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meaning of the passage. I think that is so to a certain extent. Is not that so, Dr. Terry?

Dr. TERRY.-If I may come to the drums I will illustrate my meaning. I daresay Dr. Cummings and myself really think alike. Does Dr. Cummings mean that there is no definite phrasing? Now what I wish to say is that there is definite phrasing. . . . . That is a definite rhythmic figure, and I maintain that was the rhythmic figure that Byrd intended. Such figures are "rhythmic " in the modern sense of the word. THE CHAIRMAN.-But it is Dr. Terry making them. That is rhythm, but it is Dr. Terry's rhythm.

THE LECTURER.-It is Dr. Terry's punctuation.

Dr. TERRY.-That is not my punctuation. It is Byrd's punctuation.

THE CHAIRMAN.-Byrd does not put the music into 3-time or 4-time; the times are mixed. Therefore if you count three between the stops that is Dr. Terry's interpretation, not Byrd's. Please do not believe for one moment that if you take a manuscript of Byrd's that you are able yourself to read from that. There is no indication for you where the accent is to fall without you understand the language and have the words.

THE LECTURER.—If Byrd and Dr. Terry and Dr. Cummings were in separate rooms they would interpret that phrase in exactly the same way.

Dr. TERRY.-The note values are distinct, and so are the rests.

THE LECTURER.-To certain types of mind the thing would be more or less obvious.

Dr. TERRY.-It is so obvious that it is even in modern notes, -in minims and semibreves.

Dr. SOUTHGATE.-Is not the effect of rhythm secured by the union of words with the constant sequence of melody?

A MEMBER. I knew a blind man who had become blind at the age of twenty-five. After that time he could tell correctly the colour of a material by smelling it.

THE LECTURER.—That I can quite understand, because the fact has been investigated scientifically with blind people.

THE CHAIRMAN.—I have had great experience with the blind; perhaps more than anyone else in this room. I have known a blind girl who, if you brought her here, and gave her this piece of silk, would put it to her lips, and tell you the colour. But that is not normal; it is abnormal.

THE LECTURER.-Thank you once again for the kind attention you have given me and the interest you have shown in my Paper. I should like to thank Dr. Southgate for very kindly bringing up these interesting specimens of drums, of which I am afraid I have not had knowledge enough to manipulate.

THE CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MUSICAL

SOCIETY.

HAVING attended, in my capacity as secretary of the Musical Association, the fifth Congress of the International Musical Society held at Paris last June, I accordingly present, by direction of the Council, a brief report of the proceedings.

Previous Congresses took place at Leipzig in September, 1904, at Basle in September, 1906, at Vienna in May, 1909, and in London in May, 1911, the brilliant success of the last two in particular being fresh in the minds of many members of the Musical Association. If the Congress held this year cannot quite be ranked with these, it proved nevertheless a very important and enjoyable gathering of distinguished musicians from different parts of the world, and worthily maintained the reputation of the Society. The two countries most strongly represented were naturally France and Germany, but it is to be regretted that so few English musicians were present, especially considering how accessible Paris is from these shores. This may be accounted for, partly by reason of the length of time-nearly twice as long as usual-over which the Congress was spread on this occasion, and partly by the fact that it was not sufficiently brought under the notice of the English musical public.

The operations of the Congress may roughly be divided into two parts, one devoted to business of the Society and the reading of papers on various subjects of musical interest, and the other consisting of special musical performances, and the enjoyment of hospitality. The former was confined to the first week of the Congress, and the latter mainly though not exclusively to the second week. The Congress was formally opened on June 2 at a meeting held at the Sorbonne, M. Louis Barthou in the chair, when the president of the Society, M. Jules Ecorcheville, offered a hearty welcome on behalf of French musicians to their visitors from abroad, Dr. Guido Adler, of Vienna, making a suitable acknowledgment. The mornings and afternoons from June 2 to 5 inclusive were devoted to the reading of nearly eighty papers, two of which were by members of the Musical Association, Mr. J. A. Fuller-Maitland and the Rev. H. C. de Lafontaine, the former dealing with "The works of J. S. Bach transferred to the pianoforte" and the latter with Lewis Grabu." The meetingplace for these lectures was the Hôtel des Ingénieurs Civils. On June 6 the Congress was formally brought to a close by a

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meeting at which reports from the various sections were handed in to the Committee, and the time and place for the next Congress was being fixed for two years hence at Berlin.

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The various social and musical functions were inaugurated on the evening of Whit-Monday, June 1, by a reception at the Salle des Fêtes d'Excelsior in the Champs Elysées, M. Ecorcheville greeting many of the visitors present. The present year being the bicentenary of Gluck's birth, a gala matinée was given the following day at the Opéra-Comique, portions of "Alceste," Orphée," and "Iphigénie en Tauride" being presented. A concert, chiefly of French music of the Renaissance period, took place at the Salle Gaveau on June 5, under the direction of M. Marc de Ranse, a number of madrigals and motets being sung by the Schola de Saint-Louis. Instrumental pieces were played by the Borrel Quartet, and M. Boulnois played organ pieces. The Paris newspaper Le Figaro gave a reception at its offices on June 6, which was very largely attended. The programme consisted of some concerted vocal music and several recitations.

The scheme of the music performed at the Congress was planned so as to afford a comprehensive survey of early French compositions, and in this connection the Committee conceived the very happy idea of presenting three programmes in the midst of surroundings of historic interest. One of these was a concert of sacred music of the period from the eleventh to the fourteenth centuries, performed by the choir of Saint-François-Xavier under M. Drees, in the ancient building of La Sainte Chapelle, and another was a concert of chamber and clavier music by French composers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Château de Versailles. The Chapel of the Invalides was the scene of the third concert, the programme of which consisted of sacred music of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, performed by the Société G. F. Händel, under the direction of M. Felix Raugel, and with the aid of various soloists, including M. Joseph Bonnet, the distinguished organist of Saint-Eustache. A concert of Huguenot music was also given at the Church of Saint-Esprit on the afternoon of June 9, when some interesting pieces by Goudimel and other composers were rendered by the choir under M. J. Jemain, an accompanying lecture being delivered by M. Henry Expert, the assistant-librarian of the Paris Conservatoire. The banquet took place at the Grand Hôtel on the same evening, M. Louis Barthou presiding over an assemblage numbering about 350 guests. The festivities were concluded by a performance of Monsigny's opéra-comique, "Les Aveux indiscrets." Mention must also be made of a brilliant reception given by the Princesse de Polignac at her residence in the Avenue Saint-Martin on June 10, when an orchestra under M. Paul Vidal played music of the eighteenth century, and a number of solo

performances were given by various artists, including the veteran Dr. Camille Saint-Saëns.

The promise held out in early announcements of the Congress of some performances of modern French music was not fulfilled, but the scheme as presented brought before the Congressists a very large number of pieces of historical interest, which were probably quite unknown to the majority of them. This is not the place to offer detailed criticism, but it may perhaps be allowable to say that with regard to the compositions and the lectures alike there was an undoubted tendency to emphasise the antiquarian side of music at the expense of its present day and progressive features.

It is a pleasure to record the universal courtesy of the French hosts to their visitors, whereby what might have been awkward hitches were successfully avoided, in which connection the names of M. Jules Ecorcheville and M. Henry Prunières must be mentioned. They had many disappointments and difficulties to contend with, some due to the Ministerial crisis which occurred just at Whitsuntide, but they did their utmost to minimise their effect, and to promote the success of the Congress.

J. PERCY BAKER.

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