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Matter of glorious trial; and perhaps
I also erred, in over much admiring
What seemed in thee so perfect, that I thought
No evil durst attempt thee; but I rue
That error now, which is become my crime,
And thou the accuser. Thus it shall befall
Him, who, to worth in woman overtrusting,
Lets her will rule: restraint she will not brook;
And, left to herself, if evil thence ensue,
She first his weak indulgence will accuse."
Thus they in mutual accusation spent
The fruitless hours, but neither self-condemning,
And of their vain contest appeared no end.



Man's transgression known, the guardian angels forsake Paradise, and return up to Heaven to approve their vigilance, and are approved; God declaring that the entrance of Satan could not be by them prevented. He sends his Son to judge the transgressors, who descends and gives sentence accordingly; then in pity clothes them both, and reascends. Sin and Death, sitting till then at the gates of hell, by wondrous sympathy feeling the success of Satan in this new world, and the sin by man there committed, resolve to sit no longer confined in hell, but to follow Satan their sire up to the place of man; to make the way easier from hell to this world to and

For still they knew, and ought to have still remembered

The high injunction not to taste that fruit,
Whoever tempted; which they not obeying,
Incurred (what could they less?) the penalty
And, manifold in sin, deserved to fall.
Up into Heaven from Paradise in haste
The angelic guards ascended, mute and sad
For man, for of his state by this they knew,
Much wondering how the subtle fiend had stolen
Entrance unseen. Soon as the unwelcome news
From earth arrived at Heaven gate, displeased
All were who heard; dim sadness did not spare
That time celestial visages, yet, mixed
With pity, violated not their bliss.
About the new-arrived, in multitudes
Th' ethereal people ran, to hear and know
How all befell: they towards the throne supreme,
Accountable, made haste to make appear,
With righteous plea, their utmost vigilance,
And easily approved; when the most High
Eternal Father, from his secret cloud,
Amidst in thunder uttered thus his voice.
"Assembled angels, and ye powers returned
From unsuccessful charge, be not dismayed,
Nor troubled at these tidings from the earth,
Which your sincerest care could not prevent;

fro, they pave a broad highway or bridge over chaos, accord-Foretold so lately what would come to pass, ing to the track that Satan first made; then, preparing for When first this tempter crossed the gulf from hell. earth, they meet him, proud of his success, returning to hell; I told ye then he should prevail, and speed their mutual gratulation. Satan arrives at Pandemonium; in fuil assembly relates with boasting his success against man; instead of applause is entertained with a general hiss by all

his audience, transformed with himself also suddenly into serpents, according to his doom given in Paradise; then deluded with a show of the forbidden tree springing up before them, they, greedily reaching to take of the fruit, chew dust and bitter ashes. The proceedings of Sin and Death; God foretells the final victory of his Son over them, and the renew

ing of all things; but, for the present, commands his angels to make several alterations in the Heavens and elements. Adam, more and more perceiving his fallen condition, heavily bewails, rejects the condolement of Eve; she persists, and at length appeases him; then to evade the curse likely to fall on their offspring, proposes to Adam violent ways, which he approves not; but, conceiving better hope, puts her in mind of the late promise made them, that the seed should be revenged on the serpent, and exhorts her with him to seek peace of the offended Deity, by repentance and supplication.

MEANWHILE, the heinous and despiteful act Of Satan done in Paradise, and how He in the serpent had perverted Eve, Her husband she, to taste the fatal fruit,

On his bad errand; man should be seduced,
And flattered out of all, believing lies
Against his Maker; no decree of mine
Concurring to necessitate his fall,
Or touch with lightest moment of impulse
His free will, to her own inclining left
In even scale. But fallen he is; and now
What rests, but that the mortal sentence pass
On his transgression,-death denounced that day?
Which he presumes already vain and void,
Because not yet inflicted, as he feared,
By some immediate stroke; but soon shall find
Forbearance no acquittance, ere day end.
Justice shall not return as bounty scorned.
But whom send I to judge them? whom but thee,
Vicegerent Son? to thee I have transferred
All judgment, whether in Heaven, or earth, or


Easy it may be seen that I intend

Mercy colleague with justice, sending thee, Man's friend, his mediator, his designed

Was known in Heaven; for what can 'scape the Both ransom and Redeemer voluntary,


Of God all-seeing, or deceive his heart
Omniscient? who, in all things wise and just,
Hindered not Satan to attempt the mind
Of man, with strength entire and free will armed,
Complete to have discovered and repulsed
Whatever wiles of foe or seeming friend.

And destined man himself to judge man fallen."
So spake the Father, and unfolding bright
Toward the right-hand his glory, on the Son
Blazed forth unclouded Deity; he full
Resplendent all his Father manifest
Expressed, and thus divinely answered mild.

"Father eternal, thine is to decree;

Mine, both in Heaven and earth, to do thy will
Supreme; that thou in me, thy Son beloved,
Mayest ever rest well pleased. I go to judge

Whereof I gave thee charge thou should'st not eat?"

To whom thus Adam, sore beset, replied.

On earth these thy transgressors; but thou know-" O Heaven! in evil strait this day I stand

Whoever judged, the worst on me must light,
When time shall be; for so I undertook
Before thee; and, not repenting, this obtain
Of right, that I may mitigate their doom
On me derived; yet I shall temper so
Justice with mercy, as may illustrate most
Them fully satisfied, and thee appease.
Attendance none shall need, nor train, where none
Are to behold the judgment, but the judged,
Those two; the third best absent is condemned,
Convict by flight, and rebel to all law:
Conviction to the serpent none belongs."

Before my Judge, either to undergo
Myself the total crime, or to accuse
My other self, the partner of my life;
Whose failing, while her faith to me remains,
I should conceal, and expose to blame
By my complaint; but strict necessity
Subdues me, and calamitous constraint,
Lest on my head both sin and punishment,
However insupportable, be all

Devolved; though, should I hold my peace, yet thou
Wouldst easily detect what I conceal.

This woman, whom thou mad'st to be my help,
And gav'st me as thy perfect gift, so good,
So fit, so acceptable, so divine,

That from her hand I could suspect no ill,
And what she did, whatever in itself,
Her doing seemed to justify the deed;
She gave me of the tree, and I did eat.

Thus saying, from his radiant seat he rose
Of high collateral glory: him thrones, and powers,
Princedoms, and dominations ministrant,
Accompanied to Heaven gate; from whence
Eden and all the coast in prospect lay.
Down he descended straight; the speed of gods
Time counts not, though with swiftest minutes"

Now was the sun in western cadence low
From noon, and gentle airs, due at their hour,
To fan the earth now waked, and usher in
The evening cool; when he, from wrath more cool,
Came the mild Judge, and Intercessor both,
To sentence man: the voice of God they heard,
Now walking in the garden, by soft winds
Brought to their ears, while day declined; they

And from his presence hid themselves among
The thickest trees, both man and wife; till God,
Approaching, thus to Adam called aloud.
"Where art thou, Adam, wont with joy to meet
My coming seen far off? I miss thee here,
Not pleased, thus entertained with solitude,
Where obvious duty erewhile appeared unsought:
Or come I less conspicuous, or what change
Absents thee, or what chance detains? Come

To whom the sovereign Presence thus replied.
Was she thy God, that her thou didst obey
Before his voice, or was she made thy guide,
Superior, or but equal, that to her

Thou didst resign thy manhood, and the place
Wherein God set thee above her made of thee,
And for thee, whose perfection far excelled
Hers in all real dignity? Adorned
She was indeed, and lovely, to attract
Thy love, not thy subjection; and her gifts
Were such as under government well seemed,
Unseemly to bear rule, which was thy part
And person, hadst thou known thyself aright."
So having said, he thus to Eve in few.
'Say, woman, what is this which thou hast done?"
To whom sad Eve, with shame nigh over-

Confessing soon, yet not before her Judge
Bold or loquacious, thus abashed replied.
"The serpent me beguiled, and I did eat.”
Which when the Lord God heard, without delay
To judgment he proceeded on the accused

He came, and with him Eve, more loath, though | Serpent, though brute, unable to transfer

To offend; discountenanced both, and discomposed:
Love was not in their looks, either to God
Or to each other, but apparent guilt,
And shame, and perturbation, and despair,
Anger, and obstinacy, and hate, and guile.
Whence Adam, faltering long, thus answered brief:
"I heard thee in the garden, and of thy voice
Afraid, being naked, hid myself.” To whom
The gracious Judge without revile replied:
"My voice thou oft hast heard, and hast not feared,
But still rejoiced; how is it now become
So dreadful to thee? that thou art naked, who
Hath told thee? hast thou eaten of the tree

The guilt on him who made him instrument
[Of mischief, and polluted from the end
Of his creation: justly then accursed
As vitiated in nature: more to know
Concerned not man (since he no further knew
Nor altered his offence; yet God at last
To Satan, first in sin, his doom applied,
Though in mysterious terms, judged as then best
And on the serpent thus his curse let fall.

"Because thou hast done this, thou art accursed
Above all cattle, each beast of the field;
Upon thy belly grovelling thou shalt go,
And dust thou shalt eat all the days of thy life.
Between thee and the woman I will put

Enmity, and between thine and her seed; Her seed shall bruise thy head, thou bruise his heel."

So spake this oracle, then verified When Jesus, son of Mary, second Eve, Saw Satan fall, like lightning, down from Heaven, Prince of the air; then, rising from his grave, Spoiled principalities and powers, triumphed In open show, and, with ascension bright, Captivity led captive through the air, The realm itself of Satan long usurped, Whom he shall tread at last under our feet; Even he who now foretold his fatal bruise; And to the woman thus his sentence turned. "Thy sorrow I will greatly multiply By thy conception: children thou shalt bring In sorrow forth; and to thy husband's will Thine shall submit; he over thee shall rule." On Adam last thus judgment he pronounced: "Because thou hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife,

And eaten of the tree concerning which

I charged thee, saying, 'Thou shalt not eat thereof.'
Cursed is the ground for thy sake; thou in sorrow
Shalt eat thereof all the days of thy life;
Thorns also and thistles it shall bring thee forth
Unbid; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field;
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread,
Till thou return unto the ground; for thou
Out of the ground wast taken, know thy birth,
For dust thou art, and shalt to dust return."

So judged he man, both Judge and Saviour sent; And the instant stroke of death denounced that day

Removed far off; then, pitying how they stood
Before him naked to the air, that now
Must suffer change, disdained not to begin
Thenceforth the form of servant to assume,
As when he washed his servants' feet; so now.
As father of his family, he clad

Their nakedness with skins of beasts, or slain;
Or as the snake with youthful coat repaid;
And thought not much to clothe his enemies:
Nor he their outward only with the skins
Of beasts, but inward nakedness much more
Opprobrious, with his robe of righteousness
Arraying, covered from his Father's sight.
To him with swift ascent he up returned,
Into his blissful bosom reassumed

In glory, as of old; to him appeased

Sin opening; who thus now to Death began.

O son, why sit we here each other viewing Idly, while Satan, our great author, thrives In other worlds, and happier seat provides For us, his offspring dear? It can not be But that success attends him; if mishap, Ere this he had returned, with fury driven By his avengers, since no place like this Can fit his punishment or their revenge. Methinks I feel new strength within me rise, Wings growing, and dominion given me large Beyond this deep; whatever draws me on, Or sympathy, or some unnatural force, Powerful at greatest distance to unite, With secret amity, things of like kind, By secretest conveyance. Thou my shade Inseparable, must with me long: For Death from Sin no power can separate. But lest the difficulty of passing back Stay his return perhaps over this gulf Impassable, impervious, let us try Adventurous work, yet to thy power and mine Not unagreeable, to found a path Over this main from hell to that new world, Where Satan now prevails; a monument Of merit high to all the infernal host, Easing their passage hence, for intercourse, Or transmigration, as their lot shall lead. Nor can I miss the way, so strongly drawn By this new felt attraction and instinct."

Whom thus the meagre shadow answered soon. "Go whither fate and inclination strong Leads thee; I shall not lag behind, nor err The way, thou leading; such a scent I draw Of carnage, prey innumerable, and taste The savour of death from all things there that live; Nor shall I to the work thou enterprisest,

Be wanting, but afford thee equal aid."

So saying, with delight he snuffed the smell Of mortal change on earth. As when a flock Of ravenous fowl, though many a league remote, Against the day of battle, to a field, Where armies lie encamped, come flying, lured With scent of living carcasses designed For death, the following day, in bloody fight: So scented the grim feature, and upturned His nostril wide into the murky air, Sagacious of his quarry from so far. Then both from out hell gates into the waste Wide anarchy of Chaos, damp and dark,

All, though all-knowing, what had passed with Flew diverse, and with power (their power was


Recounted, mixing intercession sweet.


Hovering upon the waters, what they met

Meanwhile ere thus was sinned and judged on Solid or slimy, as in raging sea

Within the gates of hell sat Sin and Death,
In counterview within the gates, that now
Stood open wide, belching outrageous flame
Far into Chaos, since the fiend passed through,

Tost up and down, together crowded drove
From each side shoaling towards the mouth of hell:
As when two polar winds, blowing adverse
Upon the Cronian sea, together drive
Mountains of ice, that stop th' imagined way

Beyond Petsora eastward, to the rich
Cathaian coast. The aggregated soil
Death with his mace petrific, cold and dry,
As with a trident smote, and fixed as firm
As Delos, floating once; the rest his look
Bound with Gorgonian rigour not to move;
And with asphaltic slime, broad as the gate,
Deep to the roots of hell the gathered beach
They fastened, and the mole immense wrought on
Over the foaming deep high arched, a bridge
Of length prodigious, joining to the wall
Immoveable of this now fenceless world,
Forfeit to Death; from hence a passage broad,
Smooth, easy, inoffensive, down to hell.
So, if great things to small may be compared,
Xerxes, the liberty of Greece to yoke,
From Susa, his Memnonian palace high,
Came to the sea, and, over Hellespont
Bridging his way, Europe with Asia joined,
And scourged with many a stroke the indignant


|Great joy was at their meeting, and at sight Of that stupendous bridge his joy increased. Long he admiring stood, till Sin, his fair Enchanting daughter, thus the silence broke. "O parent, these are thy magnific deeds, Thy trophies, which thou viewest as not thine


Thou art their author and prime architect:
For I no sooner in my heart divined;
My heart, which by a secret harmony

Still moves with thine, joined in connexion sweet, That thou on earth had'st prospered, which thy looks

Now also evidence, but straight I felt,

Though distant from thee worlds between, yet


That I must after thee, with this thy son;
Such fatal consequence unites us three!
Hell could no longer hold us in her bounds,
Nor this unvoyageable gulf obscure
Detain from following thy illustrious track.

Now had they brought the work by wondrous art Thou hast achieved our liberty, confined

Pontifical, a ridge of pendent rock,

Over the vexed abyss, following the track
Of Satan to the self-same place where he
First lighted from his wing, and landed safe
From out of Chaos, to the outside bare
Of this round world: with pins of adamant
And chains they made all fast, too fast they made
And durable; and now in little space
The confines met of empyrean Heaven,
And of this world, and, on the left hand, hell
With long reach interposed; three several ways
In sight, to each of these three places led.
And now their way to earth they had descried,
To Paradise first tending, when, behold!
Satan, in likeness of an angel bright,
Betwixt the Centaur and the Scorpion steering
His zenith, while the sun in Aries rose:
Disguised he came; but those his children dear
Their parent soon discerned, though in disguise.
He, after Eve seduced, unminded slunk
Into the wood fast by, and, changing shape
To observe the sequel, saw his guileful act
By Eve, though all unweeting, seconded
Upon her husband, saw their shame that sought
Vain covertures; but when he saw descend
The Son of God to judge them, terrified
He fled; not hoping to escape, but shun
The present; fearing, guilty, what his wrath
Might suddenly inflict; that past, returned
By night, and listening where the hapless pair
Sat in their sad discourse, and various plaint,
Thence gathered his own doom, which understood
Not instant, but of future time, with joy
And tidings fraught, to hell he now returned;
And at the brink of Chaos, near the foot
Of this new wondrous pontifice, unboped
Met, who to meet him came his offspring dear.

Within hell gates till now; thou us empowered
To fortify thus far, and overlay

With this portentous bridge the dark abyss.
Thine now is all this world; thy virtue hath won
What thy hands builded not, thy wisdom gained
With odds what war hath lost, and fully avenged
Our foil in Heaven; here thou shalt monarch

There didst not; there let him still victor sway;
As battle hath adjudged; from this new world
Retiring, by his own doom alienated;
And henceforth monarchy with thee divide
Of all things, parted by th' empyreal bounds,
His quadrature, from thy orbicular world,
Or try thee now more dangerous to his throne."
Whom thus the prince of darkness answered

"Fair daughter, and thou son and grandchild both,

High proof ye now have given to be the race
Of Satan (for I glory in the name,
Antagonist of Heaven's almighty King,)
Amply have merited of me, of all

Th' infernal empire, that so near Heaven's door
Triumphal with triumphal act have met,
Mine with this glorious work, and made one realm
Hell and this world, one realm, one continent
Of easy thoroughfare. Therefore, while I
Descend through darkness, on your road with


To my associate powers, them to acquaint
With these successes, and with them rejoice;
You two this way, among these numerous orbs,
All yours right down to Paradise descend;
There dwell and reign in bliss; thence on the

Dominion exercise and in the air,

Chiefly on man, sole lord of all declared;
Him first make sure your thrall, and lastly kill.
My substitutes I send ye, and create
Plenipotent on earth, of matchless might
Issuing from me: on your joint vigour now
My hold of this new kingdom all depends,
Through Sin to Death exposed by my exploit.
If your joint power prevail, th' affairs of hell
No detriment need fear; go, and be strong!"

So saying, he dismissed them; they with speed
Their course through thickest constellations held,
Spreading their bane; the blasted stars looked wan,
And planets, planet-struck, real eclipse

"Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues,


For in possession such not only of right,
I call ye, and declare ye now; returned,
Successful beyond hope, to lead ye forth
Triumphant out of this infernal pit
Abominable, accursed, the house of wo,
And dungeon of our tyrant: now possess
As lords, a spacious world, to our native Heaven
Little inferior, by my adventure hard
With peril great achieved. Long were to tell
What I have done, what suffered, with what pain
Voyaged the unreal, vast, unbounded deep

Then suffered. Th' other way Satan went down Of horrible confusion, over which
The causey to hell gate: on either side
Disparted Chaos overbuilt exclaimed,

And with rebounding surge the bars assailed,
That scorned his indignation: through the gate,
Wide open and unguarded Satan passed,
And all about found desolate; for those
Appointed to sit there had left their charge,
Flown to the upper world; the rest were all
Far to the inland retired about the walls
Of Pandemonium, city and proud seat
Of Lucifer, so by allusion called

Of that bright star to Satan paragoned.

By Sin and Death a broad way now is paved,
To expedite your glorious march; but I
Toiled out my uncouth passage, forced to ride
The untractable abyss, plunged in the womb
Of unoriginal night and Chaos wild,

That, jealous of their secrets fiercely opposed
My journey strange, with clamorous uproar
Protesting Fate supreme; thence how I found
The new created world, which fame in Heaven
Long had foretold, a fabric wonderful
Of absolute perfection; therein man
Placed in a Paradise, by our exile

There kept their watch the legions, while the grand Made happy: him by fraud I have seduced

In council sat, solicitous what chance
Might intercept their emperor sent; so he
Departing gave command, and they observed
As when the Tartar from his Russian foe,
By Astracan over the snowy plains
Retires, or Bactrian sophi, from the horns
Of Turkish crescent, leaves all waste beyond
The realm of Aladule, in his retreat
To Tauris or Casbeen: so these, the late
Heaven banished host, left desert utmost hell
Many a dark league, reduced in careful watch
Round their metropolis, and now expecting
Each hour their great adventurer, from the search
Of foreign worlds: he through the midst unmarked
In show plebeian angel militant

Of lowest order, passed; and from the door
Of that Plutonian hall, invisible
Ascends his high throne; which, under state
Of richest texture spread, at th' upper end
Was placed in regal lustre. Down awhile
He sat, and round about him saw unseen:
At last as from a cloud, his fulgent head

From his Creator, and, the more to increase
Your wonder, with an apple; he, thereat
Offended, worth your laughter! hath given up
Both his beloved man and all his world,
To Sin and Death a prey, and so to us,
Without our hazard, labour, or alarm,
To range in, and to dwell, and over man
To rule, as over all he should have ruled.
True is, me also he hath judged, or rather
Me not, but the brute serpent in whose shape
Man I deceived: that which to me belongs
Is enmity, which he will put between
Me and mankind; I am to bruise his heel;
His seed, when is not set, shall bruise my head:
A world who would not purchase with a bruise,
Or much more grievous pain? Ye have the account
Of my performance; what remains, ye gods,
But up, and enter now into full bliss!"

So having said, awhile he stood, expecting
Their universal shout, and high applause,
To fill his ear; when, contrary, he hears
On all sides, from innumerable tongues,

And shape star bright appeared, or brighter; clad A dismal universal hiss, the sound

With what permissive glory since his fall
Was left him, or false glitter: all amazed
At that so sudden blaze, the Stygian throng
Bent their aspect, and whom they wished beheld,
Their mighty chief returned: loud was the acclaim:
Forth rushed in haste the great consulting peers,
Raised from their dark divan, and with like joy
Congratulant approached him, who with hand
Silence and with these words attention, won.


Of public scorn; he wondered, but not long
Had leisure, wondering at himself now more
His visage drawn he felt to sharp and spare;
His arms clung to his ribs; his legs intwining
Each other, till supplanted down he fell
A monstrous serpent on his belly prone,
Reluctant, but in vain; a greater power
Now ruled him, punished in the shape he sinned,
According to his doom: he would have spoke,

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