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ured with, 159. Approaches the nearest
to painting of all the figures of speech,
ibid. Rules to be observed in the con-
duct of, 160. See Allegory.
Metastasio, bis character as a dramatic
Metonomy, in figurative style, explained,
Mexico, historical pictures the records of
that empire, 73.
Milo, narrative of the encounter between
him and Clodius, by Cicero, 351.
Millon, instances of sublimity in, 33, 44,
46. Of harmony, 135, 144. Hyperboli-
cal sentiments of Satan in, 170. Striking
instances of personification in, 175, 176.
Excellence of his descriptive poetry, 454.
Who the proper hero of his Paradise
Lost, 478. Critical examination of this
poem, 503. His sublimity characterized,
505. His language and versification,
Moderns. See Ancients.
Moliere, his character as a dramatic poet,
Monboddo,Lord, his observations on Eng-
lish and Latin verse, 429, note.
Monotony in language, often the result of
too great attention to musical arrange-
Montague, Lady Mary Wortley, a charac-
ter of her epistolary style, 417.
Montesquieu, character of his style, 154.
Monumental inscriptions, the numbers suit-
ed to the style, 145.
Moralt, M his severe censure of English
More, Dr. Henry, character of his divine
Motion, considered as a source of beauty,
Motte, M. de la, his observations on lyric
poetry, 445, note. Remarks on his cri-
ticism on Homer, 488.
Music, its influence on the passions, 423.
Its union with poetry, ibid. Their se-
paration injurious to each, 427.
Natveté, import of that French term,
Narration, an important point in pleadings
Night scenes commonly sublime, 33.
Nomic melody of the Athenians, what,
Novels, a species of writing,not so insignifi-
cant as may be imagined, 416. Might
he employed for very useful purposes,
417. Rise and progress of fictitious
history, 418. Characters of the most
celebrated romances and novels, 419.
Novelty, considered as a source of beauty,
Nouns, substantive, the foundation of all
grammar, 79. Number, gender, and
cases of, 83.
Obscurity, not unfavourable to sublimity,
34. Of style, owing to indistinct concep
Ode, the nature of defined, 443. Four
distinctions of, 444. Obscurity and ir-
regularity, the great faults in, ibid.
Odyssey, general character of, 488. De-
fects of, ibid.
Edipus, an improper character for the
Orators, ancient, declaimed in recitative, 64.
Orations, the three kinds of, distinguished
by the ancients, 284. The present dis-
tinctions of, 285. Those in popular
assemblies considered, ibid. Prepared
speeches not to be trusted to, 287. Ne-
cessary degrees of premeditation, ibid.
Method, 288. Style and expression,
ibid. Impetuosity, 289. Attention to
decorums, 290. Delivery, 292, 365.
The several parts of a regular oration,
341. Introduction, 342. Introduction
to replies, 347. Introduction to ser mons,
ibid. Division of a discourse, 348.
Rules for dividing it, 349. Explication,
350. The argumentative part, 353. The
pathetic, 358. The peroration, 364. Vir-
tue necessary to the perfection of elo-
quence, 378. Description of a true ora-
tor, 380. Qualifications for, ibid. The
best ancient writers on oratory, 385,
393. The use made of orations by the
ancient historians, 405. See Eloquence.
Oriental poetry, more characteristical of
an age than of a country, 424. Style
of scripture language, 67.
Orlando Furioso. See Ariosto.
Ossian, instances of sublimity in his works,
42. Correct metaphors, 164. Confu-
sed mixture of metaphorical and plain
language in, ibid. Fine apostrophe, 180.
Delicate simile, 183. Lively descrip-
tions in, ibid.
Otway, his character as a tragic poet, 513.
Pantomime, an entertainment of Roman
Parables, Eastern, their general vehicle for
the conveyance of truth, 465.
Paradise Lost, critical review of that
poem, 503. The characters in, 504.
Sublimity of, 505. Language and ver-
Parenthesis, cautions for the use of them,
Paris, his character in the Iliad, exam-
Parliament of Great-Britain, why elo-
quence has never been so powerful ap
instrument in, as in the ancient popular
assemblies of Greece and Rome, 283.
Parnel, his character as a descriptive poet,
Particles, cautions for the use of them, 124.
Ought never to close sentences, 130.
Passion, the source of oratory, 264.
Passions, when and how to be addressed
by orators, 358. The orator must feel
emotions before he can communicate
them to others, 360. The language of,
361. Poets address themselves to the
Pastoral poetry, inquiry into its origin, 433.
A threefold view of pastoral life, 434.
Rules for pastoral writing, ibid. Its
scenery, 435. Characters, 437. Sub-
jects, 438. Comparative merit of an-
cient pastoral writers, 439. And of
Pathetic, the proper management of, in a
discourse, 358. Fine instance of from
Pauses, the due use of, in public speaking,
370. In poetry, 371, 430.
Pericles, the first who brought eloquence
to any degree of perfection, 368.
general character, ibid.
Period. See Sentence.
Personification, the peculiar advantages of
the English language in, 83. Limitations
of gender in, 84. Objections against
the practice of, answered, 172. The dis-
position to animate the objects about us,
natural to mankind, 173. This dispo-
sition may account for the number of
heathen divinities, ibid. Three degrees
of this figure, 174. Rules for the man-
agement of the highest degree of, 177.
Cautions for the use of in prose compo-
sitions, 178. See Apostrophe.
Perseus, a character of his satires, 450.
Perspicuity, essential to a good style, 102.
Not merely a negative virtue, 103. The
three qualities of, ibid.
Persuasion, distinguished from conviction,
262. Objection brought from the abuse
of this art, answered, ibid. Rules for,
Peruvians, their method of transmitting
their thoughts to each other, 74.
Petronius Arbiter. his address to the de-
claimers of his time, 279.
Pharsalia. See Lucan.
Pherecydes of Sycros, the first prose wri-
Philips, character of his pastorals, 441.
Philosophers, modern, their superiority
over the ancient, unquestionable, 390.
Philosophy, the proper style of writing
adapted to, 410. Proper embellishment
Pictures, the first essay toward writing, 72.
Pindar, his character as a lyric poet, 445.
Pitcairn, Dr. extravagant hyperbole cited
Plato, character of his dialogues, 412.
Plautus, his character as a dramatic poet,
Pleaders at the bar, instruction to, 301,
Plutarch, his character as a biographer,
Poetry, in what sense descriptive, and in
what imitative, 57. Is more ancient
than prose, 67. Source of the pleasure
we receive from the figurative style of,
176. Test of the merit of, 185. Whence
the difficulty of reading poetry arises,
371. Compared with oratory, 377.
Epic, the standards of, 393. Definition
of poetry, 421. Is addressed to the ima
gination and the passions, 422. Its ori-
gin, ibid. In what sense older than
prose, 422. Its union with music, 423.
Ancient history and instructions first
conveyed in poetry, 424. Oriental,
more characteristical of an age than of
a country, ibid. Gothic, Celtic, and
Grecian, 425. Origin of the different
kinds of, 426. Was more vigorous in
its first rude essays than under refine-
ment, 427. Was injured by the separa-
tion of music from it, ibid. Metrical
feet, invention of, 428. These measures
not applicable to English poetry, 429.
English heroic verse, the structure of,
430. French poetry, ibid. Rhyme and
blank verse compared, 431. Progress
of English versification, 432. Pastorals,
447. Descriptive poetry, 452. Hebrew
poetry, 459. Epic poetry, 470. Poetic
characters, two kinds of, 478. Dramat-
ic poetry, 507.
Pointing cannot correct a confused sen-
Politics, the science of, why ill understood
among the ancients, 398.
Polybius, his character as an historian,
Pope, criticism on a passage in his Homer,
43. Prose specimen from, consisting of
short sentences, 113. Other specimens
of his style, 127, 132. Confused mix-
tures of metaphorical and plain lan-
guage in, 163. Mixed metaphor in, 166.
Confused personification, 178. Instance
of his fondness for antithesis, 188.
Character of his epistolary writings, 416.
Criticism on, ibid. Construction of his
verse, 430. Peculiar character of his
versification, 432. His pastorals, 438,
440. His ethic epistles, 451. The merit
of his various poems examined, ibid.
Character of his translation of Homer,
Precision in language, in what it consists,
104. The importance of, ibid, 114. Re-
quisite to, 111.
Prepositions, whether more ancient than
the declension of nouns by cases, 85.
Whether more useful and beautiful, 86.
Dr. Campbell's observations on, 87,
Their great use in speech, 94.
Prior, allegory cited from, 168.
Pliny's letters, general character of, 415. Pronouns, their use, varieties, and cases
87. Relative instances illustrating the
importance of their proper position in a
Pronunciation, distinctness of, necessary
in public speaking, 367. Tones of, 372.
Proverbs, book of, a didactic poem, 497.
Psalm xviii, sublime representation of the
Deity in, 39. lxxxth, a fine allegory
from, 168. Remarks on the poetic con-
struction of the Psalms, 461, 464.
Pulpit, eloquence of the, defined, 263.
English and French sermons compared,
281. The practice of reading sermons
in England, disadvantageous to oratory,
283. The art of persuasion resigned to
the Puritans, ibid. Advantages and dis-
advantages of pulpit eloquence, 312.
Rules for preaching, 313. The chief
characteristics of pulpit eloquence, 316.
Whether it is best to read sermons or
deliver them extempore, 321. Pronun-
ciation, 322. Remarks on French ser-
mons, ibid. Cause of the dry argumen-
tative style of English sermons, 324.
General observations, 325.
Pisistratus, the first who cultivated the arts
of speech, 267.
Quintilian, his ideas of taste, 17, note. His
account of the ancient division of the
several parts of speech, 79, note. His
remarks on the importance of the study
of grammar, 94. On perspicuity of
style, 102, 108. On climax, 129. On
the structure of sentences, 131. Which
ought not to offend the ear, 134, 140.
His caution against too great an atten-
tion to harmony, 141. His caution
against mixed metaphor, 164. His fine
apostrophe on the death of his son, 180.
His rule for the use of similes, 186. His
direction for the use of figures of style,
193. His distinction of style, 196, 203.
His instructions for good writing, 213.
His character of Cicero's oratory, 204.
His instructions to public speakers for
preserving decorum, 291. His instruc-
tions to judicial pleaders, 301. His ob-
servations on exordiums to replies in de-
bate, 347. On the proper division of an
oration, 348. His mode of addressing
the passions, 357. His lively represen-
tations of the effects of depravity, 379.
Is the best ancient writer on oratory,
Racine, his character as a tragic poet, 528.
Ramsay, Allan, character of his Gentle
Rapin, P. remarks on his parallels be-
tween Greek and Roman writers, 277.
Relz, Cardinal de, character of his Me-
Rhetoricians, Grecian, rise and character
Rhyme, in English verse, unfavourable to
Robinson Crusoe, a character of that no-
Romance, derivation of the term, 418. See
Romans, derived their learning from
Greece, 273. Comparison between them
and the Greeks, 274. Historical view
of their eloquence, ibid. Oratorical
character of Cicero, 274. Era of the
decline of eloquence among, 278.
Rosseau, Jean Baptiste, his character as a
lyric poet, 446.
Rowe, his character as a tragic poet, 532.
Sallust, his character as an historian, 399.
Sanazarius, his piscatory eclogues, 440.
Satan, examination of his character in
Milton's Paradise Lost, 504.
Satire, poetical, general remarks on the
style of, 449.
Saxon language, how established in Eng-
Scenes, dramatic, what, and the proper
conduct of, 516.
Scriptures, sacred, the figurative style of,
remarked, 67. The translators of, hap-
py in suiting their numbers to the sub-
ject, 143. Fine apostrophe in, 180.
Presents us with the most ancient monu-
ments of poetry extant, 459. The di-
versity of style in the several books of,
ibid. The Psalms of David, 460. No
other writings abound with such bold
and animated figures, 463. Parables
466. Bold and sublime instances of per-
sonification in, ibid. Book of Proverbs,
467. Lamentations of Jeremiah, ibid.
Scuderi, Madam, her romances, 419.
Seneca, his frequent antithesis censured,
187. Character of his general style,
198. His epistolary writings, 411.
Sentence, in language, definition of, 112.
Distinguished into long and short, 113.
A variety in, to be studied, ibid.
properties essential to a perfect sentence,
114. A principal rule for arranging
the members of, 115. Position of ad-
verbs, ibid. And relative pronouns,
116. Unity of a sentence, rules for pre-
serving, 119, Pointing, 121. Paren-
thesis, ibid. Should always be brought
to a perfect close, 122. Strength, 123.
Should be cleared of redundancies, ibid.
Due attention to particles recommend.
ed, 124. The omission of particles
sometimes connects objects closer to-
gether, 126. Directions for placing the
important words, ibid. Climax, 129
A like order necessary to be observed
in all assertions of propositions, 130.
Sentence ought not to conclude with a
feeble word, ibid. Fundamental rule in
the construction of, 133. Sound not to
be disregarded, 134. Two circumstan-
ces to be attended to, for producing har-
mony in, 134, 139.. Rules of the ancient
rhetoricians for this purpose, 135. Why
harmony much less studied now than
formerly, 136. English words cannot
be so exactly measured by metrical feet,
as those of Greek and Latin, 139. What
required for the musical close of a sen-
tence, 141. Unmeaning words introduc-
ed merely to round a sentence, a great
blemish, ibid. Sounds ought to be adapt-
ed to sense, 142.
Sermons, English compared with French,
281. Unity an indispensable requisite
in, 316 The subject ought to be precise
and particular, 317. The subject ought
not to be exhausted, ibid. Cautions
against dryness, 318. And against con-
forming to fashionable modes of preach-
ing, 319 Style, 320
sions, 321. Whether best written or
delivered extempore, ibid. Delivery,
322. Remarks on French sermons, ibid.
Cause of the dry argumentative style
of English sermons, 325. General ob
servations, ibid Remarks on the pro-
per division of, 347. Conclusion, 364.
Sevigné, Madame de, character of her let-
Shaftesbury. Lord, observations on his
style, 106, 113, 120. 127, 129, 142, 166.
His general character as a writer, 209.
Shakspeare, the merit of his plays exam-
ined, 28 Was not possessed of refined
Instance of his improper use
of metaphors, 161, 164, 165. Exhibits
passions in the language of nature, 524.
His character as a tragic poet, 530. As
a comic poet, 541.
Shenstone, his pastoral ballad, 441.
Shepherd. the proper character of, in pas-
toral description, 437.
Sheridan, his distinction between ideas and
emotions, 373, note.
Sherlock, Bishop, fine instance of personi-
fication cited from his sermons, 174 A
happy allusion cited from his sermons,
Silius Italicus, his sublime representation
of Hannibal, 36, note.
Simile, distinguished from metaphor, 158,
182. Sources of the pleasure they afford,
ibid. Two kinds of, ibid. Requisites
in, 183. Rules for, 185. Local proprie-
ty to be adhered to in, 213.
Simplicity applied to style, different senses
of the term, 382.
Smollett, improper use of figurative style,
cited from him, 126, note.
Solomon's song, descriptive beauties of, 456.
Songs, Runic, the origin of Gothic history,
Sophists of Greece, rise and character of,
Sophocles, the plots of his tragedies re-
markably simple, 512. Excelled in the
His character as a tra-
gic poet, 526
Sorrow, why the emotions of, excited by
tragedy, communicate pleasure, 515.
Sounds, of an awful nature, affect us with
Influence of, in the for-
mation of words, 61.
Speaker, public, must be directed more by
his ear than by rules, 138.
Spectator, general character of that publi-
cation, 216. Critical examination of
those papers that treat of the pleasures
of the imagination, 217.
Speech, the power of, the distinguishing
privilege of mankind, 9. The grammati-
cal division of. into eight parts, not lo-
gical, 79. Of the ancients, regulated
by musical rules, 136.
Strada, his character as an historian, 406.
Style, in language defined, 101. The dif-
ference of in different countries, ibid.
The qualities of a good style, 102.
spicuity, ibid. Obscurity, owing to in-
distinct conceptions, 103. Three requi-
site qualities in perspicuity, ibid. Pre-
cision, 104. A loose style, from what
it proceeds, 105. Too great an atten-
tion to precision, renders a style dry and
barren, 111. French distinction of
style, 113. The characters of, flow from
peculiar modes of thinking, 195. Dif-
ferent subjects require a different style,
ibid. Ancient distinctions of, 196. The
different kinds of, ibid. Concise and
diffusive, on what occasions proper, 196.
Nervous and feeble, 199. A harsh style,
from what it proceeds, ibid. Era of the
formation of our present style, 200.
Dry manner described, 201.
Neat style, 202. Elegant
style, 203. Florid style, 203. Natural
style, 205. Different senses of the term
simplicity, ibid. The Greek writers dis-
tinguished for simplicity, 207. Vehe-
ment style, 211. General directions
how to attain a good style, 212. Imita-
tion dangerous, 214. Style not to be
studied to the neglect of thoughts, 215.
Critical examination of those papers in
the Spectator that treat of the pleasures
of imagination, 217. Critical examina-
tion of a passage in Swift's writings, 250.
General observations, 259.
Sublimity of external objects, and sublimi-
ty in writing distinguished, 32. Its im-
pressions, ibid. Of space, ib. Of sounds,
32. Violence of the elements, 32. So-
lemnity, bordering on the terrible, ibid.