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DURING the past spring one of the showiest and most attractive plants in flower in the Temperate House, Kew, was a batch of well-grown plants of this new Jasmine. Mr. Raffill, the foreman in charge, obligingly informed me that they had been growing in a sheltered recess outdoors for the past three years. In January last, finding they were a mass of flower-buds, they were carefully lifted and planted in one of the beds in the Himalayan wing of the Temperate House. The experiment proved a great success, the plants being one mass of bright yellow flowers, each flower being as large as a four-shilling piece. Some of the flowers were nearly single, others quite double, but in the great majority the corolla was du plicated after the manner of the so-called "hosein-hose" primroses. These different forms are to be found on one and the same bush, and the same obtains even in the wild plants. In the Kew plants the persistent character of the foliage is very pronounced, and it was evident that the plant appreciated the treatment it received.


Jasminum pri.nulinum is one of Messrs Jas. Veitch and Sons' recent introduction from China. It is a native of the plateaux of Yunnan, at alti tudes between 4,000-5,000 feet, the tropic of Cancer being practically its line of distribution. Around the town of Mengtsze this Jasmine is fairly common in hedgerows, and as scrub by the wayside. On the low, rocky, treeless hills bordering Lake Shi-ping it is abundant. was first discovered by W. Hancock, Esq., in the neighbourhood of Mengtsze, and was, named by Mr. Hemsley, of Kew, and figured in Hooker's Icon. Plant., tab. 2,384. Dr. Henry subsequently collected specimens in the, same locality, and also at Szemao, in the extreme scuth-west of the province. In November, 1899, the writer, when returning from a visit to Dr. Henry at Szemao, succeeded in introducing living plants from Mengtsze to Hongkong, and these subsequently arrived safely in England.

Shrubs and trees which fail to produce seeds freely are expensive and difficult plants to introduce from a long distance. To this class this new Jasmine belongs, and the following details. of its introduction may, perhaps, be of in

terest :

A few weeks previous to my visit to Mengtsze the Customs Station had been attacked at night by an armed band of rioters, who set the place on fire. The Commissioner's house amongst others was reduced to ashes, and he and his wife narrowly escaped with their lives. They lost everything save the night clothes they had on, and several of their servants were burnt to death. The Commissioner's garden, which surrounded the house, suffered very considerably in the riot, but some fine bushes of Jas minum primulinum growing therein escaped. From these bushes the Commissioner's wife very kindly gave me four well-rooted layers. These layers were healthy, but rather soft, and it seemed advisable to obtain some older plants. The soil of the Yunnan plateaux is mainly clayey-sandstone of a brick-red colour, and, whilst adhering fast enough to one's clothes and boots, it will not stick to the roots of plants growing in it. However, four plants were eventually grubbed from the wayside in a more or less satisfactory manner.

The eight Jasmine plants were trimmed and "balled" up in Salvinia and Azolla, quantities of these being secured from a neighbouring pond and dried in the sun before using. Though not ideal packing materials, these two aquatics served the purpose very well. The eight plants were packed in two shallow ventilated boxes to form one mule's load. The boxes were taken by

mule-train to Manhao, on the Red River, and from thence by boat to Laokai, on the ChinaTongking frontier. At Laokai they were put on a tiny river steamer and, after four separate transhippings and much difficulty with the French Customs officials, arrived in Hongkong. The whole journey of some 900 miles occupied exactly three weeks, but the plants had not suffered in the least. By kind permis. mission of Mr. Charles Ford, then superintendent of the Hongkong Botanical Gardens, the plants were taken to that establishment, potted up and allowed to get established, the oppor tunity being taken to propagate some young plants at the same time. I left them in the hands of the Botanical Gardens officials, who most obligingly offered to look after them and to forward a consignment to England when pro perly established. In the early summer of the following year (1900) a case of these plants was shipped home, but only one plant in the whole case showed any signs of life on arrival. Three or four cuttings were obtained from this plant ere it succumbed, but, by skilful manipulation, quite a good stock was raised from this small beginning. Later in the same year a second case was forwarded, and this arrived in a satis factory condition.


Messrs. Jas. Veitch and Sons distributed the plant in the spring of 1903, and it is now to be found growing in many parts of this country and on the Continent. In the Riviera, I am informed, the plant thrives well. A friend recently returned from a visit from Cornwall, reports having seen some fine examples growing against sunny walls. But, so far, the plant has scarcely proved a in this country generally, owing to its inability to withstand our winters with impunity, and, possibly, to the fact of its culture being not yet properly understood. However, the magnificent pot plants exhibited by Leopold de Rothschild, Esq., of Gunnersbury, at a meeting of the R.H.S. in January last, is a hopeful sign. The sensa. tion caused by the exhibition of these plants will, of a surety, stimulate other growers.

As a guide to the requirements of this new Jas. mine, perhaps a few remarks anent the climate of its habitat may be of service. Yunnan, the most south-western province of China, lays partly within the tropics, and consists mainly of a series of plateaux having a mean elevation of 4,000-6,000 feet. The summer is one of torrential rains; the autumn is changeable; the winter and spring of bright sunshine and dry, fine weather. On the plateaux seldom more than a degree of frost is ever registered. Now a plant found inhabiting a region where the thermometer seldom falls below freezing point can scarcely be expected to prove quite hardy in this country. Nevertheless J. primulinum will withstand considerable frosts, as plants on a north wall at Coombe Wood, and those mentioned at the beginning of this note attest. Doubtless there are a few favoured localities in this country where it will succeed in the open, but the plant is best described as half-hardy. That the plant benefits from a considerable fall of temperature in winter is evident from the behaviour of those growing in the Hongkong Botanical Gardens, where, owing to a continual warm and moist climate, the plant grows and flowers sparsely practically the whole year round, but never makes any decided show. From my knowledge of the plant and its habitat, I should say that, if treated as pot-plants, plunged outside in a sunny position from late May until the end of September, well watered and fed, but not given over much root room, and in October placed in a frost-proof greenhouse, kept on the dry side in a well-ventilated position, where they can enjoy all the light possible, success will follow. Under such treatment the plants should be in full flower in February or early in March. Keeping them on the dry side in winter is important, but if this is over-done the plants will lose all their leaves before flowering.

J. primulinum was first figured from living material in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 1903, xxxiii., p. 197, shortly after it received a F.C.C. from the R.H.S. It was subsequently figured in Flora and Sylva, the Bot. Mag., tab. 7,981, and various other horticultural and botanical journals.


Both in the Bot. Mag. and in Flora and Sylva Dr. Henry expressed the opinion that J. primulinum is nothing but a form of J. nudiflorum, which was long ago introduced into Yunnan, and, under a warm climate, has become evergreen and glorified, and now occurs as an escape from cultivation. The facts of his never having met with it in the forests, of its not producing seed, and of its tendency to produce "double" flowers, are adduced as evidence in in support of this theory. Whilst admitting that there is something to be said in its favour, I fear it is more plausible than accurate, and, for my own part, I do not agree with it. Without entering into the debatable question as to what constitutes a distinct species, I consider Jasminum primulinum good species, and, without doubt, a native of the Yunnan plateaux. As to its not being found in the forests, J. primulinum is a sun-loving plant, and, like many other shrubs and herbs, would never Occur in the depths of the forest. The non-production of seeds and the tendency to produce double flowers are more serious objections, but even these are not insuperable, since parallel cases are to be found in the same and other families. During the fifty odd years J. nudiflorum has been in culti vation in this country and on the Continent it has remained remarkably constant, exhibiting no variation whatsoever beyond mere variega. tion. This fact alone somewhat discounts the possibility of J. nudiflorum having given rise to such a widely different plant as J. primulinum. E. H. Wilson.


DIANTHUS ALPINUS. THIS beautiful small Alpine Pink is easily cultivated in this country, and forms one of the most charming species in the rock garden. When in good condition and well established, it makes a lovely carpet of green foliage, and from this rise numerous bright pink flowers 1 inch in diameter on stems of about 3 inches in height. If planted about 6 inches apart in sandy soil and in a sunny position, and given frequent waterings during dry weather, it will need no other treatment.


Is not so extensively grown as it deserves to be. It is usually recommended for sunny aspects, but it does not object to the shade, and would form a delightful plant for shady corners in the shrubbery, which is now occupied by some non-flowering shrub. I have seen it growing in quite shady positions to a height of 5 or 6 feet, and producing a mass of white flowers in July. Its elegant form and neat habit should commend it everywhere. W. F. Glover, Langfort, Somerset.


IN Messrs. Sanders' group of Orchids at the recent Holland House Flower Show, was a specimen of the rare albino form of Lælia majalis. The remarkable purity of the segments, combined with elegance of form and a bold size, entitle it to rank among the most handsome of Orchids.

As far back as our issue for November 6, 1880, p. 588, Reichenbach described the white form of Lælia majalis which was gathered by Mr. Petrasch, one of the numerous Roezlian nephews. The illustration at fig. 20 is from a sketch made by Mr. Worthington Smith at the Holland Park Show.

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should be large 60's or 48's, or pans of 2 to 3 inches in depth, and 4 to 5 inches in width, may be employed according to the number of cuttings to be inserted. At the bottom of the pots or pans, besides the hollow crock over the hole, there must be placed broken sandstone of Hazel-nut size to the depth of inch, over this a layer of moss, and above it a mixture of clean silver sand 1 part, hard peat 2 parts, and over all a layer of clean, sharp sand, or pure sand

cutting which are beneath the sand, and it is therefore unnecessary to leave any of the old wood on the base. It is only with such species as E. cerinthoides, E. Banksii, E. tricolor, &c., that a heel of old wood is essential, these making a callus before rooting. The leaves of all Erica cuttings must be cut off level with the surface of the sand layer, cutting them from below in an upward direction, and close to the rind. The bell glasses with which they are covered

be increased by cuttings of the young shoots when these are mature, without any drying off being necessary, using peat 2 parts, and sand 1 part, covering them with a bell glass. A bottom heat of 75° Fahr. should be employed.

Kennedyas may be rooted at this season, choosing as cuttings shoots that emerge from the stem of the plant. They require a moderate degree of moisture in the soil, no bottom heat and an atmospheric temperature of 50° to 55°


Pittosporums augustifolium, coriaceum, Tobira, undulatum, and others.-Choose perfectly mature shoots which have the end buds developed, and cut these square across at a joint. Put them into a mixture of peat and silver sand, the latter being about two-thirds of the whole. Apply water in moderation, and afford an atmospheric temperature of 45° to 50°, but no bottom heat. Propagation by Means of Brood or Suckers.Many species of trees, shru s, and climbers can be increased by this means, and where suckers fail to develop, they can be made so to do by For example, the soil around an old speci. men may be dug up with a fork, working some mild sort of manure into it in the operation, and this will be a means of inducing young growth to be developed from the roots, which at the proper time can be dug up and transplanted, and in the event of an insufficient supply of roots being secured with a sucker, it can be treated as a cutting, and put into a somewhat shady place till roots are formed. Even unhealthy specimens can be made to develop brood by chopping down the stem in the summer, and hacking the roots about midsummer with a spade driven deep into the soil, when numerous suckers will appear in the following spring. In that year, and still more the next year, the crop of suckers will be a plentiful one. Plants raised by this method make more suckers than the mother plants, and in the case of trees, these assume a shrubby character. I may here mention a few species that may be increased by suckers, viz., Ailanthus, Broussanetia, Castanea, Catalpa, Corylus, Deutzia, Eleagnus (especially gentea), Gymnocladus, Hippophae, Lycium, Mahonia, Menispermum, Myrica, Populus, Rhus, Ribes, Robinia, when on their own roots, Ruscus, Smilax, Sophora, Syringa, Tecoma, Weigela, Wistaria, and many of the Spiræas.


Hyacinths. Several bulbous species of plants as Lilies, Hyacinths, &c., are increased from brood, artificially produced. In the case of the Hyacinth, the bulbs which it is desired to propagate a few days after they are lifted out of the soil in July, are split with a knife across the crown in as many places as there are new bulbs wished for. A cut right across, inch deep, will afford from six to ten brood bulbs; and a cross cut 15 to 20 bulbs. The bulbs so manipulated should be laid out close together on plates, on a layer of sand, the crown uppermost, and in October these split bulbs must be planted. The following July they are lifted with all their broods of little bulbs, and placed on a layer of sand and spread out, the base of the bulbs upwards. In October the brood is separated and planted singly in nursery beds, and in the space of four years bulbs fit for forcing are obtained by this method. F. M.

PROPAGATION BY LAYERING. To many gardeners the art of layering is only understood as applying to the propagation of Carnations, and possibly one or two other plants, but there are numbers of hardy trees and shrubs that can be better increased by this means than by any other. Layering affords a means whereby many trees and shrubs, and especially some of the rarer evergreen shrubs, can be propagated safely and readily without iniuring the plants in any way, as the growth made by a plant after the whole or a part of it has been layered is nearly always stronger and healthier than would have been the case if cuttings, buds, or grafts had been taken from it. Plants raised from layering are on their own roots, and though it may be possible to raise them from cuttings, yet at the end of four or five years layers will be found to have made better and bigger plants than those raised from

cuttings. This refers more particularly to ever. greens, trees and shrubs, deciduous flowering shrubs such as Spiræas, Deutzias, Ribes, etc., being raised so readily from cuttings that it is unnecessary to waste time in layering them. A few of the genera that are readily increased from layers are Andromeda, Aucuba, Berberis, Calluna, Calophaca, Calycanthus, Ceanothus, Chimonanthus, Clethra, Cornus, Dabeocia, Daphne, Erica, Exochorda, Garrya, Halesia, Hamamelis, Hedysarum, Hippophae, Ilex, Ledum, Leucothoe, Magnolia, Myrica, Phillyrca, Pteris, Rhododendron, Styrax, Syringa, Tilia, Vaccinium, Wistaria, and Zenobia. Plants of all the above genera will make roots readily when layered, especially the Ericaceous genera, which are especially easy to increase by this means. Camellias have failed to root when layered, though I have tried them in various ways and on different soils.

The method employed in layering hardy ligneous plants varies somewhat from that used for Carnations, etc. Tongueing is not necessary for anything except Exochorda, which is a diffi. cult plant to layer, and which takes a consider. able time to make roots. To prepare a plant for layering the shoots should be cleared of all leaves and small side-branches to within 6 inches or so of the top. The ground should be thoroughly dug around the plant, and all large stones, bits of stick, or roots be thrown out, so as to make the soil fine and easily worked. For layering, an old, flat-bladed trowel is necessary, with which a nick 4 inches to 6 inches deep should be made in the soil, and the shoot bent down and pressed into it, covering afterwards with soil, which should be made as firm as possible with the hands. The point of the shoot should be bent upwards as straight as possible, and made to stand out of the ground as far as the leaves have been left.

Layering can be done at almost any time of the year when the ground is workable, but it is not advisable to do it when growth is young and tender, as then the shoots are very liable to snap off when bent. It occasionally happens that a thick branch partially breaks near its base when it is bent, but if it is not entirely broken off it will be found to stand well enough to keep the layers alive. I have never observed the matter closely, but I have an opinion that layers form roots sooner when the branch is partly broken through. Layers are ready for taking off in from eighteen months to two years after they are put down, and should be cut off from the parent plant early in autumn, but not be taken up until the following spring, when they will be found to be well rooted and able to take care of themselves after being planted out. J. C.


CONSTRUCTION OF ROCK GARDENS. THE old-time rockery, which was mainly reminiscent of a rubbish heap ornamented with broken crockery and a few stones stood, sentinel. like, on end, is fast becoming a relic of the past; but not all the modern representatives are very great improvements either from the point of view of the cultivator or the artist. One still has to endure structures of masonry which might be able to resist the guns of a besieging army, but scarcely to give foothold to any but the most vigorous of weedy growths, and withal are ugly and unnatural past adequate description. To ensure success from all points of view, it is absolutely essential that the constructor be ex perienced in the culture and requirements of the plants it is proposed to make a home for, and also that there be an innate love for, and an

appropriate appreciation of, the way in which nature herself "houses" the vast number of Alpines in their native homes. Men to whom work of this kind is entrusted must have a natural aptitude or gift, with the knowledgewhich is only gained by experience.

THE PLANNING AND PLANTING OF BORDERS. The best material is almost worthless if badly managed, while second-rate matter may be resplendent when planned in an intelligent manner. When dealing with plants so varied and rich in colour, it becomes necessary to use great care in grouping, so that there is perfect harmony or pleasing contrast at all seasons. The juxtaposition of colours which do not "tone in" may spoil the effect of an entire scheme, and mar the enjoyment of the owner for the whole year. The mixed herbaceous border may be an endless source of pleasure and interest from January to December. There is practically no limit to the variety of plants which may be accommodated and the artistic effects which may be obtained. By a wise selection of plants, suitably arranged with due regard to colour, form, and time of flowering, a single border may furnish more pleasure and beauty than any equal space of ground treated in any other manner. Something has been heard of "monthly flower borders," and is certain that more will be heard of them. This arrangement, whereby plants flowering at the some time are suitably grouped together, permits effects such as it is impossible to achieve with borders which must do duty over longer periods. Masses of rich colours in full beauty, blended with tender shades and graceful foliage, make a picture at inspiring and satisfying. The "May border," remarkable for the soft shades which largely predominate, is charming in its fine grouping and broken surface. Bulbous plants are a feature here, and harmonise with Primroses and Forget-me-nots.


The "June border" partakes of a more stately character. Groups of Eremuri wave spikes of wand-like flowers over a wealth of dwarfer sub. jects. July and August each clothe broad undulating slopes with masses of colour.


This is a comparatively new feature in landscape gardening, and one which unfortunately lends itself to abuse more readily perhaps than any other. Nothing can excuse or palliate a piece of water which is misplaced. No matter how the surroundings are “faked," it is an ever. lasting source of worry and irritation to wellbalanced minds able to appreciate the eternal fitness of things. Just as nothing exists in nature without a reason, so there should be nothing in any part of the garden landscape which is not an essential feature of it. Obviously the best remedy in this case is prevention. Of the many ways in which beauty and charm are given to a landscape, it is certain that there is nothing so effective as water in various forms, whether as a placid river meandering through rich meadows edged with luxuriant reeds and Fleur-de-lis, or as a roaring mountain torrent, dashing 'tween steep rocky cliffs in innumerable cascades, reflecting light in showers of sparkling spray, and finally becoming subdued in a transparent pool bearing on its bosom the graceful leaves and bright flowers of Nymphæas and other aquatic plants; or held in hollows between rugged hills, reflecting mountain pasture and leafy branches of noble trees. In any and every form there exists a charm bright and sparkling or contemplative and profound. A natural adjunct to a lake or stream is what may be termed a "bog" garden, for want of a better descriptive term, and this is a feature which is practically an assured success, if only the essen

tial details be given a little consideration. Be the weather what it may, the rest of the garden scorched by hot suns, there is always this cool oasis where everything is fresh and green and revelling in sheer luxuriance. As a general rule, everything which likes abundant moisture will grow in some part of the bog garden, but if carelessly or ignorantly planted it may be nothing more than a mass of weeds. It is the knowledge which places each plant in its proper place that turns a potential morass into a luxuriant and smiling garden. Besides the showy perennials, which are the main features from a landscape standpoint, some of the prettiest and most interesting plants in existence find a congenial home amongst sub-aquatics. E. Horton, Neston Cheshire.


THIS pretty New Zealand plant is now finely in bloom with me in the open garden. Seed. lings were planted three years ago, and this is their first flowering. The leaves, about 1 to 2 inches across, are gracefully recurved, and the large flower-panic es, holding from thirty to over a hundred blossoms, overtop the foliage by about a foot. The star. like flowers, which are pure white, have anthers partially orange-coloured, this tint contrasting well with the white of the blooms. It was introduced from New Zealand in 1821, but seems to be little grown. I find that snails and slugs are very partial to the foliage, and, unless carefully guarded against, ruin the appearance of the plants.


I NOTICE that on page 370 Mr. Arthur Grove writes of Gladiolus tristis, mentioning that he hal sent a few b'ooms to the Editor. I should be interested to know what form of this Gladiolus he posse ses. The one known under the name of G. t. concolor or sulphureus is by far the best, but, as far as I know, is not stocked by nurserymen. I have recommended many friends to procure this Gladiolus, but of the half-dozen who have taken my advice, all have been supplied with corms bearing flowers marked with a broad purple-black, central band on the three upper segments. The variety or type (?) concolor is destitute of these markings, the flowers being of a uniform pale sulphur colour, and is a much superior plant. An illustration of G. tristis concolor from my garden appeared on page 187, vol. xxxviii. of this paper. As Mr. Grove remarks, this Gladiolus increases rapidly from off-sets. It may be also rapidly propagated from seed which is freely produced. Last year I visited Mr. ArcherHind's garden, where I found that this Gladiolus had seeded abundantly. Up to that time I had invariably cut the flower spikes as soon as the blooms had faded, but this year I left them with the result of obtaining some 200 seeds. One of the greatest merits of this Gladiolus is its early blooming, for in South Devon it flowers towards the end of April, far in advance of The Bride and others of the same so-called early section. Its delicious perfume after twilight is also much appreciated. S. W. Fitzherbert, Devonshire.

smail tree. The local name, and whether it flowers more than once a year, are facts at present unknown to me. The other two members I am better acquainted with, having had each under observation for several years past.


They grow in hedges, on banks, in pastures, and woods of low elevation, even down to the sea level. They are quite characteristic of the seaboard flora.

E. ovatum suddenly bursts into a mass of pure white flowers some weeks before the wet season sets in, say, in the month of March. At that time the leaves are unfolded, so that the plant is in full flower before they are developed. In about a month hence, bright red clusters of fruit take the place of the blossoms accompanied with fully formed leaves.

The leaf of E. oxycarpum is stiffer, and the top side of the mid-rib is pale yellow. The bark is darker shaded. The period of flowering is later in the year. During the months of May and June flowers may be detached, but. these blossom among the fully grown leaves and 2re yellow coloured. It grows into a big shrub, or small tree. Both species furnish tough,. strong walking sticks, and each here is known as Red Flambeau. They may be seen growing. intermixed, and by the novice are not easily dis. tinguished. W. E. Broadway, Grenada, June 23, 1906.


× ODONTIODA VUYLSTEKEE. OUR readers will remember the extraordinary Orchid shown under the above name at the Temple flower show two years ago, by M. Vuylsteke, of Ghent. The name is significant of the parentage, it being a bi-generic hybrid raised from Cochlioda Noezliana x Odontoglossum Pescatorei Through the kindness of M. Vuylsteke we are enabled to present an illustration of the flowering spike as it appeared recently, from which it will be seen that the plant has lost nothing of vigour from the mixed marriage. The spike shown by M. Vuylsteke at the Temple show bore six flowers, each about 2 inches across, one of which is represented in fig. 21. The flower was. regarded by the Orchid Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society of such merit as to warrant the conferring a First Class Certificate without having the growing-plant before them, a rule which is rarely relaxed. The colour of the markings on the segments is peculiar, and is best described, perhaps, as "salmon cherry"; the toothed crest of the lip is yellow.



AT Kew may be seen all the various types of Roses growing in as natural a manner as possible. Such bold masses of one variety as are





On this island we have, so far, only found three species of the genus, namely, E. squamatum, E. oxycarpum, and E. ovatum.

The first-named species is found in certain Lountain districts, where it develops into a


The bark is whitish. The upper side of the leaf is a pale green, including the mid-rib; underneath a milky shade. The general appearance of the whole shrub is lighter and whiter than that of E. oxycarpum.

seen there can only be obtained in large gardens and public parks.

In the Rose dell near the Pagoda and in beds and borders in other parts of the gardens the plants are allowed to grow pretty much at will.

Little attention in the way of pruning is given beyond cutting out some of the old wood if the -shoots become too numerous. The beds of the varieties Una, Electra, Morletti, Lord Penzance's Sweet Briars, and the varieties of Rosa rugosa are worthy of special mention.

Near the large Palm house many of the beds of hybrid Perpetuals, hybrid Teas, and Teas are at present gorgeous masses of colour. By grow. ing only one variety in a bed the best effect is obtained. Without making these notes appear somewhat like a catalogue, it is difficult to know which varieties to mention. Leading place must be given to a bed of Caroline Testout, a mass of rosy-pink flowers, closely followed by the pearly-white Frau Karl Druschki; Mildred Grant is carrying huge blush-white flowers tinged with pink; very little foliage is visible looking on to the top of a bed of Captain Hayward, so closely is it packed with crimsoncarmine flowers. Other varieties worthy of note are Killarney, Augustine Guinoisseau, Mrs. W. J. Grant, Madame Abel Chatenay, and Mrs. John Laing. Amongst the Teas Anna Olivier is one of the best. Princess de Sagan is worth growing for its colour alone (a rich velvety crimson), even were it not such a tree-flowering Rose. The deep rose-coloured Corallina is one of the newer varieties that has undoubtedly come to stay. Marie van Houtte, G. Nabonnand, and the old favourite Homère are also very good.

A beautiful effect is produced by pegging down the shoots of such vigorous-growing varieties as Clio, a flesh-coloured H.P.; Frau Karl Druschki, and Gloire de Dijon. Words can hardly express the beauty of large beds grown in this way, presenting an almost flat surface of flowers. If grown and pruned in the ordinary way, the plants would have to be planted very thickly to obtain such a mass of flowers-even then I very much doubt if the effect would be so good; plenty of the shoots are carrying two to three dozen flowers on them. Many of the climbing varieties on the Pergola, running parallel with the rockery, are covered with flowers. Practically all the sections suitable for the position are represented by one or more varieties. Dundee Rambler, Splendens, and Ruga represent the Ayrshire section. The Evergreen varieties Felicité et Perpetue and Flora are free growers, blooming in large clusters. The Multiflora hybrids are very popular pillar Roses. Aglaia, the Yellow Rambler, Crimson Rambler, Euphrosyne, the Pink Rambler, Helene, a mass of pale rose-coloured flowers with creamy white centres, and Tea Rambler, sweetly perfumed, coppery-pink flowers, are the best. The Boursault variety Amadis is covered with large, semi-double, purplish-crimson flowers.

The varieties named represent only a few of the best at present in flower. The Pergola was completed in its present form some five years ago. It is about 200 yards long, 13 feet wide, and 9 feet 6 inches high. The uprights are 17 feet apart, and are connected over the path by iron bars, and along the sides with chains. D. D., July 14.

The Week's Work.


By T. W. BIRKINSHAW, Gardener to Lt. Col. Sir CHAS. HAMILTON, Bart., Hatley Park, Bedfordshire. Colouring of Grapes.-This is one of the most important points to consider in the cultivation of Grapes. Some varieties are much longer in producing a perfect "finish" than others. For instance, Madresfield Court, Muscat Hambro, Muscat of Alexandria, and Gros Colmar. These four varieties need considerable time and unremitting attention as to the affording of water

and ventilation. The weather exercises very great influence in the colouring of the berries, and in some cases artificial means have to be employed in order to advance the process and produce that rich amber colour which is so much admired in the Muscat of Alexandria, Buckland Sweetwater, Golden Hambro, and Cannon Hall Muscat. Fresh air has also an important part in the process, and from the time the berries begin to change colour a fair circulation of air should be given, providing the external conditions are suitable. On dull, damp days it is necessary to have a little heat in the water pipes, and at the same time to admit a little air to the house. It will often be found that the best coloured bunches are those which are growing nearest to where the ventilators open. Nevertheless, cold draughts should always be prevented as much as possible, as they are exceedingly injurious. Where fruit is now ripening much mischief may result in hot weather if sufficient attention is not given to the matter of ventilation. The exact nature of the soil also exercises an important influence in regard to colour. For instance, on a heavy, strong loam, excellent bunches as regards size may be had, but Muscats will not develop in such conditions so good a colour as when grown on warmer soils. All artificial manures have good or bad effect on Grapes, and if used immoderately are sure to be injurious. It is always the safest plan to apply two small doses rather than one large one.

Muscat Grapes.-Where the fruit is changing colour, it may be necessary in some localities to apply a light shade over the glass, such as would be afforded by a garden net. It will serve to break the sun's rays, but more light may be allowed to pass through the bunches than would be good for black Grapes. Remove lateral growths at intervals of two or three days, so that no check may be given to the vines. Lei water be afforded to the borders according to the stage of development the Grapes have attained.


BY HUGH A. PETTIGREW, Gardener to the Earl of PLYMOUTH, St. Fagan's Castle, Glamorganshire.

The Carnation.-No garden is complete without this favourite flower for border decoration, and plants should also be grown in the reserve ground for supplying flowers for the furnishing of vases. Unfortunately, the Carnation does not succeed well in all soils, though in a deep loam inclined to be heavy and well manured with cow dung, they will continue for a few years in good condition and bloom freely. It is, however, even then preferable to renew the plants yearly, and in less favourable soils it becomes a necessity to do so. The best means of doing this is by "layering," and the present is an appropriate time for carrying out the work. To do this, the soil round the old plants should be removed to the depth of a few inches, and mixed with leaf mould and sand. The most suitable growths should be selected, and the leaves removed from the stem up to the top three or four joints. With a sharp knife make a cut through the shoot just below a joint which it is intended to make the base of the new plant, making a slanting cut upwards through the joint, bringing the knife out just above it. By means of a peg press the stem of the manipulated shoot into the new compost, taking care that the slit part of the joint is separated and pressed outwards from the stem. When all the shoots on one plant have been treated in this manner, cover in with the newly-prepared soil, and finally water carefully with a fine-rosed watering pot, to ensure the soil settling around the layers. After all the plants are layered, care must be taken that the soil is watered in dry weather, to encourage the rooting process. In about a month or six weeks the layers will have made roots, and in October the plants will require to be lifted, and either planted into their permanent quarters, or potted up and wintered in frames for planting out in spring.

Seedling Carnations are very easily raised, and if a good strain is obtained, the plants will flower much more profusely than the named varieties. For cutting purposes the flowers are invaluable. If treated liberally, the plants will bloom exceedingly well in the first season, but to obtain the best results they should be left undisturbed until the second season. May is undoubtedly the best season to sow the seeds in

boxes, but if sown now, and potted up and placed in frames for the winter, they will make splendid plants for putting out next spring, and they will flower in the following autumn.

THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. By W. A. Cook, Gardener to Sir EDMUND G. LODER, Bart., Leonardslee, Sussex, Wall Cherries.-Trees that have borne a crop of fruits this season must not be allowed to suffer from want of water. The growths should be well syringed with clear water to rid the foliage of any insect pests. A washing with an insecticide, such as Richards' XL All, may be necessary, and this should be used strong enough to rid the trees of red spider, should any have lodged on the leaves. If a second application is necessary, let it be done, for now is the time when the plant is ripening up its wood, and on this depends the next year's crop. Any worthless trees should be rooted up, and the ground prepared at the earliest opportunity for planting young trees. Varieties that succeed best in the particular district in which the garden is situated should be noted, also the time of the fruits ripening, in order to acquire for succession.

Gooseberries.-Early varieties must be closely netted, or blackbirds and thrushes will soon clear much of the fruit. Later fruiting varieties, especially those trained on walls, should be given ample supplies of water at their roots; they are also greatly benefited by an occasional sprinkling overhead.

The Loganberry, Strawberry, Raspberry, &c.— These should receive attention in the matters of watering, staking, and tying, for if these particulars are attended to, the labour will be amply repaid by extra fine fruits. Thin out any leaders that are not required. Mulch heavily after watering.

Pears. These fruits should, at this time, have received their final thinning. Unfortu nately, many good varieties dropped a large proportion of their fruits during the cold the first week in June, but there still remains a good crop on some of the better varieties. Any that are in clusters should be thinned out according to the estimated size of the variety, for small fruits of a large variety are, as a general rule, quite flavourless. Cordon-trained and small trees on the Quince stock will require great quantities of water and liquid stimulants at their roots, especially those on light and welldrained soils; and even trees planted in heavy ground will be much improved by an occasional watering from the sewage tank or farmyard byre. Should the mulching material be getting thin, apply an additional quantity, for this is one of the best and cheapest methods of guarding against the effects of dry weather. Prob. ably the greater part of the heavy rainfall on June 27 was carried away by the drains, and came too hastily to benefit the trees to any great extent.

Strawberries.-These should now be layered in quantity for the making of new plantations. Early-layered plants, intended for forcing. should be severed from the old plants, and be afterwards placed in frames for a day or two, and kept shaded. When they have recovered from their disturbance they should be finally potted in their fruiting pots. Layers are the best when secured from one-year old plants. but as all growers have neither the time nor the space to grow these, they have to depend upon those from two-year-old plants, and these do very well. In order to keep up a good supply

of fine fruit, the beds should not remain longer than three years. A new bed should be made every year, and a corresponding one destroyed. Plants of Royal Sovereign that have been forced and afterwards planted out of their pots may reasonably be expected to produce fruits in the autumn. Several other varieties of Strawberries will also bear a second crop in this way in the


Preparing new Strawberry beds.-The ground should be well dressed with manure and dug over. An ideal quarter is an old Onion bed, and although it is late in the season when the Onions are removed, I have planted much later and with success. An Onion bed is already enriched with manure and well trenched, and young Strawberry plants revel in such condi tions.

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