, Father Joseph is hiding about amongst the trees, and, after the conspirators take leave of one another and Marie de Gonzague is left alone, he discloses his presence, and informs her that the King and Cardinal have decided to punish the rebellion of Cinq Mars with death, and that her only chance of saving his life is in abandoning him. The sportsmen here appear upon the scene, amongst whom is the Polish ambassador and Louis XIII. Marie de Gonzague, seeing all is lost, gives herself up to despair. Father Joseph sings, "All prayer is useless." The huntsmen's chorus is again heard, and the curtain falls. The fourth act passes in prison, and is, to my mind, the most inspired. Cinq Mars sings softly a tender cavating worthy of Bellini. Suddenly Marie appears in the sombre prison, and the duo between the lovers is certainly the best page in Gounod's opera. The passage, "A ta voix le ciel s'est ouvert," is always encored, and the closing funeral march and canticle, "Seigneur, soutiens notre ame chancelante," is inspired music which seems to open heaven's doors to these young martyrs, bound to gether by love and faith.

46

are disappointed that "Cinq Mars" cannot be com-
pared to "Faust;" still, there is good, very good
music in it, and if we have the pleasure of hearing
Cinq Mars" thoroughly well sung one day, it can-
not fail to leave a more agreeable impression than
most second-class operas. As it is, the voices are
not what we could wish. Marie de Gonzague (Mlle.
Chevrier) is timid and undeveloped, and the role of
De Thou, who should be barytone, is sustained by

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