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eac othrum mannuir. ne lyfdon. we neither 1 ved it ourselves not Thone naman anne we lufdon left it to other men. We have that we Cristene wæron, and loved only the name of being swithe feawa tha theawas. Tha ic this eal ge-munde, tha ge-mund ic eac hu ic ge-seah er tham the hit eal for-heregod wære and forbærned, hu tha circan geand eal Angel-cyn stodon mathma and boca ge-fylled, and eac micel mæniu Godes theawa, and tha swithe lytle feorme thara boca wiston, for tham the hi hira nan thing ongitan ne mihton, for tham the hi næron on hira agenge theode awritene. Swilce hi cwædon ure yldran, tha the thas stowa er heoldon, hi lufedon wisdome, and thurh thone hi begeton welan and us læfdon.

Christians, and very few the duties. When I thought of all this, then J thought also how I saw, before it was all spoiled and burnt, how the churches throughout al. the Eng. lish nation were filled with treasures and books, and also with a great multitude of God's servants, and yet they knew very little fruit of the books, because they could understand nothing of them, because they were not written in their own language; as they say our elders, who held these places before them, loved wisdom, and through it obtained weal and left it to us.

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4. LAYAMON. Brut, 1150-1250. The Dream of Arthur.

(Manual, p. 32.)

(From Sir F. Madden's Edition, vol. iii. pp. 118-121.)

To niht a mine slepe,

Ther ich laei on bure,

Mei maette a sweuen;

Ther uore ich ful sari aem.

Me imette that mon me hof
Uppen are halle.

Tha halle ich gon bestriden,
Swulc ich wolde riden
Alle tha lond tha ich ah

Alle ich ther ouer sah.
And Walwain sat biuoren me;
Mi sweord he bar an honde.
Tha com Moddred faren ther
Mid unimete uolke.
He bar an his honde
Ane wiax stronge.
He bigon to hewene
Hardliche swithe,

And tha postes for-heou alle
Tha heolden up the halle.
Ther ich isey Wenheuer eke,

Wiininonen leofuest me:
Al there muche halle rof
Mid hire honden heo to-droh.

To-night in my sleep (bed),

Where I lay in chamber,

I dreamt a dream,

Therefore I am "full" sorry.

I dreamt that men raised (set) me
Upon a hall;

The hall I gan bestride,

As if I would ride;

All the lands that I possessed

All I there overlooked (them saw).
And Walwain sate before me;
My sword he bare in hand.
Then approached Modred there,
With innumerable folk;
He bare in his hand

A "battle "-axe (most) strong.
He began to hew
Exceeding hardily;

And the posts all hewed in pieces,
That held up the hall.

There I saw Wenhaver eke (the

"Dearest of women to me";
All the inickle hall roof
With her hand she drew down;

Tha halle gon to haelden, And ich haeld to grunden, That mi riht aerm to-brac.

Tha seide Modred, Haue that!
Adun ueol tha halle
And Walwain gon to ualle,

And feol a there eorthe;
!lis aermes brekeen beine.
And ich igrap mi sweord ieofe

Mid mire leoft honde,

And smaet of Modred is haft,
That hit wond a thene ueld;
And tha quene ich al to-smathde,
Mid deore mine sweorde,

And seodthen ich heo adun sette
In ane swarte putte.

And al mi uolc riche

Sette to fleme,

That nuste ich under Criste
Whar heo bicomen weoren.
Buten mi seolf ich gond atstonden
Uppen ane wolden

And ich ther wondrien agon
Wide yeond than moren.
Ther ich isah gripes
And grisliche fugheles.
Tha com an guldene leo
Lithen ouer dune.
Deoren swithe hende,
Tha ure Drihten make.
Tha leo me orn foren to,

And iueng me bi than midle,
And forth hire gun yeongen

And to there sae wende.
And ich isaeh thae vthen
I there sae driuen;
And the leo i than ulode
Iwende with me seolue.
Tha wit i sae comen,

Tha vthen me hire binomen.
Com ther an fisc lithe,

And fereden me to londe.
fha wes ich al wet,
And weri of soryen, and seoc.

Tha gon ich iwakien
Swithe ich gon to quakien;
Tha gon ich to binien
Swule ich al fur burne.
And swa ich habbe al niht

The hall gan to tumble,
And I tumbled to the ground,
So that my right arm brake in
pieces, -

Then said Modred, "Have that!"
Down fell the hall;

And Walwain gan to fall was fallen),

And fell on the earth;
His arms both brake.
And I grasped my dear (good)

With my left hand,

And smote of Modred his head,

So that it rolled on the field.
And the queen I “cut all in pieces
With my dear sword,

And afterwards I" set "her" down
In a black pit.

And all my good people
Set to flight,

So that I knew not under Christ
Where (that) they were gone.
But myself I gan stand

Upon a weald,


And I there gan to wander
Wide over the moors";
There I saw gripes,

And grisly (wondrous) fowls!
Then approached a golden lion
Over the down;

"A beast most fair,
That our Lord made";

The (this) lion ran towards (quickly to) me,

And took "me" by the middle, And forth gan her move (he gan me carry),

And to the sea went.
"And I saw the waves
Drive in the sea";

And the lion in the flood
Went with myself.

When we came in the sea,
The waves took her from me;
But there approached (came swim.
ming) a fish,

And brought me to land;
Then was I all wet,

"And" weary "from sorrow," and (very) sick.

When I gan to wake,

Greatly (then) gan I to quake;
"Then gan I to tremble

As if I a'l burnt with fire."
And so (thus) I have all night

Of mine sweuene swithe ithoht;
For ich what to iwisse
Agan is all mi blisse;
For a to mine liue

Soryen ich not driye.

Wale that ich nabbe here

Wenhauer mine quene!

Of my dream much thought,
For I wot (all) with certainty,
Gone is all my bliss,

For ever in my life

Sorrow I must endure!

Alas! that I have (had) not here
Wenhaver, my queen!

5. The Ormulum. (Manual, p. 33.)

(Edited by Dr. White, Oxford, 1852.)

Nu, brotherr Wallterr, brotherr | Now, brother Walter, brother mint


Affterr the flaeshes kinde;

After the flesh's kind (or nature);

Annd brotherr min i Crisstenn-And brother mine in Christendom (or Christ's kingdom) Through baptism and through


Thurrh fulluhht and thurrh trow-

Annd brotherr min i Godess hus,
Yet o the thride wise,


And brother mine in God's house,
Yet on (in) the third wise, [both

One rule-book to follow,

Thurrh thatt witt hafenn takenn ba Though that we two have taken
An reghellboc to folghenn,
Unnderr kanunnkess had and lif,

Swa summ Sant Awwstin sette;
Ich hafe don swa summ thu badd
Annd forthedd te thin wille;

Ice hafe wennd inntill Ennglissh

Goddspelless hallghe lare,
Affterr thatt little witt tatt me
Min Drihhtin hafethth lenedd.

Under canonic's (canon's) rank

and life,

So as St. Austin set (or ruled);
I have done so as thou bade
And performed thee thine will

I have wended (turned) into Eng-

Gospel's holy lore,

After that little wit that me
My Lord hath lent.

C.-OLD ENGLISH, 1250-1350.


Proclamation in A. D. 1258.

(From Marsh's Origin and History of the English Language, pp. 192, 193.)

Henr', thurg Godes fuitume King on Engleneloande, lhoaverd on Irloand, duk' on Norm', on Aquitain', and eorl on Aniow, send igretinge to all hise halde ilaerde and ilaewede on Huntendon' schir'.

Thaet witen ge wel alle, thaet we willen and unnen, thaet thaet ure rardesmen alle other the moare dael of heom, thaet beoth ichosen thuig us and thurg thaet loandes

Henry, by the grace of God king in (of) England, lord in (of) Ire land, duke in (of) Normandy, in (of) Aquitaine, and earl in (of) Anjou, sends greeting to all his lieges, clerk and lay, in Hunting donshire.

This know ye well all, that we will and grant that what our ccun cillors, all or the major part of them, who are chosen by us and by the land's people in our king

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the ordinance of the aforesaid councillors, be steadfast and per manent in all things, time without end, and we command all our lieges by the faith that they owe us, that they steadfastly hold, and swear to hold and defend the regu lations that are made and to be made by the aforesaid councillors, or by the major part of them, as is before said, and that each help others this to do, by the same oatli, against all men, right to do and to receive, and that none take of land or goods, whereby this ordinance may be let or impaired in any wise, and if any [sing.] or any [plural] transgress here against, we will and command that all our lieges them hold as deadly foes, and because we will that this be steadfast and permanent, we send you these let ters patent sealed with our seal, to keep among you in custody.

folk on ure kuneriche, habbeth | dom, have done ard shall do, to idon and schullen don in the worth- the honor of God and in allegiance nesse of Gode and on ure treowthe to us, for the good of the land, by for the freme of the loande thurg the besigte of than toforeniseide redesmen, beo stedefaest and ilestinle in alle thinge a buten aende, and we hoaten alle ure treowe in the treowthe, that heo us ogen, thaet heo stedefaestliche healden and swerien to healden and to werien the isetnesses, thaet beon imakede and beon to makien thurg than toforeniseide raedesmen other thurg the moare dael of heom alswo alse hit is biforen iseid, and thaet aehc other helpe thaet for to done bi than ilche othe agenes alle men rigt for to done and to foangen, and noan ne nime of loande ne of egte, where-thurg this besigte muge beon ilet other iwersed on onie wise and gif oni other onie cumen her ongenes, we willen and hoaten, thaet alle ure treowe heom healden deadliche ifoan, and for thaet we willen, thaet this beo stedefaest and lestinde, we senden gew this writ open iseined with ure seel to halden amanges gew ine hord.

Witnesse usselven aet Lunden' thane egtetenthe day on the monthe of Octobr' in the two and fowertigthe geare of ure cruninge. And this wes idom aetforen ure isworene rede men:

[here follow the signatures of several redesmen or councillors] and aetforen othre moge.

And al on tho ilche worden is isend in to aeurihce othre shcire ouer al thaere kuneriche on Engleneloande and ek in tel Irelonde.

Witness ourself at London the eighteenth day in the month of October in the two and fortieth year of our coronation.

And this was done before our sworn councillors :


and before other nobles [?]

And all in the same words is sent into every other shire over all the kingdom in (of) England and also into Ireland.

7. King Alisaunder. (Manual, p. 34.)

(From Guest's History of English Rhythms, vol. ii. p. 142.)

Averil is merry, and longith the | April is merry, and length'neth


Ladies loven solas and play;

Swaynes justes; knyghtis turnay;

the day;

Ladies love solace and play;
Swains the jousts; knights the


Syngeth the nyghtyngale; gredeth | Singeth_the nightingale; scream

theo jay;

The hote sunne chongeth the clay;

A ye well yseen may.

eth the jay;

The hot sun changeth the clay;
As ye well may see.

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Alisaunder, 140

8. Havelok. (Manual, p. 34.)

(From Guest's History of English Rhythms. vol. ii. pp. 142–145.)

Iwan he was hosled and shriven, | When he was housled and shriven, llis quiste maked, and for him


His knictes dede he alle site,
For thorw them he wolde wite,
Hwo micte yeme hise children

His bequests made, and for him.


His knights he made all sit,
For from them would he know,
Who should keep his children

Till that he couthen speken wit Till they knew how to speak with tunge, [riden, tongue, [horse, Speken, and gangen, on horse To speak, and walk, and ride on Knictes and sweynes bi hete1 Knights and servants by their side.



[soon He spoken there offe-and chosen They spoke thereof and chosen A riche man was, that, under Was a rich man, that, under

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9. ROBERT OF GLOUCESTER. (Manual, p. 33.)

Thuse come lo! Engelond into | Thus came lo! England into NorNormannes honde,

And the Normans ne couthe speke
tho bote her owe speche,
And speke French as dude atom,
and here chyldren dude al so

So that heymen of thys lond, that
of her blod come,
Holdeth alle thulke speche that hii
of hem nome.

Vor bote a man couthe French me
tolth of hym wel lute;


And the Normans not could speak then but their own speech, And spake French as (they) did at home, and their children did all so teach:

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