Page images

Prevention of Corruption Bill, 182,

197, 229, 281, 294, 328, 338, 356,
376, 390

Primula obconica and P. sinensis,
poisonous properties of, 246
Primulas of China, the, 191, 206,

Propagation by layering, 46
Propagator, the, 5, 45, 134, 205,


Prune, Burbank's Giant, 248


RAILWAY rates and fruit-growers,
205, 325, 393; deputation to
Board of Trade, 429

Rainfall, a heavy, 12; at Leonards.
lee, 337; in Devonshire, 216;
nitrogen in, 294
Ramondias, three new, 28
Raphis flabelliformis used as walk-
ing sticks, 15

Raspberries, yellow and red, 93
Ratin, a poison for rates, 443
Red Currant attacked by the
Gooseberry disease, 294
Regent's Park, labelling plants in,
52, 53

Research, the progress of genetic,

Rhododendron barbatum, 216
Richardia seedling showing varia-
tion, 100

Riviera, the French, 173
Rock-garden at Kew, the, 154; at
Lilford Hall, 225; at Swaylands
House, Penshurst, 248; the con-
struction of, 46, 269, 304, 349,

Romneya Coulteri, 54

Rosary, the, 24, 88, 127, 146, 162,
271, 367

Rose-garden at the Manse, Brace-
bridge, Lincoln, 127, 146
Rose, bud grafting the, 367, 435;
season, the, 41; show at Edin-
burgh, 31

Roses Etoile de France, 152; Gott-
fried Keller, 228; Gruss an Tep-
litz, 271; Italian method of
striking the, 367; Oberbürger-
meister Dr. Tröndlin, 229; the
Austrian Brier, 1; liberal prize
offered for a new, 12; a gift of,
to the Irish Exhibition, 358; at
Kew, 47, 306; at the Regent's
Park Show, 24; cultural hints,
88, 162, 367; for cold districts,
271; old and new exhibition,

41; propagating, 5; three good
varieties of, 88; with long stems,

Rothamsted experimental farm, 85,


[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

gardening, 149
Schutt, Dr. Franz, honoured, 246
Sciadopitys verticillata in Ger-
many, 154

Science and agriculture, 113, 131



pinsapo attacked by Ecidium
pseudo-columnare (Supp. p. iv.,
Oct. 20); Acorns, imperfectly
formed (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Ecidium pseudo-columnare
Abies (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Apple leaves with black fungus,
250; Apples and Pears, sug-
gested origin of the grit in, 250,
314 (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Apples and wasps, 250; Apples,
root-formation in, 431; spot-
ting in fruits, 377; Aristolochia
elegans, 185; Asclepias fruticosa,
fruits of, 378; Azaleas dying,
15; Beech, beetles in, 314 (Supp.
p. iv., Oct. 20); Bees stupefied
by nectar (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Begonia Poggei, 16; Birch, galls
on, 314; birds, change of food
by, 378; Bonatea Ugandæ, 343,
378; Botrytis pæoniæ, the
Pæony disease, 16; Cactus stems
damaged by neighbouring spines,
155; cannibalism among cater-
pillars, 15; Carnations, lateral
prolification in, 75; smut "
disease in, 155; Cattleya fly, the,
378, 431; Celery, diseased, 378;
Cleistogamous flowers of Viola
(Supp. p. iv, Oct. 20); Clematis
sporting, 15;
virescent, 75; Colletotrichum
Lindemuthianum, Bean anthrac-
nose, 155; Cornflower, axillary
prolification of, 76; Dahlia, re-
puted wild, 314, 343; Daphne
Laureola fasciated (Supp. p. iv.,
Oct. 20); Dasylirion glaucophyl-
lum flowering, 76; Datura Stra-
monium dwarfed, 432; Delphini-
um Belladona, seedling of, 15;
Deodar, diseased, 185; Ferns,
mites on, 343; Ficus repens,
fruits of, 343; Foxglove, abnor-
mal flowers of, 16; Fumago, a
fungus growing in honeydew,
250; galls on Salix alba (Supp.
p. iv., Oct. 20); Gooseberry
American, 432;
grit in Apples and Pears, 250,
314 (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Heterosporium gracile, a fungus
attacking Iris, 250; Horseradish,
bulbils on (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Hyacinth shoots growing down-
wards, 15; Iris diseased, 15,
250; Lilium candidum, fruiting,


Magnolia fruits, 378;
Maize, varieties of, 378; mal-
formed inflorescences, 155; Or-
chids, 432; Marigold fasciated,
75; Marrow, a bi-coloured, 314;
Melampyrum arvense, 155; Mont-
bretias dying, 155, 250; mussel
scale on Apples, 343; Nar-
cissus viridiflorus, 378; Nectria
cinnabarina on Chestnut, 432;
Oncidium Waluewa, 431; Or-
chids, some uncommon, 378;
Pæonies dying, 16; Pea, malfor
mation in, 75; Pear-leaf blister
disease (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Periploca græca, fruits of, 343;
Phylloxera, 343; Picotee, a re-
markable seedling, 75; Picotee,
reversion in, 155; Pinks, varia-
tion in, 75; Pisum sativum, a
plant of, 76: Plantain flower, a
malformed, 343; Plane buds,
protection of, 185; Plumiera
lutea with cup-like leaves, 15;
Plum rust disease, Puccinia


pruni, 250; Potato perforated by
Couch-grass (Supp. p. iv., Oct.
20); Potato flower, a malformed,
76; Potatos, fruits of various
species of, from Reading, 185;
Quercus rubra, fruits of, 343;
Rhododendron with axillary in-
florescence, 16; Root-formation
in Apples, 431; Roots, aerial, on
the vine, 185; Rosa lutea, 15,
Rose, the yellow Palestine, 15;
Salix alba, galls on (Supp. p. iv.,
Oct. 20); Saxifraga, buds on the
inflorescence of, 155; Semper-
vivum dying, 431; Silver-leaf
disease of Plums, 15; Sinoden-
dron cylindricum, a beetle
Beech wood, 314; Snowdrop,
autumn flowering, 378; Solanum
Commersoni, 155; Solanums,
tuberous, 75; Stereum purpureuni
a fungus causing "silver-leaf"
disease, 15; Stones, supposed
traces of, in Apples and Pears,
250, 314 (Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20);
Sweet Pea tendrils, colour in,
76; Sweet William, a malformed,
250; diseased, 431; Ustilago vio-
lacea, smut disease of Carnations,
155; Vines, aerial roots on, 185;
Viola, cleistogamous flowers of
(Supp. p. iv., Oct. 20); Violets,
diseased, 378; Ward, the late
Prof. Marshall, 185, and Supp. p.
iv., Oct. 20; Wasps and Apples,
250; Wineberries, dying, 314;
Wolffia arhiza, 343

Scion, influence of, on stock, 279
Scotch gardeners in America, 381,
422, 446

Scots Pine shedding its leaves pre-
maturely, 278

Scott Elliot, G. F. (A First Course
in Practical Botany), 193
Seeds, a shortage of, 409; the
longevity of, 349; and roots, 199
Seelig, Dr. Wilhelm, 149
Septoria exotica, a new disease of
Veronicas, 150

Sequoia gigantea, a pendulous
variety of, 262

Seward, A. C., professor of botany
at Cambridge, 341
Shallots, 8
Sherborne, a new public park at,

Shrewsbury flower show, receipts at
the, 165

Shrubs, evergreen,
Sunderland, 204
Silver-leaf disease, 413

suitable for

[blocks in formation]

Hort., 330; Acock's Green Ama-
teur Vegetable, 266; Barnsley
Chrys., 363; Basingstoke Hort.,
139; Bath Gardeners', 186; Bat-
tersea and District Chrys., 330;
Beckenham Hort., 397 (Supp. p.
iv., Oct. 20), 435; Birmingham
and Midland Counties Chrys.,
Fruit, and Hort., 347, 361; Bir-
mingham and Midland Counties
Gardeners', 266; Birmingham Bo-
tanical and Hort., 38; Bishop's
Stortford Hort., 118; Bishop's
Waltham Hort., 140; Blackburn
Chrys., 363; Bradford Chrys.,
363; Bredon's Norton and Dist.
Agricult., Market Gard., and
Cottagers', 171; Bristol Chrys.,
315; British Gardeners' Associa-
tion, 71, 165, 181, 203, 245, 294,
309, 358, 373, 395, 430; Cambridge
Hort. 57, Cardiff and County
Hort., 99; Cardiff Chrys., 345;
Carnation, Winter-flowering, 51,
149, 246, 397; Chelmsford and
Dist. Chrys., 360; Chesterfield
Rose and Hort., 119; Chester
Paxton, 39, 362: Colchester
Chrys., 346; Crawley and Dist.
Gardeners', 186; Croydon and

Dist. Chrys., 344; Derby Chrys.,
330; Devon and Exeter Hort., 80,
170, 346; Dublin Seed and Nur-
sery Employees', 415; Durham,
Northumberland, and Newcastle
Hort. and Bot., 99; Dutch Hort.
and Bot., 17; Eastbourne Hort.,
155; Edinburgh Chrys., 363;
Egham and Dist. Gard. (Supp. p.
iv., Oct. 20); Glasgow Seed and
Nursery Trade, 433; Guildford
Gard., 119; Hanley Floral Fête,
58; Hereford Fruit and Chrys.,
345; Hoylake, West Kirby, Che-
shire, and Dist. Hort. (Supp. p.
iv., Oct. 20); Hort. Club, 31, 98,
315; Leeds Paxton, 379; Linnean,
16, 293, 397, 434; London Dahlia
Union, 130, 217; Midland Carna-
tion and Picotee, 70, 118; Man-
chester and North of England Or-
chid, 78, 235, 299, 329, 361,
397; Manchester Royal Bot. and
Hort., 363; Nat. Amateur Gar-
deners', 186; Nat. Carnation
and Picotee (Southern), 76; Nat.
Chrys., 12, 100, 217; early exhi-
bition, 250, 315, 364, 398; [annual
dinner], 379; [autumn exhibi-
tion] (Supp. p. i., Nov. 10); [mar-
ket exhibition], 415; Nat. Dahlia,
186, 201, 433; Nat. Hort of
France, 330, 416; Nat. Potato, 70,
111, 130, 331, 432; Nat. Rose, 18,
24, 31, 217; [Edinburgh Show],
58; [annual meeting and dinner],
408; Nat. Sweet Pea, 18, 38;
[annual meeting], 415; Newbury
Hort., 139; Newport (Mon.)
Chrys., 362; Newport Hort., 77;
Portsmouth Chrys., 329; Putney
and Wandsworth Chrys., 346,
415; Reading Hort., 185; Redhill,
Reigate and Dist. Gard., 235, 266;
Royal Aberdeen Hort., 170; Royal
Agricultural, 17; Royal Bot., 12,
130, 164, 282, 373, 408, 433;
Royal Caledonian Hort., 58, 202;
Royal Hort., 30, 31, 54, 138, 168,
200, 216, 233, 245, 250, 264, 276,
359, 377, 413 (Supp. p. iii., Nov.
10); [Holland House Show], 31;
[Colonial Exhibition], 396; [au-
tumn fruit show] (Supp. Oct. 20);
Royal Hort. of Ireland, 299, 314;
Royal Scottish Arboricultural,
186, 432; Royal Meteorological,
17, 279; Scarborough Hort., 99;
Scottish Hort., 12, 39; Selborne,

324; Sheffield Chrys., 378;
Shropshire Hort. (Supp. Aug.
25); Smithfield Club, 410; So-
ciety of Arts, 432; Southamp
ton Royal Hort., 17; South-
end-on-Sea Chrys., 344; South
Shields and N. Counties Chrys.,
362; Stirling Chrys., 346; Tor-
quay Chrys., 345 United Hort.
Ben. and Provi, 140, 218, 266;
Ulster Hort., 344; West Derby
Hort., 119, Winchester Chrys.,
361; Windsor Chrys., 329; Winter
Flowering Carnation, 51, 149,
246, 397; Wolverhampton Floral
Fête, 56; Woolton and Dist.
Chrys., 362; York Chrys., 378
Soils, lime in, 160
Sclanum Commersoni. 15, 166, 260
Species and sports, 296

Specific names of plants, Vienna
Congress and the, 279
Sphærotheca castagnei, the Straw-
bry mildew, 374; S. fragariæ
(Strawberry leaf disease), 374;
S. mors-uvæ (American Goose-
berry mildew), 301, 370, 409, 411
Spiræa Millefolium, 183
Sports, American Fern, 387; and
species, 296; plant, 228
Spraying Potatos, 52.
Stachys citrina, 23
Staminody in Potato, 305
Stand, Bound's patent plant, 199
Stanhopea tigrina, 23
Sternbergia macrantha


at Kew,

Stock, influence of the, upon the
scion, 150

[blocks in formation]

Tomatos, Lye's Early Gem, 247;
Sunrise, 248, 281; eaten by
blackbirds, 396, 412; out of
doors, 232

Torquay garden, plants in a, 282
Trafalgar Day celebrations, 262
Tree, a fire-resisting, 11; the oldest
living, 91

Trees and shrubs, 14, 255, 288,
for colour effects, 289; carving
initials and names on, 185;
moving large, 5; the hybridisa-
tion of, 115

Trespassers, a warning to, 279
Tring Park, the new bothy at, 369
Tschermak, Prof. Erich, 137

Vegetation and the recent heat, 248
Veitchian medal presented to E.
H. Wilson, 324

Venturia Pomi (fungoid disease of
Apples), 21

Veronica anomala, 44; V. lycopodi-
oides, 11

Veronicas, a new disease of, 150
Vilmorin, Maurice de, 85
Vilmorin, Philippe de, 85
Vinca major, fruits of, 341
Victoria regia at Kew, 320
Viking Club, 294

Viola Virgin Queen, 155
Violet La France, 358, 412

Wilson, E. H., 11, 294, 408 (pre-
sented with Veitch medal), 324
Wisley, trial of Kales at, 388;
Potato trials at, 337; Viola trial
at, 37

Wittmack, Prof., 85

Woolson, G. A. (Roses and How to
Grow Them), 168; (Ferns and How
to Grow Them), 168

Worms in lawns, 348
Wrexham, Apples from, 431
Wright, John, 11

Wrotham Park, fruit walls at, 402
Wye Agricultural College, 165, 229,

Wythes, Geo., retirement of, 111;
presentation to, 229

[blocks in formation]


garden, notes from

Under-planting in forestry, 388
University of London, 294
Upsala Botanic Gardens, 385

VANDA Sanderiana, 271
Vatican garden, the, 428
Vegetable class, a suggested
champion," 167, 184, 215, 232,
248, 281


Vegetables, 6, 108, 305, 336, 388,
428; exhibiting, 8, 31, 120; for a
hospital, 54; stand for exhibiting,

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

Ceropegia hybrida, C. Sandersonij,

Csimilis, C. Thwaitesii, 383, 384
Ceylon Botanic Garden, view in,

Chamaerops humilis, harvesting
leaves of, 405

Chestnut tree, a large, after
transplantation, 5
Chrysanthemum, a bi-coloured, 436
Chrysanthemums Miss Till and In-

novation, 403; Edith Harling, 438
Cone of Larix leptolepis, 290
Connaught Park, Dover, view in
the, 287

Cook, W. A., portrait of, 440
Cordyline Banksii in the gardens at
Castlewellan, 241
Cortaderia argentea flowering in
Mr. Wm. Goff's nursery, 295
Corylus colurna, a tree of, 256;
foliage, catkins, and fruit of, 257
Crocus Boryi var. Marathoniseus,

Cromwell, B., portrait of, 440
Cupressus nootkatensis, a weeping
variety of, 167

Currant, a striped, 280

Cymbidium erythrostylum, 286


Germaine Opoix,
410; C.

Westfield variety,"
Godefroyæ variety Hodgkinsoni,
32; C. Flecherianum, 255; C.
Harri-Leeanum, Park Lodge var.
iety, 166; C. insigne Sanderæ
flowering in Mr. Bolton's collec.
tion, 367; C. Youngianum var.
superbum, 439


DASYLIRION glaucophyllum flower-

ing at Templecombe Gardens,

Dendrobium chrysanthum bearing
1,016 flowers, 374

Dioon edule with female cone, 289
Distylium racemosum, flowering
branch of, 303

Donegal garden, views in a, 112, 113
Dover, Connaught Park, 287


ENCEPHALARTOS Altensteiníi in
natural habitat, 206
Erica - garden

House, 102

at Gunnersbury

Eustoma (Lisianthus),

anum, 55


Exhibition stand for vegetables, 120


FROEBEL, Otto, portrait of the late,


GEASTER Michelianus, 315
Gibson, J., portrait of, 441
Gilia coronopifolia, 277
Gladiolus Mrs. Cecil Baring, 158
Glendenning, Robert Pince, 347
Gloxinia flower with petaloid sta
mens, 215

Gooseberry, a striped, 280
Grammatophyllum speciosum flow.
ering at Burford, 86

Guevina avellana, a tree of, 174;
a shoot of, 175

Gunnersbury House gardens, views
in, 102, 103, 104
Gunnersbury Park, Acton, the
lower lake views in the grounds
at, 122, 123, 133
Gymnosporangium Sabinæ, the
Pear rust disease, 134


HAPLOCARPHA scaposa, 124
Hoodia Currori, 62
Hudson, James, portrait of, 105

IRIS tectorum, a white variety of,

Iris tingitana, 24

JAPANESE garden at Gunnersbury
House, 103
Juniper branch attacked by Gymno-
sporangium Sabinæ, 134


KNIPHOFIA (Tritoma) x Goldelse,

[blocks in formation]

PALM leaves, harvesting, in Sicily,
Pampas grass, a fine plant of, 295
Pea, culinary, Quite Content, 98
Pear affected with Fusicladium
pirinum, 22

Pear rust disease, the, 134
Pear scab fungus, on young shoots,
22; spores of the, 22
Pedicularis sceptrum carolinum
growing in the Upsala Botanic
Gardens, 385
Pettigrew, Hugh A., portrait of, 441
Phlox Tapis Blanc, 181

Phoenix canariensis in Sicily, 404
Picotees Gronow and Amphion, 77
Picotee Mr. Nigel, 76

Pinus Pinea uprooted by lava from
Mount Vesuvius, 319
Potato flower showing staminoid
petals, 305

Potato tuber pierced by Couch.
grass, 236

Primula Cockburniana, 249; P.
farinosa, 193; P. Forbesii, 192:
P. japonica, 207; P. obconica,

[blocks in formation]

UPSALA Botanic Gardens, view in
the, 385


VATICAN garden, view in the, 428
Vegetables, a stand for exhibiting,

Victoria regia flowering in the old
Nymphæa house at Kew, 321
Views in a garden near Mount
Vesuvius, 318, 319; in the gar
dens at Leonardslee, 272


WHITE, W. H., portrait of, 87, 441

YEW tree trimmed in the shape of
a cross, 232

[merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][subsumed][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][subsumed][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]


WHAT is the Austrian Brier, and whence did it come? These questions occurred to us in a singular way. Not long since a correspondent enquired about a yellow-flowered Rose occurring in Syria, where the profusion and beauty of the flowers were very noteworthy, as noted also on the slopes of Lebanon by Sir From John Llewelyn. the description given, we conjectured that the plant was the Rosa lutea of Miller, of the Botanical Magazine (tab. 363), and of Lindley's Monograph of Roses (1820, p. 84). This conjecture was verified by the inspection of Syrian specimens obtained subsequently by Mr. Arthur Sutton. This plant was called by Linnæus Rosa Eglanteria, a name adopted in the Index Kewensis, which is unfortunate for many reasons, which we need not discuss here. When the Syrian flowers just mentioned were subsequently submitted to Col. Prain, the Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew, he at once recognised them as those of an Indian Rose-R. Eglanteria of Linnæus, which is, as we have said, synonymous with R. lutea of Miller. It is described in Sir Joseph Hooker's Flora of British India (II., 1897, p. 360), and stated to be a native of the drier parts of the Himilayas from Kistwar westward, and in

[ocr errors]

Western Tibet. Afghanistan, Asia Minor, and Siberia are also mentioned as countries where in this Rose is found native. Hooker expressly calls this the Austrian Rose, and cites Jacquin, Hort. Vindob, I., t 1. Nicholson also calls it by this name. Sir Dietrich Brandis and Boissier both name it Rosa lutea. Boissier in his Flora Orientalis (II., 1872, p. 671), mentions the "Persian yellow as possibly a form of this species (lutea), and in William Paul's Rose Garden, Rosa lutea is made to include the following varieties: Copper, double yellow, Harrisoni, a hybrid said to have been introduced from America, Persian Yellow, etc. In Gibelli's Flora Italiana (p. 677) Rosa lutea is mentioned as growing wild in hedges in Piedmont, Venice and Naples. Gremli, in his Flora of Switzerland, translated by Paitson, speaks of this species as apparently quite spontaneous on the gypseous rocks near Nax, Decaisne, and Naudin Manuel (p. 102) remarks that it (lutea or Capucine) seems to be indigenous to the centre and south of Europe, where, however, it may be merely naturalised. Coste in his Manual of the Flora of France does not mention it, nor is it entered in the Belgian floras. Nyman in his Conspectus Florae Europac tells us that R. lutea has been mentioned as occurring in Southern Europe, but that it is there only sub-spontaneous. Lindley in his monograph above cited mentions a variety punicea, "floribus bicoloribus," .which we mention because he cites as synonymous R sylvestris Austriaca, flore phoeniceo, Hort. Angl. 66, 18, and R. lutea bicolor, Jacquin Hort. Vind., 1. t. 1.; Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1077, and others which it is not necessary for our present purpose to enumerate. Crépin included the species lutea in his section Luteae. Baker in these columns, August 15, 1885, p. 199, kept up Miller's name of lutea and arranged it in his group Rubiginosa, but in his more recent revision in the Journal of the Linnean Society, February 16, 1905, he alters his opinion, adopts Linnæus' name of Eglanteria (giving Miller's name lutea as a synonym), and places it in his Group VII. Spinosissimae. We might pursue this part of the subject much more fully, but only at the risk of wearying the reader.

From what has been said it seems clear that Rosa lutea or the so-called Austrian Brier is of Eastern origin and that it is not really native in any part of Europe, though met with here and there in a naturalised condition. How it received the name Austrian is a mystery, though it is easy to conjecture that it may have been introduced from the Levant into Austria and distributed thence into Flanders in the 15th or 16th century.

Thus Dodoens and Bauhin both

speak of Rosa lutea, but we have not their works at hand to verify our reference. Matthiolus in his Commentaries on Dioscorides (1558) mentions Roses growing in Italy as conspicuous for their golden colour (quae aureo colore fulgent).

Our own Gerard, who is generally rather credulous, narrates the following story, but he publishes it with all reservations :

"The yellow Rose which (as divers do re. port) was by Art so coloured, and altered from his first estate, by graffing a wilde Rose upon a Broome-stalke; whereby (say they) it doth not onely change his colour, but his smell and force. But for my part I having found the contrary by mine owne experience, cannot be induced to beleeue the report: for the roots and off-springs of this Rose have brought forth yellow Roses, such as the maine stocke or mother

bringeth out, which event is not to be seen in all other plants that have been graffed. Moreover, the seeds of yellow Roses have brought forth yellow Roses, such as the floure was from whence they were taken; which they should not do by any conjecturall reason, if that of themselves they were not a naturall kinde of Rose. Lastly, it were contrary to that true principle, Naturæ sequitur femina quod que sua that is to say. Every seed and plant bringeth forth fruit like art it selfe, both in shape and nature: but leaving that errour, I will proceed to the description: the yellow Rose hathe browne and prickly stalks-or skoots, five or six cubits high, garnished with many leaves, like unto the Muske Rose, of an excellent sweet smell, and more pleasant than the leaves of the Eglantine: the floures come forth among the leaves, and at the top of the branches of a faire gold yellow colour: the thrums in the middle, are also yellow : which being gone, there follow such knops or heads as the other Roses do beare."

The double form is also mentioned by Gerard, who speaks of it as "a prime rariety about London, where it is kept in our chiefe gardens."

Parkinson in his Paradisus (1629, p 417) thus speaks of the single yellow Rose :

"16. Rosa lutea simplex. The single yellow Rose. This single yellow Rose is planted rather for variety than any other good use. It often groweth to a good height, his stemme being great and wooddy, with few or no prickes upon the old wood, but with a number of small prickes like haires, thickeset, upon the younger branches, of a darke colour somewhat reddish, the barke of the young shootes being of a sad greene reddish colour: the leaves of this Rose bush are smaller, rounder pointed, of a paler greene colour yet finely snipt about the edges, and more in number, that is, seven or nine on a stalke or ribbe, than in any other kinde, except the double of the same kinde that followeth next: the flower is a small single Rose, consisting of five leaves, not so large as the single Spanish Muske Rose, but somewhat bigger then the Eglantine or Sweete Briar Rose, of a fine pale yellow colour, without any great sent (sic.) at all while it is fresh, but a little more, yet small and weake when it is dryed."

The same author in his Theatrum, published in 1640, speaks of the vermillon Rose of Austria, or Rosa sylvestris Austriaca, quoting, no doubt, from his Flemish predecessors.

Then we come to Philip Miller, who, in the eighth edition of his Gardener's Dictionary, speaks thus of the Austrian Rose. We quote the eighth edition as being the one in which the Linnean nomenclature for plants in general was first adopted, but, no doubt, the details relating to this species were also printed in the earlier editions. It will be observed that the plant he describes is the one with copper-coloured flowers, which he differentiates from the "single yellow Rose":"The twelfth sort is commonly called the Austrian Rose. The stalks, branches, and leaves are like those of the last [the single yellow variety], but the leaves rounder; the flowers are larger; the petals have deep indentures at their points; they are of a bright yellow within, and of a purplish copper colour on the outside; they are single, have no scent, and soon fall away. There is frequently a variety of this with yellow flowers upon one branch, and copper colour upon another. This sort of Rose loves an open free air and a northern aspect."


This yellow Rose has also been confounded with R. sulphurea and was by others considered to be a yellow form of R. gallica, but both these suggestions may, we think, in the face of the evidence here summarised, be dismissed as untrustworthy. M.T.M.


THE Celmisias constitute a very charming genus of New Zealand plants, known in their own country, as the Mountain or Horse Daisy-why horse, I wonder? They do not seem to be as well known in this country as their beauty and good habit of growth would lead one to expect. for to a very handsome blossom they add the attraction of foliage which is always decorative, and at its best period very handsome.

Their stiff, compact leaves, with matted, flannellike lining on the wedersides, are often covered on the upper side with silky hairs lying pressed down on the leaf, giving a silvery appearance to the whole plant.

After they are once established their culture appears to be quite simple. We grow them in sunny places in the valley, raised a little by preference, and with ample drainage; and though generally giving them a special mixture of soil which contains always a good deal of leaf mould,

sewn in the autumn, or in about three or four weeks if sown in the spring under ordinary cold frame treatment, but as we find much, even of our own seed, is immature, it is worth while to go over it carefully, when it is easy to select plump, matured ones, if there are any, as it may be that in a whole seed-head there are none really likely to germinate. The dangerous time in the life of the seedling appears to be between the period when it has formed its second pair of leaves and its thorough establishment in its new quarters, whether it be thumb pot or box. Unless the water can is very carefully used the young plants seem liable to rot off at collar, and we have suffered some wholesale disasters at this period. We like to get them out as soon as we can into their permanent places, as the long roots of the young plants are easily broken, and seem to require greater freedom than they can have in a pot. Generally speaking they may be said to want no coddling, but ask only for care in growth and

Presuming that a rock-pool 200 square feet in extent is proposed to be made, an area of 300 square feet should be excavated, and the bet tom and sides securely cemented, as though 300 square feet of water surface were really required. Define the actual pool 200 square feet in extent, inside the basin, by placing large boulders that will serve to keep the soil back, and fill in the intervening space between the series of boulders and the cement sides with rubble to the extent of a few inches in thickness; then fill up with soil or peat, or both, according to the plant's requirements. A footway across this anywhere must be made with flat boulders resting on the cement bottom to form a series of closely laid stepping-stones broad enough to give a firm foothold, and they may be nearly or quite hidden with soil or shingle. A similar footway, if desired, can be made at the pool's margin. Thus planned the rock-pcol will show no cement sides, the weakest part of the basin is secure against the action of the weather and

[graphic][merged small]

a rather better mixing than usual of our own very sandy soil, and some sharp river sand added, we have some plants growing quite contentedly in the ordinary rockery soil, which has had lime freely mixed with it. So that though lime is not indicated, they do not seem to be hostile to it. We grow them entirely without protection, and some of our plants have passed through four or five winters without suffering any apparent injury. Though they look a little sorry for themselves sometimes during the winter, they do not seem really to suffer, and they flower vigorously when June arrives.

When the plants have made good growth and developed a fair number of crowns they can be lifted in the autumn, and where a root or two can be secured with the offset, as is generally the case, they can be safely divided and replanted at once. They do not strike readily with us if without roots, under cold frame treatment.

If ripe and mature seed can be secured it germinates freely in about seven or eight months if

plenty of sunshine and good drainage in after life. The species that have flowered here so far are C. spectabilis, C. coriacea (two forms, green leaved and silver leaved), and C. Monroi. We have had coriacea with flowers about 3 inches long. There are young plants coming along of six or seven other species, some of which should flower next year. S. Marshall Bulley, Hants.


(Concluded from page 400.)

A FEATURE Worthy of careful study in the formation of rock-pools is the advantage to be gained by excavating and preparing a much larger site than is actually required for the proposed area of water; not only does this admit of all the cement work being hidden, but excellent and ideal conditions are secured for the cultivation of marsh and bog plants without further trouble with regard to water supply.

against pressure, and a more natural-looking pool is the result, because one can plant around it many beautiful bog plants that make all the difference between a water garden and a hole with water in it. The water area need not be large, and if there is a large surface it may be covered with a number of the lesser Water Lilies to break up its area into smaller patches, and thus communicate to the rock-pool the ruling feature of the rock-garden-infinite variety.

Here, too, collections of plants are admissible without fear of a scrappy picture: of Nymphæas, a selection could be made of the white odorata, odorata minor, and pygmæa alba, small flowered, smaller flowered, smallest flowered respectively. Numerous pink and red Water Lilies of the Laydekeri group, such as lilacea, purpurata, and rosea prolifera; the pretty Nymphæa sanguinea, whose flowers are exceptionally dark red, whilst a good yellow will be found in odorata sulphurea or pygmæa Helvola, both gems that thrive well in the rock pool. Plant these in small baskets or in turf

« PreviousContinue »