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man, as Quintilian says, "To act as well as to speak in a different manner, to different persons, at different times, and on different subjects."

Nearly of the same class is another kind of faults, arising from want of discrimination. Of this sort is that puerile imitation which consists in acting words, instead of thoughts. The declaimer can never utter the word heart, without laying his hand on his breast; nor speak of God or heaven, in the most incidental manner, without directing his eye, and his gesture upwards. Let the same principle be carried out, in repeating the prophet's description of true fasting; "It is not for a man to bow down his head as a bulrush, &c."—and every one would see that, to conform the gesture to the words, is but childish mimicry.

There is no case in which this want of discrimination oftener occurs, than in a class of words denoting sometimes numerical, and sometimes local extent, accompanied by the spreading of both hands; the significance of this gesture being destroyed by misapplication. The following examples may illustrate my meaning.

Exam. 1. "The goodness of God is the source of all our blessings." The declaimer, when he utters the word God, raises his eye and his right hand; and when he utters the word all, extends both hands. Now the latter action confounds two things, that are very distinct, number and space. When I recount all the blessings of my life, they are very many; but why should I spread my hands, to denote a multiplicity that is merely numerical and successive? when the thought has no concern with local dimensions, any more than in this case: "All the days of Methusaleh were nine hundred and sixty-nine years.

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Exam. 2. "All the actions of our lives, will be brought into judgement." Here again, the thought is that of arithmetical succession, not of local extent; and if any gesture is demanded, it is not the spreading of both hands.

Exam. 3. "I bring you glad tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people." Here the local extent which belongs to the thought, is properly expressed by action of both hands.

If there is language in action, it requires propriety and precision. The indiscriminate movement of the hands signifies nothing. Want of emphasis in this language is a great, but common fault. When the speaker, however, has an emphatic stroke of the hand, its effect is lost, if that stroke does not accompany the emphasis of the voice; that is, if it falls one syllable after the stress of voice, or if it is disproportionate in force to that stress, in the same degree, its meaning is impaired. The direction of the hand too, in which the emphatic stroke terminates, is significant. The elevated termination suits high passion; the horizontal, decision; the downward, disapprobation. And any of these may denote definitive designation of particular objects.

Another fault of action is excess. In some cases it is too constant. To enter on a discourse with passionate exclamations and high wrought figures, while the speaker and audience are both cool, is not more absurd than to begin with continual gesticulation. No man probably ever carried the language of action to so high a pitch as Garrick. Yet Dr. Gregory says of this great dramatic speaker; "He used less action, than any performer I ever saw; but his action always had meaning; it always spoke. By being less than that of other actors, it had the greater force." But if constant action has too much levity, even for the stage, what shall we say of that man's taste, who, in speaking on a subject of serious importance, can scarcely utter a sentence without extending his hands? "Ne quid nimis.”*

*Fenelon says, "Some time ago, I happened to fall asleep at a sermon; and when I awaked, the preacher was in a very violent agitation, so that I fancied at first, he was pressing some important

But gesture may be not merely too much;-it may be too violent. Such are the habits of some men, that they can never raise the hand, without stretching the arm at full length above the head, or in a horizontal sweep; or drawing it back, as if in the attitude of prostrating some giant at a stroke. But such a man seems to forget that gentleness, and tranquillity, and dignity, are attributes that prevail more than violence, in real oratory. The full stroke of the hand, with extended arm, should be reserved for its own appropriate occasions. For common purposes, a smaller movement is sufficient, and even more expressive. The meaning of a gesture depends not on its compass The tap of Cæsar's finger, was enough to awe a Senate.

Gesture is often too complex. When there is want of precision, in the intellectual habits of the speaker, he adopts perhaps two or three gestures for one thought. In this way all simplicity is sacrificed; for though the idea is complex, an attempt to exhibit each shade of meaning, by the hand, is ridiculous. After one principal stroke, every appendage to this, commonly weakens its effect.

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Another fault is too great uniformity. tones and stress of voice, the same gesture recurring constantly, shows want of discriminating taste. "In all things," says Cicero, "repetition is the parent of satiety."

This barren sameness usually prevails, in a man's manner, just in proportion as it is ungraceful. Suppose, for example, that he is accustomed to raise his arm by a motion from the shoulder, without bending the elbow; or that

point of morality. But he was only giving notice, that on the Sunday following, he would preach upon repentance. I was extremely surprised to hear so indifferent a thing uttered with so much vehemence. The motion of the arm is proper, when the orator is very vehement; but he ought not to move his arm in order to appear ve hement. Nay, there are many things that ought to be pronounced calmly, and without any motion."

the elbow is bent to a right angle, and thrust outward; or that it is drawn close to the side, so that the action is confined to the lower part of the arm and hand; or that the hand is drawn to the left, by bending the wrist so far as to give the appearance of constraint, or backwards so far as to contract the thumb and fingers;-in all these cases, the motion is at once stiff and unvaried.

The same thing is commonly true of all short, abrupt, and jerking movements. These remind you of the dry limb of a tree, forced into short and rigid vibrations by the wind; and not of the luxuriant branch of the willow, gently and variously waving before the breeze. The ac

tion of the graceful speaker, is easy and flowing, as well as forcible. His hand describes curve lines, rather than right or acute angles; and when its office is finished, in any case, it drops gently down at his side, instead of being snatched away, as from the bite of a reptile. The action of young children is never deficient in grace or variety; because it is not vitiated by diffidence, affectation, or habit.

There is one more class of faults, which seems to arise from an attempt to shun such as I have just described, and which I cannot better designate, than by the phrase mechanical variety.

This is analogous to that variety of tones, which is produced by an effort to be various, without regard to sense. The diversity of notes, like those of the chiming clock, returns periodically, but is always the same diversity. So a speaker may have several gestures, which he repeats always in the same successive order. The most common form of this artificial variety consists, in the alternate use of the right hand and the left. I have seen a preacher, who aimed to avoid sameness of action, in the course of a few sentences, extend first his right hand, then his left, and then both. This order was continued through the discourse; so that these three gestures, whatever might


be the sentiment, returned, with nearly periodical exactNow whatever variety is attained in this way, is at best but a uniform variety; and is the more disgusting, in proportion as it is the more studied and artificial.

But the question arises, does this charge always lie against the use of the left hand alone? I answer, by no means. The almost universal precepts, however, in the institutes of oratory, giving precedence to the right hand, are not without reason. It has been said, indeed, that the confinement of the left hand in holding up the robe, was originally the ground of this preference; and that this is a reason which does not exist in modern times. But how did it happen that this service, denoting inferiority, came to be assigned to the left, rather than the right hand? Doubtless because this accords with a general usage of men, through all time. When Joseph brought his two sons to be blessed by Jacob, the patriarch signified which was the object of special benediction, by placing the right hand on his head, and the left on the head of the other. As a token of respect to his mother, Solomon gave her a seat on the right hand of his throne. In the same manner the righteous will be distinguished from the wicked, in the final judgement. Throughout the Bible, the right hand is spoken of as the emblem of honour, strength, authority, or victory.

The common act of salutation is expressed by the right hand; and hence its name dextra, from dexoμar to take, that is by the hand; and hence, by figure, the English word dextrous, denoting skill and agility. General custom has always given preference to the right hand, when only one is used, in the common offices of life. The sword of the warrior, the knife of the surgical operator, the pen of the author, belong to this hand. With us, to call a man left handed is to call him awkward; and it is a curious fact that the Sandwich Islanders use the same phrase to denote ignorance or unskilfulness. 1o give the left hand in sage ›

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