« PreviousContinue »
Prevention of Corruption Bill, 182,
197, 229, 281, 294, 328, 338, 356,
Primula obconica and P. sinensis,
Propagation by layering, 46
Prune, Burbank's Giant, 248
RAILWAY rates and fruit-growers,
Rainfall, a heavy, 12; at Leonards.
Raspberries, yellow and red, 93
Research, the progress of genetic,
Rhododendron barbatum, 216
Riviera, the French, 173
Romneya Coulteri, 54
Rosary, the, 24, 88, 127, 146, 162,
Rose-garden at the Manse, Brace-
Roses Etoile de France, 152; Gott-
41; propagating, 5; three good
Rothamsted experimental farm, 85,
Science and agriculture, 113, 131
pinsapo attacked by Ecidium
Magnolia fruits, 378;
pruni, 250; Potato perforated by
Scion, influence of, on stock, 279
Scots Pine shedding its leaves pre-
Scott Elliot, G. F. (A First Course
Sequoia gigantea, a pendulous
Seward, A. C., professor of botany
Shrewsbury flower show, receipts at
Hort., 330; Acock's Green Ama-
Dist. Chrys., 344; Derby Chrys.,
324; Sheffield Chrys., 378;
Specific names of plants, Vienna
Stock, influence of the, upon the
Tomatos, Lye's Early Gem, 247;
Torquay garden, plants in a, 282
Trees and shrubs, 14, 255, 288,
Trespassers, a warning to, 279
Vegetation and the recent heat, 248
Venturia Pomi (fungoid disease of
Veronica anomala, 44; V. lycopodi-
Veronicas, a new disease of, 150
Viola Virgin Queen, 155
Wilson, E. H., 11, 294, 408 (pre-
Wittmack, Prof., 85
Woolson, G. A. (Roses and How to
Worms in lawns, 348
Wrotham Park, fruit walls at, 402
Wythes, Geo., retirement of, 111;
garden, notes from
Under-planting in forestry, 388
VANDA Sanderiana, 271
Vegetables, 6, 108, 305, 336, 388,
Ceropegia hybrida, C. Sandersonij,
Csimilis, C. Thwaitesii, 383, 384
Chamaerops humilis, harvesting
Chestnut tree, a large, after
novation, 403; Edith Harling, 438
Cook, W. A., portrait of, 440
Cromwell, B., portrait of, 440
Currant, a striped, 280
Cymbidium erythrostylum, 286
DASYLIRION glaucophyllum flower-
ing at Templecombe Gardens,
Dendrobium chrysanthum bearing
Dioon edule with female cone, 289
Donegal garden, views in a, 112, 113
ENCEPHALARTOS Altensteiníi in
Exhibition stand for vegetables, 120
FROEBEL, Otto, portrait of the late,
GEASTER Michelianus, 315
Gooseberry, a striped, 280
Guevina avellana, a tree of, 174;
Gunnersbury House gardens, views
HAPLOCARPHA scaposa, 124
IRIS tectorum, a white variety of,
Iris tingitana, 24
JAPANESE garden at Gunnersbury
KNIPHOFIA (Tritoma) x Goldelse,
PALM leaves, harvesting, in Sicily,
Pear rust disease, the, 134
Phoenix canariensis in Sicily, 404
Pinus Pinea uprooted by lava from
Potato tuber pierced by Couch.
Primula Cockburniana, 249; P.
UPSALA Botanic Gardens, view in
VATICAN garden, view in the, 428
Victoria regia flowering in the old
WHITE, W. H., portrait of, 87, 441
YEW tree trimmed in the shape of
WHAT is the Austrian Brier, and whence did it come? These questions occurred to us in a singular way. Not long since a correspondent enquired about a yellow-flowered Rose occurring in Syria, where the profusion and beauty of the flowers were very noteworthy, as noted also on the slopes of Lebanon by Sir From John Llewelyn. the description given, we conjectured that the plant was the Rosa lutea of Miller, of the Botanical Magazine (tab. 363), and of Lindley's Monograph of Roses (1820, p. 84). This conjecture was verified by the inspection of Syrian specimens obtained subsequently by Mr. Arthur Sutton. This plant was called by Linnæus Rosa Eglanteria, a name adopted in the Index Kewensis, which is unfortunate for many reasons, which we need not discuss here. When the Syrian flowers just mentioned were subsequently submitted to Col. Prain, the Director of the Royal Gardens at Kew, he at once recognised them as those of an Indian Rose-R. Eglanteria of Linnæus, which is, as we have said, synonymous with R. lutea of Miller. It is described in Sir Joseph Hooker's Flora of British India (II., 1897, p. 360), and stated to be a native of the drier parts of the Himilayas from Kistwar westward, and in
Western Tibet. Afghanistan, Asia Minor, and Siberia are also mentioned as countries where in this Rose is found native. Hooker expressly calls this the Austrian Rose, and cites Jacquin, Hort. Vindob, I., t 1. Nicholson also calls it by this name. Sir Dietrich Brandis and Boissier both name it Rosa lutea. Boissier in his Flora Orientalis (II., 1872, p. 671), mentions the "Persian yellow as possibly a form of this species (lutea), and in William Paul's Rose Garden, Rosa lutea is made to include the following varieties: Copper, double yellow, Harrisoni, a hybrid said to have been introduced from America, Persian Yellow, etc. In Gibelli's Flora Italiana (p. 677) Rosa lutea is mentioned as growing wild in hedges in Piedmont, Venice and Naples. Gremli, in his Flora of Switzerland, translated by Paitson, speaks of this species as apparently quite spontaneous on the gypseous rocks near Nax, Decaisne, and Naudin Manuel (p. 102) remarks that it (lutea or Capucine) seems to be indigenous to the centre and south of Europe, where, however, it may be merely naturalised. Coste in his Manual of the Flora of France does not mention it, nor is it entered in the Belgian floras. Nyman in his Conspectus Florae Europac tells us that R. lutea has been mentioned as occurring in Southern Europe, but that it is there only sub-spontaneous. Lindley in his monograph above cited mentions a variety punicea, "floribus bicoloribus," .which we mention because he cites as synonymous R sylvestris Austriaca, flore phoeniceo, Hort. Angl. 66, 18, and R. lutea bicolor, Jacquin Hort. Vind., 1. t. 1.; Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1077, and others which it is not necessary for our present purpose to enumerate. Crépin included the species lutea in his section Luteae. Baker in these columns, August 15, 1885, p. 199, kept up Miller's name of lutea and arranged it in his group Rubiginosa, but in his more recent revision in the Journal of the Linnean Society, February 16, 1905, he alters his opinion, adopts Linnæus' name of Eglanteria (giving Miller's name lutea as a synonym), and places it in his Group VII. Spinosissimae. We might pursue this part of the subject much more fully, but only at the risk of wearying the reader.
From what has been said it seems clear that Rosa lutea or the so-called Austrian Brier is of Eastern origin and that it is not really native in any part of Europe, though met with here and there in a naturalised condition. How it received the name Austrian is a mystery, though it is easy to conjecture that it may have been introduced from the Levant into Austria and distributed thence into Flanders in the 15th or 16th century.
Thus Dodoens and Bauhin both
speak of Rosa lutea, but we have not their works at hand to verify our reference. Matthiolus in his Commentaries on Dioscorides (1558) mentions Roses growing in Italy as conspicuous for their golden colour (quae aureo colore fulgent).
Our own Gerard, who is generally rather credulous, narrates the following story, but he publishes it with all reservations :
"The yellow Rose which (as divers do re. port) was by Art so coloured, and altered from his first estate, by graffing a wilde Rose upon a Broome-stalke; whereby (say they) it doth not onely change his colour, but his smell and force. But for my part I having found the contrary by mine owne experience, cannot be induced to beleeue the report: for the roots and off-springs of this Rose have brought forth yellow Roses, such as the maine stocke or mother
bringeth out, which event is not to be seen in all other plants that have been graffed. Moreover, the seeds of yellow Roses have brought forth yellow Roses, such as the floure was from whence they were taken; which they should not do by any conjecturall reason, if that of themselves they were not a naturall kinde of Rose. Lastly, it were contrary to that true principle, Naturæ sequitur femina quod que sua that is to say. Every seed and plant bringeth forth fruit like art it selfe, both in shape and nature: but leaving that errour, I will proceed to the description: the yellow Rose hathe browne and prickly stalks-or skoots, five or six cubits high, garnished with many leaves, like unto the Muske Rose, of an excellent sweet smell, and more pleasant than the leaves of the Eglantine: the floures come forth among the leaves, and at the top of the branches of a faire gold yellow colour: the thrums in the middle, are also yellow : which being gone, there follow such knops or heads as the other Roses do beare."
The double form is also mentioned by Gerard, who speaks of it as "a prime rariety about London, where it is kept in our chiefe gardens."
Parkinson in his Paradisus (1629, p 417) thus speaks of the single yellow Rose :
"16. Rosa lutea simplex. The single yellow Rose. This single yellow Rose is planted rather for variety than any other good use. It often groweth to a good height, his stemme being great and wooddy, with few or no prickes upon the old wood, but with a number of small prickes like haires, thickeset, upon the younger branches, of a darke colour somewhat reddish, the barke of the young shootes being of a sad greene reddish colour: the leaves of this Rose bush are smaller, rounder pointed, of a paler greene colour yet finely snipt about the edges, and more in number, that is, seven or nine on a stalke or ribbe, than in any other kinde, except the double of the same kinde that followeth next: the flower is a small single Rose, consisting of five leaves, not so large as the single Spanish Muske Rose, but somewhat bigger then the Eglantine or Sweete Briar Rose, of a fine pale yellow colour, without any great sent (sic.) at all while it is fresh, but a little more, yet small and weake when it is dryed."
The same author in his Theatrum, published in 1640, speaks of the vermillon Rose of Austria, or Rosa sylvestris Austriaca, quoting, no doubt, from his Flemish predecessors.
Then we come to Philip Miller, who, in the eighth edition of his Gardener's Dictionary, speaks thus of the Austrian Rose. We quote the eighth edition as being the one in which the Linnean nomenclature for plants in general was first adopted, but, no doubt, the details relating to this species were also printed in the earlier editions. It will be observed that the plant he describes is the one with copper-coloured flowers, which he differentiates from the "single yellow Rose":"The twelfth sort is commonly called the Austrian Rose. The stalks, branches, and leaves are like those of the last [the single yellow variety], but the leaves rounder; the flowers are larger; the petals have deep indentures at their points; they are of a bright yellow within, and of a purplish copper colour on the outside; they are single, have no scent, and soon fall away. There is frequently a variety of this with yellow flowers upon one branch, and copper colour upon another. This sort of Rose loves an open free air and a northern aspect."
This yellow Rose has also been confounded with R. sulphurea and was by others considered to be a yellow form of R. gallica, but both these suggestions may, we think, in the face of the evidence here summarised, be dismissed as untrustworthy. M.T.M.
THE Celmisias constitute a very charming genus of New Zealand plants, known in their own country, as the Mountain or Horse Daisy-why horse, I wonder? They do not seem to be as well known in this country as their beauty and good habit of growth would lead one to expect. for to a very handsome blossom they add the attraction of foliage which is always decorative, and at its best period very handsome.
Their stiff, compact leaves, with matted, flannellike lining on the wedersides, are often covered on the upper side with silky hairs lying pressed down on the leaf, giving a silvery appearance to the whole plant.
After they are once established their culture appears to be quite simple. We grow them in sunny places in the valley, raised a little by preference, and with ample drainage; and though generally giving them a special mixture of soil which contains always a good deal of leaf mould,
sewn in the autumn, or in about three or four weeks if sown in the spring under ordinary cold frame treatment, but as we find much, even of our own seed, is immature, it is worth while to go over it carefully, when it is easy to select plump, matured ones, if there are any, as it may be that in a whole seed-head there are none really likely to germinate. The dangerous time in the life of the seedling appears to be between the period when it has formed its second pair of leaves and its thorough establishment in its new quarters, whether it be thumb pot or box. Unless the water can is very carefully used the young plants seem liable to rot off at collar, and we have suffered some wholesale disasters at this period. We like to get them out as soon as we can into their permanent places, as the long roots of the young plants are easily broken, and seem to require greater freedom than they can have in a pot. Generally speaking they may be said to want no coddling, but ask only for care in growth and
Presuming that a rock-pool 200 square feet in extent is proposed to be made, an area of 300 square feet should be excavated, and the bet tom and sides securely cemented, as though 300 square feet of water surface were really required. Define the actual pool 200 square feet in extent, inside the basin, by placing large boulders that will serve to keep the soil back, and fill in the intervening space between the series of boulders and the cement sides with rubble to the extent of a few inches in thickness; then fill up with soil or peat, or both, according to the plant's requirements. A footway across this anywhere must be made with flat boulders resting on the cement bottom to form a series of closely laid stepping-stones broad enough to give a firm foothold, and they may be nearly or quite hidden with soil or shingle. A similar footway, if desired, can be made at the pool's margin. Thus planned the rock-pcol will show no cement sides, the weakest part of the basin is secure against the action of the weather and
a rather better mixing than usual of our own very sandy soil, and some sharp river sand added, we have some plants growing quite contentedly in the ordinary rockery soil, which has had lime freely mixed with it. So that though lime is not indicated, they do not seem to be hostile to it. We grow them entirely without protection, and some of our plants have passed through four or five winters without suffering any apparent injury. Though they look a little sorry for themselves sometimes during the winter, they do not seem really to suffer, and they flower vigorously when June arrives.
When the plants have made good growth and developed a fair number of crowns they can be lifted in the autumn, and where a root or two can be secured with the offset, as is generally the case, they can be safely divided and replanted at once. They do not strike readily with us if without roots, under cold frame treatment.
If ripe and mature seed can be secured it germinates freely in about seven or eight months if
plenty of sunshine and good drainage in after life. The species that have flowered here so far are C. spectabilis, C. coriacea (two forms, green leaved and silver leaved), and C. Monroi. We have had coriacea with flowers about 3 inches long. There are young plants coming along of six or seven other species, some of which should flower next year. S. Marshall Bulley, Hants.
(Concluded from page 400.)
A FEATURE Worthy of careful study in the formation of rock-pools is the advantage to be gained by excavating and preparing a much larger site than is actually required for the proposed area of water; not only does this admit of all the cement work being hidden, but excellent and ideal conditions are secured for the cultivation of marsh and bog plants without further trouble with regard to water supply.
against pressure, and a more natural-looking pool is the result, because one can plant around it many beautiful bog plants that make all the difference between a water garden and a hole with water in it. The water area need not be large, and if there is a large surface it may be covered with a number of the lesser Water Lilies to break up its area into smaller patches, and thus communicate to the rock-pool the ruling feature of the rock-garden-infinite variety.
Here, too, collections of plants are admissible without fear of a scrappy picture: of Nymphæas, a selection could be made of the white odorata, odorata minor, and pygmæa alba, small flowered, smaller flowered, smallest flowered respectively. Numerous pink and red Water Lilies of the Laydekeri group, such as lilacea, purpurata, and rosea prolifera; the pretty Nymphæa sanguinea, whose flowers are exceptionally dark red, whilst a good yellow will be found in odorata sulphurea or pygmæa Helvola, both gems that thrive well in the rock pool. Plant these in small baskets or in turf