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ferting that his perfon was facred and inviolable, provoked him to write the Tenure of Kings and Magiftrates, proving that it is lawful to call a tyrant to account and to depofe and put him to death, and that they who of late fo much blame depofing are the men who did it themselves: and he published it at the beginning of the year 1649, to fatisfy and compofe the minds of the people. Not long after this he wrote his Obfervations on the articles of peace between the Earl of Ormond and the Irish rebels. And in these and all his writings, whatever others of different parties may think, he thought himself an advocate for true liberty, for ecclefiaftical liberty in his treatises against the bishops, for domeftic liberty in his books of divorce, and for civil liberty in his writings against the king in defense of the parlament and people of England.

After this he retired again to his private ftudies; and thinking that he had leisure enough for such a work, he applied himself to the writing of a History of England, which he intended to deduce from the earliest accounts down to his own times: and he had finifhed four books of it, when neither courting nor expecting any fuch preferment, he was invited by the Council of State to be their Latin Secretary for foreign affairs. And he served in the fame capacity under Oliver, and Richard, and the Rump, till the Restoration; and without doubt a better Latin pen could not have been found in the kingdom. For the Republic and Cromwell fcorned to pay that tribute to any foreign Prince, which is ufually paid to the French king, of managing their affairs in his language; they thought it an indignity and meanness to which this or any free nation ought not to submit; and took a noble resolution neither to write any letters to any foreign states nor to receive any answers from them, but in the Latin tongue, which was common to them all. And it would have been well, if fucceeding princes had followed their

example; for in the opinion of very wise men, the universality of the French language will make way for the univerfality of the French monarchy.

But it was not only in foreign difpatches that the government made ufe of his pen. He had discharged the business of his office a very little time, before he was called to a work of another kind. For foon after the King's death was published a book under his name intitled Eikon Bafilike, or the royal image: and this book, like Cæsar's last will, making a deeper impreffion, and exciting greater commiferation in the minds of the people, than the King himself did while alive, Milton was ordered to prepare an answer to it, which was published by authority, and intitled Eikouoilaftes or the image-breaker, the famous furname of many Greek emperors, who in their zeal against idolatry broke all fuperftitious images to pieces. This piece was tranflated into French; and two replies to it were published, one in 1651, and the other in 1692, upon the reprinting of Milton's book at Amfterdam. În this controversy a heavy charge hath been alleged against Milton. Some editions of the King's book have certain prayers added at the end, and among them a prayer in time of captivity, which is taken from that of Pamela in Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia: and it is faid, that this prayer was added by the contrivance and artifice of Milton, who together with Bradshaw prevailed upon the printer to infert it, that from thence he might take occafion to bring a scandal upon the King, and to blast the reputation of his book, as he hath attempted to do in the first section of his answer. This fact is related chiefly upon the authority of Henry Hills the printer, who had frequently affirmed it to Dr. Gill and Dr. Bernard his physicians, as they themselves have teftified. But Hills was not himself the printer, who was dealt with in this manner, and confequently he could have the story only from hearsay: and tho' he was Cromwell's printer, yet after



wards he turned papist in the reign of James II. in order to be that King's printer, and it was at that time that he used to relate this ftory; fo that I think, little credit is due to his teftimony. And indeed I cannot but hope and believe, that Milton had a foul above being guilty of fo mean an action to ferve fo mean a purpose; and there is as little reason for fixing it upon him, as he had to traduce the King for profaning the duty of prayer" with the polluted trash of Romances." For there are not many finer prayers in the best books of devotion; and the King might as lawfully borrow and apply it to his own occafions, as the Apostle might make quotations from Heathen poems and plays: and it became Milton the leaft of all men to bring fuch an accufation against the King, as he was himself particularly fond of reading romances, and has made use of them in fome of the best and latest of his writings.

But his most celebrated work in profe is his Defense of the people of England against Salmafius, Defenfio pro populo Anglicano contra Claudii Anonymi, alias Salmafii, Defenfionem Regiam. Salmafius, by birth a Frenchman, fucceeded the famous Scaliger as honorary Profeffor of the university of Leyden, and had gained great reputation by his Plinian Exercitations on Solinus, and by his critical remarks on feveral Latin and Greek authors, and was generally esteemed one of the greatest and most confummate scholars of that age: and is commended by Milton himself in his reason of Church Government, and called the learned Salmafius. And befides his great learning he had extraordinary talents in railing." This prince "of scholars, as fome body faid of him, feemed to have " erected his throne upon a heap of ftones, that he might "have them at hand to throw at every one's head "who passed by." He was therefore courted by Charles II. as the moft able man to write a defense of the late King his father and to traduce his adversaries, and a hun




dred Jacobufes were given him for that purpose, and the
book was published in 1649 with this title, Defenfio Re-
gia pro Carolo I. ad Carolum II. No fooner did this
book appear in England, but the Council of State una-
nimously appointed Milton, who was then present, to an-
fwer it: and he performed the task with amazing spirit
and vigor, tho' his health at that time was fuch, that he
could hardly indure the fatigue of writing, and being
weak in body he was forced to write by piece-meal, and
to break off almost every hour, as he says himself in the
introduction. This neceffarily occafioned fome delay, fo
that his Defense of the people of England was not made
public till the beginning of the year 1651: and they who
cannot read the original, may yet have the pleasure of
reading the English translation by Mr. Washington of the
Temple, which was printed in 1692, and is inferted a-
mong Milton's works in the two laft editions.
It was
somewhat extraordinary, that Salmafius, a penfioner to a
republic, fhould pretend to write a defense of monarchy,
but the States fhowed their difapprobation by publicly
condemning his book, and ordering it to be suppressed.
And on the other hand Milton's book was burnt at Paris,
and at Toulouse, by the hands of the common hangman;
but this served only to procure it the more readers: it was
read and talked of every where, and even they who were
of different principles, yet could not but acknowledge that
he was a good defender of a bad caufe; and Salmafius's
book underwent only one impreffion, while this of Mil-
ton's paffed thro' feveral editions. On the firft appear-
ance of it, he was visited or invited by all the foreign mi-
nisters at London, not excepting even thofe of crowned
heads; and was particularly honored and efteemed by
Adrian Paaw, embaffador from the States of Holland. He
was likewise highly complimented by letters from the
most learned and ingenious perfons in France and Ger-
many; and Leonard Philaras, an Athenian born, and

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embassador from the Duke of Parma to the French king, wrote a fine encomium of his Defenfe, and fent him his picture, as appears from Milton's Letter to Philaras dated at London in June 1652. And what gave him the greateft fatisfaction, the work was highly applauded by thofe, who had defired him to undertake it; and they made him a prefent of a thousand pounds, which in thofe days of frugality was reckoned no inconfiderable reward for his performance. But the cafe was far otherwife with Salmafius. He was then in high favor at the court of Chriftina Queen of Sweden, who had invited thither feveral of the most learned men of all countries: but when Milton's defense of the people of England was brought to Sweden, and was read to the Queen at her own defire, he funk immediately in her efteem and the opinion of every body; and tho' he talked big at firft, and vowed the deftruction of Milton and the Parlament, yet finding that he was looked upon with coldness, he thought proper to take leave of the court; and he who came in honor, was difmiffed with contempt. He died fome time afterwards at Spa in Germany, and it is faid more of a broken heart than of any diftemper, leaving a pofthumous reply to Milton, which was not published till after the Restoration, and was dedicated to Charles II. by his fon Claudius; but it has done no great honor to his memory, abounding with abufe much more than argument.

Ifaac Voffius was at Stockholm, when Milton's book was brought thither, and in fome of his letters to Nicholas Heinfius, publifhed by Profeffor Burman in the third tome of his Sylloge Epistolarum, he says, that he had the only copy of Milton's book, that the Queen borrowed it of him, and was very much pleased with it, and commended Milton's wit and manner of writing in the prefence of several perfons, and that Salmafius was very angry, and very bufy in preparing his anfwer, wherein he abufed Milton as if he had been one of the vileft catamites

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